Research & publication ethics

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The journal adheres to the guidelines and best practices published by professional organizations, including ICMJE Recommendations and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by the Committee on Publication Ethics [COPE], Directory of Open Access Journals [DOAJ], World Association of Medical Editors [WAME], and Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association [OASPA]; Further, all processes of handling research and publication misconduct shall follow the applicable COPE flowchart (

Human & animal rights

Clinical research should be conducted in accordance with the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki ( and approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the institution where the experiment was performed. Animal experiments should also be reviewed by an appropriate committee (IACUC: Institutional Animal Care and use Committee) for the care and the use of animals. Studies involving pathogens requiring a high degree of biosafety should pass review of a relevant committee (IBC: Institutional Biosafety Committee). Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication.

IRB & informed consent

The editor of PHRP may request submission of copies of informed consents from human subjects in all studies and IRB approval documents. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. Articles covering the use of human samples in research and human experiments must be approved by the relevant review committee. Articles covering the use of animals in experiments must be approved by the relevant authorities.


Manuscripts are considered with the understanding that no part of the work has been published previously in print or electronic format and the paper is not under consideration by another publication or electronic medium.

Secondary publication

It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the conditions for secondary publication of the ICMJE Recommendations (

Plagiarism and duplicate publication

Attempting to publish substantially similar work more than once without attribution of the original source(s) is considered a redundant publication. Definition of being substantially similar can be explained as follows: (1) at least one of the authors is common to all reports (it is likely to be plagiarism if there are no common authors); (2) the subject or study populations are same or similar; The methodology is typically identical or nearly so and; (3) the results and interpretation varies little or not at all.

If all or part of the subject population has been reported previously, it should be declared in the Materials and Methods and must be appropriately referenced. In cases where authors are concerned with any potential overlap with published manuscripts or manuscripts being reviewed, the authors must include a letter explaining how the manuscript submitted to PHRP significantly differs from other materials. For more information, please refer to ICMJE Recommendation (Available at:

Authorship and author’s responsibility

Authorship credit must be based on (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published; and (4) agreeing to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that the questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. The authors should meet these 4 conditions. If the number of authors exceeds 3, the specific role(s) of authors should be described at the end of the main text.

• Correction of authorship: Any requests for such changes in authorship (adding author(s), removing author(s), or re-arranging the order of authors) after the initial manuscript submission and before publication should be explained in writing to the editor in a letter or e-mail from all authors. This letter must be signed by all authors of the paper. A copyright assignment must be completed by every author.

• Role of corresponding author: The corresponding author takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process. The corresponding author typically ensures that all of the journal’s administrative requirements, such as providing the details of authorship, ethics committee approval, clinical trial registration documentation, and conflict of interest forms and statements, are properly completed, although these duties may be delegated to one or more coauthors. The corresponding author should be available throughout the submission and peer review process to respond to editorial queries in a timely manner, and after publication, should be available to respond to critiques of the work and cooperate with any requests from the journal for data or additional information or questions about the article.

• Contributors: Any researcher who does not meet all four ICMJE criteria for authorship discussed above but contribute substantively to the study in terms of idea development, manuscript writing, conducting research, data analysis, and financial support should have their contributions listed in the Acknowledgments section of the article.

Conflict of interest statement

The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors’ interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Osong Public
Health and

Print ISSN: 2210-9099
Online ISSN: 2233-6052

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