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Most-read articles are from the articles published in 2020 during the last three month.

Review Article
COVID-19 Outbreak in Malaysia
Asita Elengoe
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(3):93-100.   Published online June 1, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.3.08
  • 65,535 View
  • 4,003 Download
  • 68 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

In 2020 a significant threat to public health emerged. The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic outbreak emerged in December 2019 from Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and spread to the rest of the world. This disease was named COVID-19 by World Health Organization. To date (17th April 2020) a total of 2,230,439 cases of COVID-19; 150,810 cases of deaths and 564,210 recovered cases have been reported worldwide. In this review the SARS-CoV-2 morphology, pathogenic mechanism, similarities and differences between SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome, transmission mode, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures were investigated. The outbreak of COVID-19 from a Malaysian perspective was explored and mental health care during the COVID-19 outbreak was explored. To date, there is no vaccine or no specific treatment for COVID-19. Therefore, preventive measures are very important to prevent and control the rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Preparedness should be a priority for future pandemic outbreaks.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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  • Circadian Disruption and Occupational Toxicants Exposure Affecting the Immunity of Shift Workers During SARS CoV-2 Pandemic
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  • The COVID-19 pandemic and herding behaviour among investors in Shariah-compliant stocks
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    Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Researc.2022; 13(5): 832.     CrossRef
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  • Extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology for COVID-19 Contact Tracing Application by Malaysian Users
    Mahmood Alshami, Rawad Abdulghafor, Abdulaziz Aborujilah
    Sustainability.2022; 14(11): 6811.     CrossRef
  • The Meaning in Life and Courage of Malaysian Frontliners During COVID-19
    Kalaivanan Syasyila, Lim Lee Gin, Zhooriyati Sehu Mohamad
    Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanitie.2022; 30(2): 623.     CrossRef
  • Individual mobility pattern in Malaysia during COVID‐19 Recovery Movement Control Order partial lockdown
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    Geo: Geography and Environment.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Mridul Sannyal, Abul Mukid Md. Mukaddes
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2022; 13(3): 191.     CrossRef
  • Psychological First Aid Training during COVID-19 Pandemic: Evaluation of the Training Effects of Conducting Virtual Psychological First Aid Training in Malaysia
    Sue Kiat Tye, Hariyati Sharima Abdul Majid, Abdul Rahman Ahmad Badayai
    Malaysian Journal Of Psychiatry.2022; 31(1): 28.     CrossRef
  • A network analysis and support vector regression approaches for visualising and predicting the COVID-19 outbreak in Malaysia
    Siti Nurhidayah Sharin, Mohamad Khairil Radzali, Muhamad Shirwan Abdullah Sani
    Healthcare Analytics.2022; 2: 100080.     CrossRef
  • Incidence and prevalence of psoriasis in multiethnic Johor Bahru, Malaysia: a population‐based cohort study using electronic health data routinely captured in the Teleprimary Care ( TPC ® ) clinical informa
    Siew Eng Choon, Alison K. Wright, Christopher E.M. Griffiths, Kwee Eng Tey, Kit Wan Wong, Yoong Wei Lee, Ushananthiny Suvelayutnan, Jeevitha Mariapun, Darren M. Ashcroft
    British Journal of Dermatology.2022; 187(5): 713.     CrossRef
  • A two-year comparative assessment of retention of arch width increases between modified vacuum-formed and Hawley retainers: a multi-center randomized clinical trial
    Asma Ashari, Nik Mukhriz Nik Mustapha, Jonathan Jun Xian Yuen, Zhi Kuan Saw, May Nak Lau, Lew Xian, Alizae Marny Fadzlin Syed Mohamed, Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Chiew Kit Yeoh, Malathi Deva Tata, Sindhu Sinnasamy
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  • Methods of optical spectroscopy in detection of virus in infected samples: A review
    Muhammad Izzuddin Rumaling, Fuei Pien Chee, Abdullah Bade, Nur Hasshima Hasbi, Sylvia Daim, Floressy Juhim, Mivolil Duinong, Rosfayanti Rasmidi
    Heliyon.2022; 8(9): e10472.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Aerobic and Strengthening Exercise on Quality of Life (QOL), Mental Health and Physical Performance of Elderly People Residing at Old Age Homes
    Theingi Maung Maung, Timsi Jain, Jagannathan Madhanagopal, Sawri Rajan L. Rajagopal Naidu, Hnin Pwint Phyu, Win Myint Oo
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  • Semiotic Analysis of Three QSR Instagram Posts During COVID-19 Outbreak
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    Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanitie.2022; 30(3): 1383.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Anxiety and Burnout, and Coping Mechanisms among Clinical Year Medical Undergraduate Students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic
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    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2022; 19(20): 13010.     CrossRef
  • Impact of oil prices on the Islamic and conventional stock indexes’ performance in Malaysia during the COVID-19 pandemic: Fresh evidence from the wavelet-based approach
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    Frontiers in Energy Research.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Incidence, Prevalence, and Sources of COVID-19 Infection among Healthcare Workers in Hospitals in Malaysia
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    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2022; 19(19): 12485.     CrossRef
  • Estimating the infection burden of COVID-19 in Malaysia
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    PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.2022; 16(11): e0010887.     CrossRef
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    Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanitie.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Population-level public mental health intervention via interdisciplinary COVID-19 health crisis communication: how can occupational therapists contribute?
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    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2021; 18(8): 3964.     CrossRef
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    Natasha Subhas, Nicholas Tze-Ping Pang, Wei-Cheng Chua, Assis Kamu, Chong-Mun Ho, Isabel Shamini David, William Wei-Liang Goh, Yogaraja Indran Gunasegaran, Kit-Aun Tan
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    Dentistry Journal.2021; 9(12): 151.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of Impact of Containment During the COVID-19 Epidemic and Coping Behaviours Using Newly Developed Assessment Tools
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  • Doctors’ Mental Health in the Midst of COVID-19 Pandemic: The Roles of Work Demands and Recovery Experiences
    Mohd Fadhli Mohd Fauzi, Hanizah Mohd Yusoff, Rosnawati Muhamad Robat, Nur Adibah Mat Saruan, Khairil Idham Ismail, Ahmad Firdaus Mohd Haris
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2020; 17(19): 7340.     CrossRef
  • SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.6 was the major contributor to early pandemic transmission in Malaysia
    Yoong Min Chong, I-Ching Sam, Jennifer Chong, Maria Kahar Bador, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Vijayan Munusamy, Chee Kuan Wong, Fadhil Hadi Jamaluddin, Yoke Fun Chan, Susanna Kar Pui Lau
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Original Articles
Identification of Coronavirus Isolated from a Patient in Korea with COVID-19
Jeong-Min Kim, Yoon-Seok Chung, Hye Jun Jo, Nam-Joo Lee, Mi Seon Kim, Sang Hee Woo, Sehee Park, Jee Woong Kim, Heui Man Kim, Myung-Guk Han
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(1):3-7.   Published online February 28, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.02
  • 43,135 View
  • 1,215 Download
  • 272 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Following reports of patients with unexplained pneumonia at the end of December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the causative agent was identified as coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), and the 2019 novel coronavirus disease was named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization. Putative patients with COVID-19 have been identified in South Korea, and attempts have been made to isolate the pathogen from these patients.

Methods

Upper and lower respiratory tract secretion samples from putative patients with COVID-19 were inoculated onto cells to isolate the virus. Full genome sequencing and electron microscopy were used to identify the virus.

Results

The virus replicated in Vero cells and cytopathic effects were observed. Full genome sequencing showed that the virus genome exhibited sequence homology of more than 99.9% with SARS-CoV-2 which was isolated from patients from other countries, for instance China. Sequence homology of SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV was 77.5% and 50%, respectively. Coronavirus-specific morphology was observed by electron microscopy in virus-infected Vero cells.

Conclusion

SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from putative patients with unexplained pneumonia and intermittent coughing and fever. The isolated virus was named BetaCoV/Korea/KCDC03/2020.

Citations

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Seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in children and adolescents in Delhi, India, from January to October 2021: a repeated cross-sectional analysis
Pragya Sharma, Saurav Basu, Suruchi Mishra, Mongjam Meghachandra Singh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):184-190.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0014
  • 3,036 View
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to assess changes in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroprevalence among children and adolescents in Delhi, India from January 2021 to October 2021. Methods: This was a repeated cross-sectional analysis of participants aged 5 to 17 years from 2 SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveys conducted in Delhi, India during January 2021 and September to October 2021. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were detected by using the VITROS assay (90% sensitivity, 100% specificity). Results: The seroprevalence among 5- to 17-year-old school-age children and adolescents increased from 52.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3%−54.3%) in January 2021 to 81.8% (95% CI, 80.9%−82.6%) in September to October 2021. The assay-adjusted seroprevalence was 90.8% (95% CI, 89.8%−91.7%). Seropositivity positively correlated with participants’ age (p<0.001), but not sex (p=0.388). A signal to cut-off ratio ≥4.00, correlating with the presence of neutralization antibodies, was observed in 4,814 (57.9%) participants. Conclusion: The high percentage of seroconversion among children and adolescents indicates the presence of natural infection-induced immunity from past exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, the lack of hybrid immunity and the concomitant likelihood of lower levels of neutralization antibodies than in adults due to the absence of vaccination warrants careful monitoring and surveillance of infection risk and disease severity from newer and emergent variants.

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Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Seroprevalence of SARS CoV-2 among children after the second surge (June 2021) in a rural district of South India: Findings and lessons from a population-based survey
    Carolin Elizabeth George, Leeberk Raja Inbaraj, Shon Rajukutty, Roshni Florina Joan, Sangeetha Muthuraj, Sindhulina Chandrasingh
    Frontiers in Pediatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Short Communication
Contact Transmission of COVID-19 in South Korea: Novel Investigation Techniques for Tracing Contacts
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(1):60-63.   Published online February 28, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.09
  • 38,376 View
  • 1,022 Download
  • 107 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

In the epidemiological investigation of an infectious disease, investigating, classifying, tracking, and managing contacts by identifying the patient’s route are important for preventing further transmission of the disease. However, omissions and errors in previous activities can occur when the investigation is performed through only a proxy interview with the patient. To overcome these limitations, methods that can objectively verify the patient’s claims (medical facility records, Global Positioning System, card transactions, and closed-circuit television) were used for the recent ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 contact investigations in South Korea.

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Original Article
Cross-Country Comparison of Case Fatality Rates of COVID-19/SARS-COV-2
Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Fakher Rahim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(2):74-80.   Published online April 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.2.03
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  • 123 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives

Case fatality rates (CFR) and recovery rates are important readouts during epidemics and pandemics. In this article, an international analysis was performed on the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Methods

Data were retrieved from accurate databases according to the user’s guide of data sources for patient registries, CFR and recovery rates were calculated for each country. A comparison of CFR between countries with total cases ≥ 1,000 was observed for 12th and 23rd March.

Results

Italy’s CFR was the highest of all countries studied for both time points (12th March, 6.22% versus 23rd March, 9.26%). The data showed that even though Italy was the only European country reported on 12rd March, Spain and France had the highest CFR of 6.16 and 4.21%, respectively, on 23rd March, which was strikingly higher than the overall CFR of 3.61%.

Conclusion

Obtaining detailed and accurate medical history from COVID-19 patients, and analyzing CFR alongside the recovery rate, may enable the identification of the highest risk areas so that efficient medical care may be provided. This may lead to the development of point-of-care tools to help clinicians in stratifying patients based on possible requirements in the level of care, to increase the probabilities of survival from COVID-19 disease.

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Review Articles
Immune-related therapeutics: an update on antiviral drugs and vaccines to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic
Iqra Mir, Sania Aamir, Syed Rizwan Hussain Shah, Muhammad Shahid, Iram Amin, Samia Afzal, Amjad Nawaz, Muhammad Umer Khan, Muhammad Idrees
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(2):84-100.   Published online April 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0024
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rapidly spread globally. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19, is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with a reported fatality rate ranging from 1% to 7%, and people with immune-compromised conditions, children, and older adults are particularly vulnerable. Respiratory failure and cytokine storm-induced multiple organ failure are the major causes of death. This article highlights the innate and adaptive immune mechanisms of host cells activated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and possible therapeutic approaches against COVID-19. Some potential drugs proven to be effective for other viral diseases are under clinical trials now for use against COVID-19. Examples include inhibitors of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), viral protein synthesis (ivermectin, lopinavir/ ritonavir), and fusion of the viral membrane with host cells (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, and umifenovir). This article also presents the intellectual groundwork for the ongoing development of vaccines in preclinical and clinical trials, explaining potential candidates (live attenuated-whole virus vaccines, inactivated vaccines, subunit vaccines, DNAbased vaccines, protein-based vaccines, nanoparticle-based vaccines, virus-like particles and mRNA-based vaccines). Designing and developing an effective vaccine (both prophylactic and therapeutic) would be a long-term solution and the most effective way to eliminate the COVID-19 pandemic.
India’s efforts to achieve 1.5 billion COVID-19 vaccinations: a narrative review
Kapil Singh, Ashwani Verma, Monisha Lakshminarayan
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(5):316-327.   Published online October 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0104
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The initial case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India was reported on January 30, 2020, and subsequently, the number of COVID-19-infected patients surged during the first wave of April 2020 and the second wave in the same month of 2021. The government of India imposed a strict nationwide lockdown in April 2020 and extended it until May 2020. The second wave of COVID-19 in India overwhelmed the country’s health facilities and exhausted its medical and paramedical workforce. This narrative review was conducted with the aim of summarizing the evidence drawn from policy documents of governmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as capturing India's COVID-19 vaccination efforts. The findings from this review cover the Indian government's vaccination initiatives, which ranged from steps taken to combat vaccine hesitancy to vaccination roadmaps, deployment plans, the use of digital health technology, vaccination monitoring, adverse effects, and innovative strategies such as Har Ghar Dastak and Jan Bhagidari Andolan (people’s participation). These efforts collectively culminated in the successful administration of more than 1.8 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines in India. This review also provides insights into other countries’ responses to COVID-19 and guidance for future pandemics.
Original Article
Factors influencing acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in Malaysia: a web-based survey
June Fei Wen Lau, Yuan Liang Woon, Chin Tho Leong, Hoon Shien Teh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(6):361-373.   Published online November 25, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0085
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  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has set a precedent for the fastest-produced vaccine as a result of global collaboration and outreach. This study explored Malaysians’ acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and its associated factors.
Methods
A cross-sectional anonymous web-based survey was disseminated to Malaysian adults aged ≥18 years old via social media platforms between July 10, 2020 and August 31, 2020.
Results
In the analysis of 4,164 complete responses, 93.2% of participants indicated that they would accept the COVID-19 vaccine if it was offered for free by the Malaysian government. The median out-of-pocket cost that participants were willing to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine was Malaysian ringgit (MYR) 100 (interquartile range [IQR], 100) if it was readily available and MYR 150 (IQR, 200) if the supply was limited. Respondents with a low likelihood of vaccine hesitancy had 13 times higher odds of accepting the COVID-19 vaccine (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.69 to 19.13). High perceived risk and severity were also associated with willingness to be vaccinated, with adjusted odds ratios of 2.22 (95% CI, 1.44 to 3.41) and 2.76 (95% CI, 1.87 to 4.09), respectively. Age and ethnicity were the only independent demographic characteristics that predicted vaccine uptake.
Conclusion
Public health strategies targeting perceived risk, perceived susceptibility and vaccine hesitancy could be effective in enhancing vaccine uptake.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cross-sectional assessment of predictors for COVID-19 vaccine uptake: an online survey in Greece
    Petros Galanis, Irene Vraka, Olga Siskou, Olympia Konstantakopoulou, Aglaia Katsiroumpa, Ioannis Moisoglou, Daphne Kaitelidou
    Vacunas.2022; 23: S60.     CrossRef
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    Jason Wei Jian Ng, Santha Vaithilingam, Mahendhiran Nair, Li-Ann Hwang, Kamarul Imran Musa, Anat Gesser-Edelsburg
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(5): e0268926.     CrossRef
  • Intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose and associated factors in Malaysia
    Li Ping Wong, Haridah Alias, Yan-Li Siaw, Mustakiza Muslimin, Lee Lee Lai, Yulan Lin, Zhijian Hu
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Ayenew Mose, Abebaw Wasie, Solomon Shitu, Kassahun Haile, Abebe Timerga, Tamirat Melis, Tadesse Sahle, Amare Zewdie, Dong Keon Yon
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(6): e0269273.     CrossRef
  • When do persuasive messages on vaccine safety steer COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and recommendations? Behavioural insights from a randomised controlled experiment in Malaysia
    Nicholas Yee Liang Hing, Yuan Liang Woon, Yew Kong Lee, Hyung Joon Kim, Nurhyikmah M Lothfi, Elizabeth Wong, Komathi Perialathan, Nor Haryati Ahmad Sanusi, Affendi Isa, Chin Tho Leong, Joan Costa-Font
    BMJ Global Health.2022; 7(7): e009250.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate and its predictors in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Getaneh Mulualem Belay, Tewodros Getaneh Alemu, Masresha Asmare Techane, Chalachew Adugna Wubneh, Nega Tezera Assimamaw, Tadesse Tarik Tamir, Addis Bilal Muhye, Destaye Guadie Kassie, Amare Wondim, Bewuketu Terefe, Bethlehem Tigabu Tarekegn, Mohammed Seid
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cross-sectional assessment of predictors for COVID-19 vaccine uptake: an online survey in Greece
    Petros Galanis, Irene Vraka, Olga Siskou, Olympia Konstantakopoulou, Aglaia Katsiroumpa, Ioannis Moisoglou, Daphne Kaitelidou
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Brief Report
Isolation and identification of monkeypox virus MPXV-ROK-P1-2022 from the first case in the Republic of Korea
Jin-Won Kim, Minji Lee, Hwachul Shin, Chi-Hwan Choi, Myung-Min Choi, Jee Woong Kim, Hwajung Yi, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Gi-Eun Rhie
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(4):308-311.   Published online August 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0232
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  • 1 Citations
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Monkeypox outbreaks in nonendemic countries have been reported since early May 2022. The first case of monkeypox in the Republic of Korea was confirmed in a patient who traveled to Europe in June 2022, and an attempt was made to isolate and identify the monkeypox virus (MPXV) from the patient’s specimens.
Methods
Clinical specimens from the patient were inoculated in Vero E6 cells. The isolated virus was identified as MPXV by the observation of cytopathic effects on Vero E6 cells, transmission electron microscopy, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequencing of PCR products.
Results
Cytopathic effects were observed in Vero E6 cells that were inoculated with skin lesion swab eluates. After multiple passages from the primary culture, orthopoxvirus morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, both MPXV-specific (F3L and ATI) and orthopoxvirus-specific genes (A39R, B2R, and HA) were confirmed by conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing.
Conclusion
These results indicate the successful isolation and identification of MPXV from the first patient in the Republic of Korea. The isolated virus was named MPXV-ROK-P1-2022.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Isolation and Characterization of Monkeypox Virus from the First Case of Monkeypox — Chongqing Municipality, China, 2022
    Baoying Huang, Hua Zhao, Jingdong Song, Li Zhao, Yao Deng, Wen Wang, Roujian Lu, Wenling Wang, Jiao Ren, Fei Ye, Houwen Tian, Guizhen Wu, Hua Ling, Wenjie Tan
    China CDC Weekly.2022; 4(46): 1019.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 lineages and mutations circulating in a university-affiliated hospital in South Korea analyzed using Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing
Hyaekang Kim, Sung Hee Chung, Hyun Soo Kim, Han-Sung Kim, Wonkeun Song, Ki Ho Hong, Jae-Seok Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(5):360-369.   Published online October 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0183
  • 742 View
  • 47 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Despite the introduction of vaccines, treatments, and massive diagnostic testing, the evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has continued to overcome barriers that had slowed its previous spread. As the virus evolves towards increasing fitness, it is critical to continue monitoring the occurrence of new mutations that could evade human efforts to control them. Methods: We performed whole-genome sequencing using Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing on 58 SARS-CoV-2 isolates collected during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic at a tertiary hospital in South Korea and tracked the emergence of mutations responsible for massive spikes in South Korea. Results: The differences among lineages were more pronounced in the spike gene, especially in the receptor-binding domain (RBD), than in other genes. Those RBD mutations could compromise neutralization by antibodies elicited by vaccination or previous infections. We also reported multiple incidences of Omicron variants carrying mutations that could impair the diagnostic sensitivity of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based testing. Conclusion: These results provide an understanding of the temporal changes of variants and mutations that have been circulating in South Korea and their potential impacts on antigenicity, therapeutics, and diagnostic escape of the virus. We also showed that the utilization of the nanopore sequencing platform and the ARTIC workf low can provide convenient and accurate SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance even at a single hospital.
Detection and Isolation of SARS-CoV-2 in Serum, Urine, and Stool Specimens of COVID-19 Patients from the Republic of Korea
Jeong-Min Kim, Heui Man Kim, Eun Jung Lee, Hye Jun Jo, Youngsil Yoon, Nam-Joo Lee, Junseock Son, Ye-Ji Lee, Mi Seon Kim, Yong-Pyo Lee, Su-Jin Chae, Kye Ryeong Park, Seung-Rye Cho, Sehee Park, Su Jin Kim, Eunbyeol Wang, SangHee Woo, Aram Lim, Su-Jin Park, JunHyeong Jang, Yoon-Seok Chung, Bum Sik Chin, Jin-Soo Lee, Duko Lim, Myung-Guk Han, Cheon Kwon Yoo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(3):112-117.   Published online May 8, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.3.02
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection characterized by the main symptoms of pneumonia and fever. It is caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is known to spread via respiratory droplets. We aimed to determine the rate and likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from COVID-19 patients through non-respiratory routes.

Methods

Serum, urine, and stool samples were collected from 74 hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 based on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory samples. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome was extracted from each specimen and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction performed. CaCo-2 cells were inoculated with the specimens containing the SARS-COV-2 genome, and subcultured for virus isolation. After culturing, viral replication in the cell supernatant was assessed.

Results

Of the samples collected from 74 COVID-19 patients, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 15 serum, urine, or stool samples. The virus detection rate in the serum, urine, and stool samples were 2.8% (9/323), 0.8% (2/247), and 10.1% (13/129), and the mean viral load was 1,210 ± 1,861, 79 ± 30, and 3,176 ± 7,208 copy/µL, respectively. However, the SARS-CoV-2 was not isolated by the culture method from the samples that tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 gene.

Conclusion

While the virus remained detectable in the respiratory samples of COVID-19 patients for several days after hospitalization, its detection in the serum, urine, and stool samples was intermittent. Since the virus could not be isolated from the SARS-COV-2-positive samples, the risk of viral transmission via stool and urine is expected to be low.

Citations

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Early Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 28 Cases of Coronavirus Disease in South Korea
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(1):8-14.   Published online February 28, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.03
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Korea was reported in January 2020, with 28 confirmed cases reported as of February 14th, 2020. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of all 28 cases were analyzed in response to this disease.

Methods

The epidemiological characteristics and early clinical features of the 28 patients from Korea with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed using COVID-19 reporting and surveillance data and the epidemiological investigation reports prepared by the rapid response team.

Results

There were 16 patients that entered Korea from foreign countries: Wuhan, China (11 patients), Zhuhai, China, (1 patient), Singapore (2 patients), Japan (1 patient), and Thailand (1 patient). The early symptoms were fever, sore throat, cough or sputum production, chills, and muscle ache. Three patients were asymptomatic, however, 18 developed pneumonia. Of the 28 cases, 16 were index cases imported from abroad, with 10 cases of secondary infection originating in Korea, and the route of transmission still under investigation for 2 patients. The 10 patients with secondary infection were infected from contact with family members or acquaintances of primary patients, and the suspected sites of transmission were mostly at home.

Conclusion

COVID-19 in Korea was spread by 16 infected individuals traveling from other countries, leading to second-generation cases. The initial symptoms were mostly minor, but the disease was infectious at this stage, resulting from close contact, particularly at home. Establishing an early detection strategy for COVID-19 is crucial for managing the transmission of the disease.

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Brief Report
Presumed population immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in South Korea, April 2022
Eun Jung Jang, Young June Choe, Seung Ah Choe, Yoo-Yeon Kim, Ryu Kyung Kim, Jia Kim, Do Sang Lim, Ju Hee Lee, Seonju Yi, Sangwon Lee, Young-Joon Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(5):377-381.   Published online October 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0209
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We estimated the overall and age-specific percentages of the Korean population with presumed immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) as of April 2022 using the national registry.
Methods
We used the national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and vaccination registry from South Korea, as described to define individuals with a previous history of COVID-19 infection, vaccination, or both, as persons with presumed immunity.
Results
Of a total of 53,304,627 observed persons, 24.4% had vaccination and infection, 58.1% had vaccination and no infection, 7.6% had infection and no vaccination, and 9.9% had no immunity. The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged at a time when the presumed population immunity ranged from 80% to 85%; however, nearly half of the children were presumed to have no immunity.
Conclusion
We report a gap in population immunity, with lower presumed protection in children than in adults. The approach presented in this work can provide valuable informed tools to assist vaccine policy-making at a national level.
Original Articles
Use of Menstrual Sanitary Products in Women of Reproductive Age: Korea Nurses’ Health Study
Hansol Choi, Nam-Kyoo Lim, Heeja Jung, Oksoo Kim, Hyun-Young Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(1):20-28.   Published online February 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.1.04
  • 5,526 View
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives

The use of menstrual hygiene products and its effect on women’s health remains under studied. Patterns of menstrual hygiene product use and the rationale behind choices among Korean women aged 18–45 years were examined.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was a part of the Korea Nurses’ Health Study. A total of 20,613 nurses participated, and 8,658 nurses participated in Module 7 which included a menstrual hygiene products-related survey. The data were collected through the mobile survey using a self-reported questionnaire. Participants’ use of menstrual hygiene products and related characteristics were analyzed using frequency (percentage) or mean (SD).

Results

The most common types of menstrual hygiene products across all age groups were disposable menstrual pads (89.0%), followed by cloth menstrual pads (4.5%), tampons (4.2%), and only 1.6% used a menstrual cup. Disposable menstrual pads were the most common across all age groups, but in those aged under 30 years this was followed by tampon use (6%). The most important criteria when choosing a menstrual hygiene product was comfort for disposable menstrual pads (31.3%) and tampons (41.5%), natural ingredients or organic products for cloth menstrual pads (51.4%), and custom fit for the menstrual cup (50.7%). However, for all menstrual hygiene products (except cloth menstrual pads), there was a higher proportion of anxiety than perception of safety, and low awareness of toxic shock syndrome.

Conclusion

It is important for women to use menstrual hygiene products with confidence. More research is needed to better understand potential health effects of menstrual hygiene products.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Use and perceptions on reusable and non-reusable menstrual products in Spain: A mixed-methods study
    Laura Medina-Perucha, Tomàs López-Jiménez, Anna Sofie Holst, Constanza Jacques-Aviñó, Jordina Munrós-Feliu, Cristina Martínez-Bueno, Carme Valls-Llobet, Diana Pinzón Sanabria, Mª Mercedes Vicente-Hernández, Anna Berenguera, Muhammad Shahzad Aslam
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(3): e0265646.     CrossRef
  • Women’s attitudes toward certification logos, labels, and advertisements for organic disposable sanitary pads: results from a multi-city cross-sectional survey
    Hayeon Kim, Jinyoung Jung, Yun-Kyoung Song, Taegwon Chang, Sungmin Park, Jiwon Park, Kyungim Kim
    BMC Women's Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sanitation and hygiene practices of secondary school students from Mtwara town in Tanzania
    Obadia Kyetuza Bishoge, Ademola Kabir Aremu, Dickson Dare Ajayi, Sayoki Godfrey Mfinanga
    International Journal of Health Promotion and Educ.2022; : 1.     CrossRef
COVID-19 transmission: a rapid systematic review of current knowledge
Panagiotis Mourmouris, Lazaros Tzelves, Christiana Roidi, Anastasia Fotsali
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):54-63.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.02
  • 4,937 View
  • 229 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The objective of this study was to identify the potential and definite sources of transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods
Due to time constraints and the acute nature of the pandemic, we searched only PubMed/Medline from inception until January 28, 2021. We analyzed the level of evidence and risk of bias in each category and made suggestions accordingly.
Results
The virus was traced from its potential origin via possible ways of transmission to the last host. Symptomatic human-to-human transmission remains the driver of the epidemic, but asymptomatic transmission can potentially contribute in a substantial manner. Feces and fomites have both been found to contain viable virus; even though transmission through these routes has not been documented, their contribution cannot be ruled out. Finally, transmission from pregnant women to their children has been found to be low (up to 3%).
Conclusion
Even though robust outcomes cannot be easily assessed, medical personnel must maintain awareness of the main routes of transmission (via droplets and aerosols from even asymptomatic patients). This is the first attempt to systematically review the existing knowledge to produce a paper with a potentially significant clinical impact.

Citations

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  • Bayesian network-based spatial predictive modelling reveals COVID-19 transmission dynamics in Eswatini
    Wisdom M. D. Dlamini, Sabelo P. Simelane, Nhlanhla M. Nhlabatsi
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    Meenakshi S. KUSHWAH, Arunkrishnan BALARAVI, Lakshmi VENUGOPALAN, Sreekanth RAMASHENOY, Anita CHRISBINA, Monisha PRABHAKARN, Sumaiya ALAUDDIN, Munmun SAHNEY, Manoj K. DEENADAYALAN, Prakash PETCHIMUTHU
    Minerva Respiratory Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives