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Volume 10(1); February 2019
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Editorial
When You Hit Rock-Bottom
Hae-Wol Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):1-1.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.01
  • 1,935 View
  • 27 Download
PDF
Original Articles
Dual Task Training Effects on Upper Extremity Functions and Performance of Daily Activities of Chronic Stroke Patients
JuHyung Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):2-5.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.02
  • 3,002 View
  • 77 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of this research was to study the influences of dual task training on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities of chronic stroke patients.

Methods

Dual task training was performed on 21 patients who had suffered a chronic stroke with hemiplegia. The dual task training was performed for 30 minutes per session, for 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. There were 5 evaluations carried out over 3 weeks before and after the intervention. Changes in upper extremity function were measured by using the Box and block test. Changes in the performance of daily activities were measured using the Korea-Modified Barthel Index.

Results

The mean upper limb function score of the chronic stroke patients increased significantly from 21.88 ± 19.99 before the intervention, to 26.22 ± 15.65 after the intervention (p < 0.05), and the mean daily activities score increased significantly from 65.82 ± 12.04, to 67.29 ± 12.90 (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Dual task training effectively improved upper extremity function, and the performance of daily activities in chronic stroke patients.

Natural Infection with Rabies Virus: A Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Human Brains
Firouzeh Farahtaj, Leila Alizadeh, Alireza Gholami, Alireza Tahamtan, Sadegh Shirian, Maryam Fazeli, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Ali Gorji, Hamid Mahmoudzadeh Niknam, Amir Ghaemi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):6-11.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.03
  • 3,968 View
  • 214 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Despite all the efforts and increased knowledge of rabies, the exact mechanisms of infection and mortality from the rabies virus are not well understood. To understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of rabies virus infection, it is crucial to study the tissue that the rabies virus naturally infects in humans.

Methods

Cerebellum brain tissue from 9 human post mortem cases from Iran, who had been infected with rabies virus, were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically to evaluate the innate immune responses against the rabies virus.

Results

Histopathological examination revealed inflammation of the infected cerebellum and immunohistochemical analyses showed an increased immunoreactivity of heat shock protein 70, interleukin-6, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, caspase-3, caspase-9, toll-like receptor3 and toll-like receptor4 in the infected brain tissue.

Conclusion

These results indicated the involvement of innate immunity in rabies infected human brain tissue, which may aggravate the progression of this deadly disease.

Undiagnosed Isolated Systolic and Diastolic Hypertension Subtypes and Their Correlates in Bangladesh: A Nationwide Survey
Shyfuddin Ahmed, Sonia Pervin, Tuhin Biswas, Muhammad Ashique Haider Chowdhury, Mohammad Abul Hasnat, Muhammad Mizanur Rashid Shuvra
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):12-19.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.04
  • 3,603 View
  • 44 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study was performed to identify the distribution of undiagnosed isolated hypertension subtypes and their correlates amongst adults aged 35 years and older in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demography and Health Survey 2011.

Methods

Out of a total of 17,964 selected households, 7,880 were included in the final analysis for this study. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were measured 3× at 10-minute intervals. Hypertension subtypes were defined for individuals not under antihypertensive treatment as systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH): systolic BP (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg; isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH): SBP < 140 mm Hg and DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg, and isolated systolic hypertension (ISH): SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP < 90 mm Hg.

Results

The predominant hypertension subtypes were SDH and IDH [5.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7–5.1] followed by ISH (3.8%; 95% CI: 3.4–4.2). Multiple logistic regression showed that age and gender were significant predictors of ISH. SDH was associated with females [odds ratio (OR): 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3–2.6], the older age group (OR-7.4; 95% CI: 4.3–12.7), and overweight or obese individuals (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1–2.4). Non-manual work (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.0]) and being overweight or obese (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4–2.8) were factors associated with IDH.

Conclusion

ISH, IDH and SDH represent salient subtypes of hypertension in Bangladesh. To identify preventive intervention for averting adverse cardiovascular events, further research is needed.

Specification of Bacteriophage Isolated Against Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Ahmad Nasser, Reza Azizian, Mohsen Tabasi, Jamil Kheirvari Khezerloo, Fatemah Sadeghpour Heravi, Morovat Taheri Kalani, Norkhoda Sadeghifard, Razieh Amini, Iraj Pakzad, Amin Radmanesh, Farid Azizi Jalilian
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):20-24.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.05
  • 4,143 View
  • 57 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The emergence of resistant bacteria is being increasingly reported around the world, potentially threatening millions of lives. Amongst resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most challenging to treat. This is due to emergent MRSA strains and less effective traditional antibiotic therapies to Staphylococcal infections. The use of bacteriophages (phages) against MRSA is a new, potential alternate therapy. In this study, morphology, genetic and protein structure of lytic phages against MRSA have been analysed.

Methods

Isolation of livestock and sewage bacteriophages were performed using 0.4 μm membrane filters. Plaque assays were used to determine phage quantification by double layer agar method. Pure plaques were then amplified for further characterization. Sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA were run for protein evaluation, and genotyping respectively. Transmission electron microscope was also used to detect the structure and taxonomic classification of phage visually.

Results

Head and tail morphology of bacteriophages against MRSA were identified by transmission electron microscopy and assigned to the Siphoviridae family and the Caudovirales order.

Conclusion

Bacteriophages are the most abundant microorganism on Earth and coexist with the bacterial population. They can destroy bacterial cells successfully and effectively. They cannot enter mammalian cells which saves the eukaryotic cells from lytic phage activity. In conclusion, phage therapy may have many potential applications in microbiology and human medicine with no side effect on eukaryotic cells.

Analysis of Resistance to Macrolide–Lincosamide–Streptogramin B Among mecA-Positive Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates
Mahmoud Khodabandeh, Mohsen Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Abdolsalehi, Azadeh Alvandimanesh, Mehrdad Gholami, Meysam Hasannejad Bibalan, Abazar Pournajaf, Ramin Kafshgari, Ramazan Rajabnia
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):25-31.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.06
  • 3,591 View
  • 163 Download
  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Genetic determinants conferring resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) via ribosomal modification such as, erm, msrA/B and ereA/B genes are distributed in bacteria. The main goals of this work were to evaluate the dissemination of MLSB resistance phenotypes and genotypes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected from clinical samples.

Methods

A total of 106 MRSA isolates were studied. Isolates were recovered from 3 hospitals in Tehran between May 2016 to July 2017. The prevalence of MLSB-resistant strains were determined by D-test, and then M-PCR was performed to identify genes encoding resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins in the tested isolates.

Results

The frequency of constitutive resistance MLSB, inducible resistance MLSB and MSB resistance were 56.2%, 22.9%, and 16.6%, respectively. Of 11 isolates with the inducible resistance MLSB phenotype, ermC, ermB, ermA and ereA were positive in 81.8%, 63.6%, 54.5% and 18.2% of these isolates, respectively. In isolates with the constitutive resistance MLSB phenotype, the prevalence of ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, msrB, ereA and ereB were 25.9%, 18.5%, 44.4%, 0.0%, 0.0%, 11.1% and 0.0%, respectively.

Conclusion

Clindamycin is commonly administered in severe MRSA infections depending upon the antimicrobial susceptibility findings. This study showed that the D-test should be used as an obligatory method in routine disk diffusion assay to detect inducible clindamycin resistance in MRSA so that effective antibiotic treatment can be provided.

Characteristics of Inpatients Who Survive Suicide Attempts
Sang Mi Kim, Hyun-Sook Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):32-38.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.07
  • 3,025 View
  • 149 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics and factors affecting the survival of inpatients admitted following a suicide attempt.

Methods

A total of 3,095 cases retrieved from the Korean National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey data (from 2011 to 2015) were grouped according to survival and death and analyzed using descriptive statistics chi-square and logistic regression analysis.

Results

The following factors had statistically significant risks on reducing survival: female (OR = 2.352, p < 0.001), 40–59 years old (OR = 0.606, p = 0.014), over 60 years old (OR = 0.186, p < 0.001), poisoning (OR = 0.474, p = 0.009), hanging (OR = 0.031, p < 0.001), jumping (OR = 0.144, p < 0.001), conflicts with family (OR = 2.851, p < 0.001), physical diseases (OR = 1.687, p = 0.046), mental health problems (OR = 2.693, p < 0.001), financial problems (OR = 3.314, p = 0.002), 2014 (OR = 2.498, p = < 0.001) and 2015 (OR = 2.942, p = 0.005).

Conclusion

The survival group that had a history of attempted suicide (high-risk suicide group), should be further characterized. It is necessary to identify the suicide methods and risk factors for suicide prevention management policies and to continuously expand the management policy according to these characteristics.

Enteroparasitism and Risk Factors Associated with Clinical Manifestations in Children and Adults of Jalisco State in Western Mexico
María de la Luz Galván-Ramírez, Ana Luisa Madriz-Elisondo, Cynthia Guadalupe Temores Ramírez, Jorge de Jesús Romero Rameño, Dania Araceli de la O Carrasco, Marco Antonio Cardona López
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):39-48.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.08
  • 5,496 View
  • 112 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasites in the population of San Juan Cosala, Jalisco, Mexico.

Methods

A total of 277 samples from 104 participants were analysed using direct smear, flotation, formaldehyde/ethyl acetate, and modified Kinyoun’s acid-fast stain methods. The Graham method was applied only for samples from children under 12 years of age for the diagnosis of Enterobius vermicularis.

Results

The prevalence of parasite infections in the study population was 77.9% including: Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii/E. bangladeshi (37.5%), Giardia intestinalis (11.5%); commensals: Endolimax nana (44.2%), Entamoeba coli (27.9%), Chilomastix mesnili (6.7%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii, (2.9%); emerging intestinal protozoans: Blastocystis spp. (49%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.7%) and Cyclospora cayetanensis (2.9%); and helminths: Enterobius vermicularis (18.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.8%). The results also showed that 58.64% of the studied population presented polyparasitism. A significant association was found between protozoan infections and housewives, and houses that were not built with concrete ceilings, brick walls and cement floors (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Polyparasitism was observed in over half the study population. The most prevalent parasite was Blastocystis spp, whilst the prevalence of helminths was less than that of protozoans. The risk factors for infection to intestinal parasites were being a housewife and not having solid brick, cement and concrete materials for house construction.


PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives