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Most-read articles are from the articles published in 2022 during the last three month.

Original Article
Estimating the prevalence of oral manifestations in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review
Ankita Gupta, Kriti Shrivastav, Amit Agrawal, Abhishek Purohit, Roshan Chanchlani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):388-417.   Published online September 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0033
  • 4,621 View
  • 113 Download
  • 1 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with a variety of oral manifestations. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to estimate the prevalence of oral lesions among COVID-19 patients. Methods: An extensive literature search of several electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Litcovid) was conducted to retrieve all articles published in the English language from January 1, 2020 to March 31, 2023 that reported the prevalence of oral manifestations among COVID-19 patients. A meta-analysis of pooled prevalence was performed using Jamovi ver. 2.3 (2022). The I2 and Q statistics were used to assess heterogeneity between studies, and p-values <0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results: In total, 79 studies with data from 13,252 patients were included. The articles were predominantly published in 2020 (n=33), and Italy was the most common country (n=14). Most of the affected patients more than 50 years old and women (56.6%). The most common sites of involvement were the tongue (n=65), followed by the oral mucosa (n=37) and lips (n=19). High heterogeneity was found between studies. The most common oral manifestation was taste alteration, followed by xerostomia and ulceration, showing pooled prevalence rates of 48%, 35%, and 21%, respectively. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients show various oral manifestations that may help clinicians identify the disease promptly. Recognition of the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 is critical for an early diagnosis and better prognosis.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pathology and cell tropism in tongue tissues of COVID-19 autopsies
    Longda Ma, Qian Liu, Manli Wang, Liang Liu, Zhihong Hu, Yiwu Zhou, Jia Liu
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review Article
Psychiatric adverse events associated with the COVID-19 vaccines approved in the Republic of Korea: a systematic review
Seungeun Ryoo, Miyoung Choi, Nam-Kyong Choi, Hyoung-Shik Shin, Jun Hee Woo, Byung-Joo Park, Sanghoon Oh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):107-114.   Published online March 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0325
  • 1,869 View
  • 82 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
This systematic review evaluated psychiatric adverse events (AEs) following vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We included studies that reported or investigated psychiatric AEs in individuals who had received an approved COVID-19 vaccine in the Republic of Korea. Systematic electronic searches of Ovid-Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, and KoreaMed databases were conducted on March 22, 2023. Risk of bias was assessed using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-randomized Studies 2.0. The study protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42023449422). Of the 301 articles initially selected, 7 were included in the final analysis. All studies reported on sleep disturbances, and 2 highlighted anxiety-related AEs. Sleep disorders like insomnia and narcolepsy were the most prevalent AEs, while depression was not reported. Our review suggests that these AEs may have been influenced by biological mechanisms as well as the broader psychosocial context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although this study had limitations, such as a primary focus on the BNT162b2 vaccine and an observational study design, it offered a systematic, multi-vaccine analysis that fills a critical gap in the existing literature. This review underscores the need for continued surveillance of psychiatric AEs and guides future research to investigate underlying mechanisms, identify risk factors, and inform clinical management.
Special Article
The COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center: a cornerstone for strengthening safety evidence for COVID-19 vaccination in the Republic of Korea
Na-Young Jeong, Hyesook Park, Sanghoon Oh, Seung Eun Jung, Dong-Hyun Kim, Hyoung-Shik Shin, Hee Chul Han, Jong-Koo Lee, Jun Hee Woo, Jaehun Jung, Joongyub Lee, Ju-Young Shin, Sun-Young Jung, Byung-Joo Park, Nam-Kyong Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):97-106.   Published online April 4, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0343
  • 1,800 View
  • 84 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Committee (CoVaSC) was established in November 2021 to address the growing need for independent, in-depth scientific evidence on adverse events (AEs) following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. This initiative was requested by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency and led by the National Academy of Medicine of Korea. In September 2022, the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center was established, strengthening CoVaSC’s initiatives. The center has conducted various studies on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. During CoVaSC’s second research year, from September 29, 2022 to July 19, 2023, the center was restructured into 4 departments: Epidemiological Research, Clinical Research, Communication & Education, and International Cooperation & Policy Research. Its main activities include (1) managing CoVaSC and the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center, (2) surveying domestic and international trends in AE causality investigation, (3) assessing AEs following COVID-19 vaccination, (4) fostering international collaboration and policy research, and (5) organizing regular fora and training sessions for the public and clinicians. Causality assessments have been conducted for 27 diseases, and independent research has been conducted after organizing ad hoc committees comprising both epidemiologists and clinical experts on each AE of interest. The research process included protocol development, data analysis, interpretation of results, and causality assessment. These research outcomes have been shared transparently with the public and healthcare experts through various fora. The COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center plans to continue strengthening and expanding its research activities to provide reliable, high-quality safety information to the public.
Review Article
Yersinia pestis antibiotic resistance: a systematic review
Chen Lei, Suresh Kumar
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(1):24-36.   Published online February 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0288
  • 8,510 View
  • 271 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague and a potential biological weapon, has always been a threatening pathogen. Some strains of Y. pestis have varying degrees of antibiotic resistance. Thus, this systematic review was conducted to alert clinicians to this pathogen’s potential antimicrobial resistance. A review of the literature was conducted for experimental reports and systematic reviews on the topics of plague, Y. pestis, and antibiotic resistance. From 1995 to 2021, 7 Y. pestis isolates with 4 antibiotic resistance mechanisms were reported. In Y. pestis 17/95, 16/95, and 2180H, resistance was mediated by transferable plasmids. Each plasmid contained resistance genes encoded within specific transposons. Strain 17/95 presented multiple drug resistance, since plasmid 1202 contained 10 resistance determinants. Strains 16/95 and 2180H showed single antibiotic resistance because both additional plasmids in these strains carried only 1 antimicrobial determinant. Strains 12/87, S19960127, 56/13, and 59/13 exhibited streptomycin resistance due to an rpsl gene mutation, a novel mechanism that was discovered recently. Y. pestis can acquire antibiotic resistance in nature not only via conjugative transfer of antimicrobial-resistant plasmids from other bacteria, but also by gene point mutations. Global surveillance should be strengthened to identify antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains by whole-genome sequencing and drug susceptibility testing.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Seek and you shall find: Yersinia enterocolitica in Ireland’s drinking water
    James Powell, Maureen Daly, Nuala H. O’Connell, Colum P. Dunne
    Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -).2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A novel sORF gene mutant strain of Yersinia pestis vaccine EV76 offers enhanced safety and improved protection against plague
    Xiao Guo, Youquan Xin, Zehui Tong, Shiyang Cao, Yuan Zhang, Gengshan Wu, Hongyan Chen, Tong Wang, Yajun Song, Qingwen Zhang, Ruifu Yang, Zongmin Du, Gregory P. Priebe
    PLOS Pathogens.2024; 20(3): e1012129.     CrossRef
  • Interaction between Yersinia pestis Ail Outer Membrane Protein and the C-Terminal Domain of Human Vitronectin
    Laurine Vasseur, Florent Barbault, Antonio Monari
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry B.2024; 128(16): 3929.     CrossRef
  • Integrated Computational Analysis of Physicochemical Features, Biological Properties, Kinase Target Prediction and Biotransformation Pathways in Drug Discovery
    Mohamed Sabri Bensaad, Dhiya Eddine Bensaad, Mohamed Amine Kahoul, Dania S. Waggas, Roua S. Baty, Rokayya Sami, Hamsa Jameel Banjer, Siraj B. Alharthi, Ruqaiah I. Bedaiwi, Zeyad M. Alharbi, Mohammad A. Alanazi, Nouf H. Alsubhi, Ashwaq M. Al-Nazawi, Nada A
    International Journal of Pharmacology.2024; 20(5): 748.     CrossRef
  • Rapid Induction of Protective Immunity against Pneumonic Plague by Yersinia pestis Polymeric F1 and LcrV Antigens
    Moshe Aftalion, Avital Tidhar, Yaron Vagima, David Gur, Ayelet Zauberman, Tzvi Holtzman, Arik Makovitzki, Theodor Chitlaru, Emanuelle Mamroud, Yinon Levy
    Vaccines.2023; 11(3): 581.     CrossRef
  • Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: broad-spectrum drug target identification using subtractive genomics
    Umairah Natasya Mohd Omeershffudin, Suresh Kumar
    Genomics & Informatics.2023; 21(1): e5.     CrossRef
  • Polyclonal Antibodies Derived from Transchromosomic Bovines Vaccinated with the Recombinant F1-V Vaccine Increase Bacterial Opsonization In Vitro and Protect Mice from Pneumonic Plague
    Sergei S. Biryukov, Hua Wu, Jennifer L. Dankmeyer, Nathaniel O. Rill, Christopher P. Klimko, Kristi A. Egland, Jennifer L. Shoe, Melissa Hunter, David P. Fetterer, Ju Qiu, Michael L. Davies, Christoph L. Bausch, Eddie J. Sullivan, Thomas Luke, Christopher
    Antibodies.2023; 12(2): 33.     CrossRef
  • New Bacteriophages with Podoviridal Morphotypes Active against Yersinia pestis: Characterization and Application Potential
    Tamar Suladze, Ekaterine Jaiani, Marina Darsavelidze, Maia Elizbarashvili, Olivier Gorge, Ia Kusradze, Tamar Kokashvili, Nino Lashkhi, George Tsertsvadze, Nino Janelidze, Svetlana Chubinidze, Marina Grdzelidze, Shota Tsanava, Eric Valade, Marina Tediashvi
    Viruses.2023; 15(7): 1484.     CrossRef
  • Characterization of Mu-Like Yersinia Phages Exhibiting Temperature Dependent Infection
    Biao Meng, Zhizhen Qi, Xiang Li, Hong Peng, Shanzheng Bi, Xiao Wei, Yan Li, Qi Zhang, Xiaoqing Xu, Haihong Zhao, Xiaoyan Yang, Changjun Wang, Xiangna Zhao, Olaya Rendueles
    Microbiology Spectrum.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Ancient Yersinia pestis genomes lack the virulence-associated Ypf Φ prophage present in modern pandemic strains
    Joanna H. Bonczarowska, Julian Susat, Ben Krause-Kyora, Dorthe Dangvard Pedersen, Jesper Boldsen, Lars Agersnap Larsen, Lone Seeberg, Almut Nebel, Daniel Unterweger
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sci.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A situation analysis of the current plague outbreak in the Demographic Republic of Congo and counteracting strategies – Correspondence
    Ranjit Sah, Abdullah Reda, Rachana Mehta, Ranjan K. Mohapatra, Kuldeep Dhama
    International Journal of Surgery.2022; 105: 106885.     CrossRef
  • Antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae: identification of bacterial DNA adenine methyltransferase as a novel drug target from hypothetical proteins using subtractive genomics
    Umairah Natasya Mohd Omeershffudin, Suresh Kumar
    Genomics & Informatics.2022; 20(4): e47.     CrossRef
Commentary
Challenges in capacity building of national immunization programs and emergency or pandemic vaccination responses in the Global Health Security Agenda member countries
Sookhyun Lee, Jung Ju Oh, Sang Hyun Park, Dasol Ro, Ye Jin Jeong, So Yoon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):182-185.   Published online March 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0159
  • 1,400 View
  • 156 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract PDF
Brief Report
Isolation and identification of monkeypox virus MPXV-ROK-P1-2022 from the first case in the Republic of Korea
Jin-Won Kim, Minji Lee, Hwachul Shin, Chi-Hwan Choi, Myung-Min Choi, Jee Woong Kim, Hwajung Yi, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Gi-Eun Rhie
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(4):308-311.   Published online August 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0232
  • 6,441 View
  • 146 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Monkeypox outbreaks in nonendemic countries have been reported since early May 2022. The first case of monkeypox in the Republic of Korea was confirmed in a patient who traveled to Europe in June 2022, and an attempt was made to isolate and identify the monkeypox virus (MPXV) from the patient’s specimens.
Methods
Clinical specimens from the patient were inoculated in Vero E6 cells. The isolated virus was identified as MPXV by the observation of cytopathic effects on Vero E6 cells, transmission electron microscopy, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequencing of PCR products.
Results
Cytopathic effects were observed in Vero E6 cells that were inoculated with skin lesion swab eluates. After multiple passages from the primary culture, orthopoxvirus morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, both MPXV-specific (F3L and ATI) and orthopoxvirus-specific genes (A39R, B2R, and HA) were confirmed by conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing.
Conclusion
These results indicate the successful isolation and identification of MPXV from the first patient in the Republic of Korea. The isolated virus was named MPXV-ROK-P1-2022.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Ultrasensitive one-pot detection of monkeypox virus with RPA and CRISPR in a sucrose-aided multiphase aqueous system
    Yue Wang, Yixin Tang, Yukang Chen, Guangxi Yu, Xue Zhang, Lihong Yang, Chenjie Zhao, Pei Wang, Song Gao, Frederick S. B. Kibenge, Ruijie Deng, Wei Chen, Shuang Yang
    Microbiology Spectrum.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological, Clinical, and Virological Investigation of the First Four Cases of Monkeypox in Cartagena during the 2022 Outbreak
    Steev Loyola, Mashiel Fernández-Ruiz, Doris Gómez-Camargo
    Pathogens.2023; 12(2): 159.     CrossRef
  • 원숭이두창바이러스의 분리 배양과 전장유전체 정보 분석
    민지 이, 진원 김, 치환 최, 화철 신, 명민 최, 상은 이, 화중 이, 윤석 정
    Public Health Weekly Report.2023; 16(15): 464.     CrossRef
  • Overview of Diagnostic Methods, Disease Prevalence and Transmission of Mpox (Formerly Monkeypox) in Humans and Animal Reservoirs
    Ravendra P. Chauhan, Ronen Fogel, Janice Limson
    Microorganisms.2023; 11(5): 1186.     CrossRef
  • How to cope with suspected mpox patients in the outpatient clinic
    Nam Joong Kim, Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2023; 66(5): 325.     CrossRef
  • An Updated Review on Monkeypox Viral Disease: Emphasis on Genomic Diversity
    Ali A. Rabaan, Nada A. Alasiri, Mohammed Aljeldah, Abeer N. Alshukairiis, Zainab AlMusa, Wadha A. Alfouzan, Abdulmonem A. Abuzaid, Aref A. Alamri, Hani M. Al-Afghani, Nadira Al-baghli, Nawal Alqahtani, Nadia Al-baghli, Mashahed Y. Almoutawa, Maha Mahmoud
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(7): 1832.     CrossRef
  • Monkeypox (Mpox) virus isolation and ultrastructural characterisation from a Brazilian human sample case
    Milene Dias Miranda, Gabriela Cardoso Caldas, Vivian Neuza Ferreira, Ortrud Monika Barth, Aline de Paula Dias da Silva, Mayara Secco Torres Silva, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso, Thiago Moreno Souza, Edson Elias da Silva, Debora Ferreira Ba
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Isolation and Characterization of Monkeypox Virus from the First Case of Monkeypox — Chongqing Municipality, China, 2022
    Baoying Huang, Hua Zhao, Jingdong Song, Li Zhao, Yao Deng, Wen Wang, Roujian Lu, Wenling Wang, Jiao Ren, Fei Ye, Houwen Tian, Guizhen Wu, Hua Ling, Wenjie Tan
    China CDC Weekly.2022; 4(46): 1019.     CrossRef
Review Article
India’s efforts to achieve 1.5 billion COVID-19 vaccinations: a narrative review
Kapil Singh, Ashwani Verma, Monisha Lakshminarayan
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(5):316-327.   Published online October 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0104
  • 4,800 View
  • 98 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The initial case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India was reported on January 30, 2020, and subsequently, the number of COVID-19-infected patients surged during the first wave of April 2020 and the second wave in the same month of 2021. The government of India imposed a strict nationwide lockdown in April 2020 and extended it until May 2020. The second wave of COVID-19 in India overwhelmed the country’s health facilities and exhausted its medical and paramedical workforce. This narrative review was conducted with the aim of summarizing the evidence drawn from policy documents of governmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as capturing India's COVID-19 vaccination efforts. The findings from this review cover the Indian government's vaccination initiatives, which ranged from steps taken to combat vaccine hesitancy to vaccination roadmaps, deployment plans, the use of digital health technology, vaccination monitoring, adverse effects, and innovative strategies such as Har Ghar Dastak and Jan Bhagidari Andolan (people’s participation). These efforts collectively culminated in the successful administration of more than 1.8 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines in India. This review also provides insights into other countries’ responses to COVID-19 and guidance for future pandemics.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Digital health technology used in emergency large-scale vaccination campaigns in low- and middle-income countries: a narrative review for improved pandemic preparedness
    Paula Mc Kenna, Lindsay A. Broadfield, Annik Willems, Serge Masyn, Theresa Pattery, Ruxandra Draghia-Akli
    Expert Review of Vaccines.2023; 22(1): 243.     CrossRef
  • Media Reporting Relating to COVID-19 Vaccination as a Driver of Vaccine Hesitancy Prior to the Second Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic in India: A Content Analysis of Newspaper and Digital Media Reports
    Saurav Basu, Himanshi Sharma
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • An assessment of the strategy and status of COVID-19 vaccination in India
    Sneh Lata Gupta, Surbhi Goswami, Ananya Anand, Namrata Naman, Priya Kumari, Priyanka Sharma, Rishi K. Jaiswal
    Immunologic Research.2023; 71(4): 565.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Choice-framework for Covid vaccines in India using a multi-criteria decision analysis approach
    Tarun K. George, Nayana P. Nair, Awnish Kumar Singh, A. Dilesh Kumar, Arup Deb Roy, Varshini Neethi Mohan, Gagandeep Kang
    Vaccine.2023; 41(25): 3755.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 Booster Dose Coverage and Hesitancy among Older Adults in an Urban Slum and Resettlement Colony in Delhi, India
    Nandini Sharma, Saurav Basu, Heena Lalwani, Shivani Rao, Mansi Malik, Sandeep Garg, Rahul Shrivastava, Mongjam Meghachandra Singh
    Vaccines.2023; 11(7): 1177.     CrossRef
  • Review of the unmet medical need for vaccination in adults with immunocompromising conditions: An Indian perspective
    Ashok Vaid, Neha Rastogi, T. Mark Doherty, Peter San Martin, Yashpal Chugh
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Translating the COVID-19 experience in widening the HPV vaccination campaign for cervical cancer in India
    Aruni Ghose, Anisha Agarwal, Bhawna Sirohi, Shona Nag, Linus Chuang, Swarupa Mitra
    Gynecologic Oncology Reports.2023; 48: 101247.     CrossRef
  • Symptomatic prevalence of covid-19 in vaccinated and non-vaccinated population
    Jay Bhupesh Pandya, Nirali Milind Shethia, Divya Bangera, Shailaja Gada Saxena
    IP International Journal of Medical Microbiology a.2023; 9(2): 110.     CrossRef
  • Active surveillance of adverse events following COVID-19 vaccines in a tertiary care hospital
    Naveena Mary Cherian, Dravya Anna Durai, Muhammed Jaisel, Divyansh Sharma, Juny Sebastian, Chetak Kadabasal Basavaraja, Merrin Mathew
    Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of ayurvedic formulation, NAOQ19 along with standard care in the treatment of mild-moderate COVID-19 patients: A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentric trial
    Pankaj Bhardwaj, Kalaiselvan Ganapathy, Monika Pathania, K.H. Naveen, Jaykaran Charan, Siddhartha Dutta, Ravisekhar Gadepalli, Srikanth Srinivasan, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Akhil D. Goel, Naresh Midha, Bharat Kumar, Meenakshi Sharma, Praveen Sharma, Mithu Baner
    Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine.2023; 14(6): 100778.     CrossRef
  • Balancing Routine and Pandemic: The Synergy of India’s Universal Immunization Program and COVID-19 Vaccination Program
    Pawan Kumar, Ashish Birendra Chakraborty, Suhas Dhandore, Pritu Dhalaria, Ajeet Kumar Singh, Disha Agarwal, Kapil Singh, Pretty Priyadarshini, Paras Jain, Vidushi Bahl, Gunjan Taneja
    Vaccines.2023; 11(12): 1776.     CrossRef
  • Unveiling vaccine safety: a narrative review of pharmacovigilance in India's COVID-19 vaccination
    Megha Hegde, Saurav Raj, Dhananjay Tikadar, Sanatkumar B Nyamagoud
    Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
AI-powered COVID-19 forecasting: a comprehensive comparison of advanced deep learning methods
Muhammad Usman Tariq, Shuhaida Binti Ismail
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):115-136.   Published online March 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0287
  • 1,388 View
  • 57 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to pose significant challenges to the public health sector, including that of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency and accuracy of various deep-learning models in forecasting COVID-19 cases within the UAE, thereby aiding the nation’s public health authorities in informed decision-making. Methods: This study utilized a comprehensive dataset encompassing confirmed COVID-19 cases, demographic statistics, and socioeconomic indicators. Several advanced deep learning models, including long short-term memory (LSTM), bidirectional LSTM, convolutional neural network (CNN), CNN-LSTM, multilayer perceptron, and recurrent neural network (RNN) models, were trained and evaluated. Bayesian optimization was also implemented to fine-tune these models. Results: The evaluation framework revealed that each model exhibited different levels of predictive accuracy and precision. Specifically, the RNN model outperformed the other architectures even without optimization. Comprehensive predictive and perspective analytics were conducted to scrutinize the COVID-19 dataset. Conclusion: This study transcends academic boundaries by offering critical insights that enable public health authorities in the UAE to deploy targeted data-driven interventions. The RNN model, which was identified as the most reliable and accurate for this specific context, can significantly influence public health decisions. Moreover, the broader implications of this research validate the capability of deep learning techniques in handling complex datasets, thus offering the transformative potential for predictive accuracy in the public health and healthcare sectors.
Data Profile
Establishment of a registry of clinical data and bioresources for rare nervous system diseases
Dayoung Kim, Sooyoung Kim, Jin Myoung Seok, Kyong Jin Shin, Eungseok Oh, Mi Young Jeon, Joungkyu Park, Hee Jin Chang, Jinyoung Youn, Jeeyoung Oh, Eunhee Sohn, Jinse Park, Jin Whan Cho, Byoung Joon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(2):174-181.   Published online April 30, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0353
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Rare diseases are predominantly genetic or inherited, and patients with these conditions frequently exhibit neurological symptoms. Diagnosing and treating many rare diseases is a complex challenge, and their low prevalence complicates the performance of research, which in turn hinders the advancement of therapeutic options. One strategy to address this issue is the creation of national or international registries for rare diseases, which can help researchers monitor and investigate their natural progression. In the Republic of Korea, we established a registry across 5 centers that focuses on 3 rare diseases, all of which are characterized by gait disturbances resulting from motor system dysfunction. The registry will collect clinical information and human bioresources from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinocerebellar ataxia, and hereditary spastic paraplegia. These resources will be stored at ICreaT and the National Biobank of Korea. Once the registry is complete, the data will be made publicly available for further research. Through this registry, our research team is dedicated to identifying genetic variants that are specific to Korean patients, uncovering biomarkers that show a strong correlation with clinical symptoms, and leveraging this information for early diagnosis and the development of treatments.
Brief Report
The effectiveness of Paxlovid treatment in long-term care facilities in South Korea during the outbreak of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2
Hanul Park, Young Joon Park, Hye Young Lee, Mi Yu, Yeong-Jun Song, Sang Eun Lee, Ji-Joo Lee, Eun-Sol Lee, Yeonjung Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(6):443-447.   Published online December 23, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0262
  • 4,234 View
  • 224 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
On November 5, 2021, Pfizer Inc. announced Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir +ritonavir) asa treatment method that could reduce the risk of hospitalization or death for patients withconfirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Methods: From February 6, 2022 to April 2, 2022, the incidence of COVID-19 and the effectsof treatment with Paxlovid were analyzed in 2,241 patients and workers at 5 long-term carefacilities during the outbreak of the Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndromecoronavirus 2 in South Korea.Results: The rate of severe illness or death in the group given Paxlovid was 51% lower thanthat of the non-Paxlovid group (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI],0.24−0.98). Compared to unvaccinated patients, patients who had completed 3 doses of thevaccine had a 71% reduced rate of severe illness or death (aRR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.13−0.64) and a65% reduced death rate (aRR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15−0.79).Conclusion: Patients given Paxlovid showed a lower rate of severe illness or death and alower fatality rate than those who did not receive Paxlovid. Patients who received 3 dosesof the vaccine had a lower rate of severe illness or death and a lower fatality rate than theunvaccinated group.

Citations

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  • Epidemiological evolution and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the European Union and worldwide and effects of control strategies on them: An ecological study
    J.A. Caylà, J.M. Bellmunt, J.M. Jansà, A. Marco, J.P. Millet
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Review Articles
Effectiveness of virtual reality-supported exercise therapy in improving upper extremity function and activities of daily living among patients after stroke: a systematic review of randomized control trials
Priyanshi Dixit, Uma Phalswal, Nipin Kalal, Saumya P. Srivastava
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(3):189-200.   Published online May 24, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0148
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This systematic review describes the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR)-supported exercise therapy on upper limb motor function and activities of daily living after stroke. Methods: Studies published through January 24, 2022, were identified using CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, and Web of Science. Randomized control trials comparing VR treatment with conventional therapy (CT) for upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Results: Of 9 included studies, 5 concluded that the VR group outperformed control participants, 1 indicated the superiority of VR-supported exercises alone over CT, and 3 found VR comparable to CT in promoting upper limb motor function. Five studies analyzed independence in daily living, with 4 reporting no significant difference between VR and CT groups. No strong evidence indicated long-term benefits of VR-assisted exercise. All included studies demonstrated low risk of bias concerning random sequence generation, allocation concealment, outcome assessment blinding, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting bias. However, a high risk of bias was observed regarding participant blinding due to the nature of the intervention. Conclusion: Most studies suggested that VR, used alongside CT, can improve motor function following stroke. However, the evidence was insufficient to conclude that VR outperforms conventional approaches.
Strategies to combat Gram-negative bacterial resistance to conventional antibacterial drugs: a review
Priyanka Bhowmik, Barkha Modi, Parijat Roy, Antarika Chowdhury
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):333-346.   Published online October 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0323
  • 3,017 View
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  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance raises the fear of untreatable diseases. Antimicrobial resistance is a multifaceted and dynamic phenomenon that is the cumulative result of different factors. While Gram-positive pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile, were previously the most concerning issues in the field of public health, Gram-negative pathogens are now of prime importance. The World Health Organization’s priority list of pathogens mostly includes multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms particularly carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales, carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. The spread of Gram-negative bacterial resistance is a global issue, involving a variety of mechanisms. Several strategies have been proposed to control resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as the development of antimicrobial auxiliary agents and research into chemical compounds with new modes of action. Another emerging trend is the development of naturally derived antibacterial compounds that aim for targets novel areas, including engineered bacteriophages, probiotics, metal-based antibacterial agents, odilorhabdins, quorum sensing inhibitors, and microbiome-modifying agents. This review focuses on the current status of alternative treatment regimens against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, aiming to provide a snapshot of the situation and some information on the broader context.

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Original Article
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission during a movie theater outbreak in Incheon in the Republic of Korea, November 2021: a retrospective study
Hye Young Lee, Young-Joon Park, Sang-Eun Lee, Han-Na Yoo, Il-Hwan Kim, Jin Sun No, Eun-Jin Kim, Jungyeon Yu, Sanghwan Bae, Mi Yu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(1):45-55.   Published online January 31, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0269
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Objectives
We examined factors contributing to the transmission of an acute respiratory virus within multi-use facilities, focusing on an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a movie theater in the Republic of Korea. Methods: This retrospective cohort study involved a descriptive analysis of 48 confirmed cases. Logistic regression was applied to a cohort of 80 theater attendees to identify risk factors for infection. The infection source and transmission route were determined through gene sequencing data analysis. Results: Of the 48 confirmed cases, 35 were theater attendees (72.9%), 10 were family members of attendees (20.8%), 2 were friends (4.2%), and 1 was an employee (2.1%). Among the 80 individuals who attended the 3rd to 5th screenings of the day, 35 became infected, representing a 43.8% attack rate. Specifically, 28 of the 33 third-screening attendees developed confirmed SARSCoV-2, constituting an 84.8% attack rate. Furthermore, 11 of the 12 cases epidemiologically linked to the theater outbreak were clustered monophyletically within the AY.69 lineage. At the time of the screening, 35 individuals (72.9%) had received 2 vaccine doses. However, vaccination status did not significantly influence infection risk. Multivariate analysis revealed that close contacts had a 15.9-fold higher risk of infection (95% confidence interval, 4.37–78.39) than casual contacts. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 transmission occurred within the theater, and extended into the community, via a moviegoer who attended the 3rd screening during the viral incubation period after contracting the virus from a family member. This study emphasizes the importance of adequate ventilation in theaters.
Review Article
Predictors of outcomes 3 to 12 months after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Younes Iderdar, Maryem Arraji, Nadia Al Wachami, Morad Guennouni, Karima Boumendil, Yassmine Mourajid, Noureddine Elkhoudri, Elmadani Saad, Mohamed Chahboune
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(1):3-17.   Published online February 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0288
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The exact factors predicting outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain elusive. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we examined factors influencing outcomes in adult patients with TBI, from 3 months to 1 year after injury. A search of four electronic databases—PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect—yielded 29 studies for review and 16 for meta-analysis, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. In patients with TBI of any severity, mean differences were observed in age (8.72 years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.77–12.66 years), lymphocyte count (−0.15 109/L; 95% CI, −0.18 to −0.11), glucose levels (1.20 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.73–1.68), and haemoglobin levels (−0.91 g/dL; 95% CI, −1.49 to −0.33) between those with favourable and unfavourable outcomes. The prevalence rates of unfavourable outcomes were as follows: abnormal cisterns, 65.7%; intracranial pressure above 20 mmHg, 52.9%; midline shift of 5 mm or more, 63%; hypotension, 71%; hypoxia, 86.8%; blood transfusion, 70.3%; and mechanical ventilation, 90%. Several predictors were strongly associated with outcome. Specifically, age, lymphocyte count, glucose level, haemoglobin level, severity of TBI, pupillary reaction, and type of injury were identified as potential predictors of long-term outcomes.
Original Article
A Mycobacterium bovis outbreak among exhibition animals at a zoo in the Republic of Korea: the first contact investigation of zoonotic tuberculosis
Hye Young Lee, Yunhyung Kwon, Sang-Eun Lee, Jieun Kim, Hoyong Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(3):248-259.   Published online May 17, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0228
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Between July 2, 2021, and September 20, 2022, a Mycobacterium bovis outbreak occurred among exhibition animals at a zoo in the Republic of Korea. This study was conducted to assess the likelihood of M. bovis transmission to human contacts through a contact investigation and to implement preventive treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Methods: In this descriptive study, the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency conducted a contact investigation, which included interviews, interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) tests, and chest X-rays. Contacts underwent IGRA testing on 2 occasions: initial testing of 29 contacts (15 in the first cluster of infection and 14 in the second cluster) and follow-up testing of the 15 contacts in the first cluster. Results: The study included 29 participants, 18 of whom were male (62.1%) and 11 female (37.9%). The mean participant age was 37.3 years (standard deviation, 9.6 years). In the initial IGRA tests, 6 of the 29 participants tested positive, indicating a prevalence of 20.7%. Following prolonged exposure, 1 additional positive case was detected in follow-up testing, raising the prevalence of LTBI to 24.1%. None of the contacts had active tuberculosis. Among the 7 individuals with positive results, 2 (28.6%) underwent treatment for LTBI. Conclusion: This study faced challenges in confirming the transmission of M. bovis infection from infected animals to humans in the Republic of Korea. Nevertheless, adopting a One Health approach necessitates the implementation of surveillance systems and infection control protocols, particularly for occupational groups at high risk of exposure.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives