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Volume 9(6); December 2018
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Editorial
How Much Caffeine is Too Much for Young Adolescents?
Hae-Wol Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):287-288.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.01
  • 3,620 View
  • 55 Download
  • 2 Citations
PDF
Original Articles
Obesity, Hypertension, and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Interrelationships and the Determinants among Adults in Gaza City, Palestine
Mohammed S. Ellulu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):289-298.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.02
  • 3,453 View
  • 111 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To describe the distribution of social factors, lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements according to hypertension and Type-2 diabetes.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gaza City, Palestine that included 379 patients (20–60 years) who had hypertension and/or diabetes. Three groups of patients were involved; 106 hypertensive (HT), 109 diabetic (T2DM) and 164 hypertensive diabetics (HT + T2DM).

Results

The HT + T2DM group were older and had a higher body mass index compared to HT and T2DM groups. There were 62.3% patients who were female, 49.2% were highly educated HT patients, and 49.3% patients had a low level of education and were HT + T2DM. There were 55.8% patients who lived in large families. Patients who were passive smokers or never smoked before were mostly HT + T2DM, while active smokers and past smokers had T2DM. There were 48.2% patients who were highly physically active who had HT, 40.9% whom were moderately active had T2DM, and 53.8% of patients who had a low level of activity were HT + T2DM. Multivariate linear regression showed that having a diseased mother, living in a large family, being a past or passive smoker, or never having smoked, having a low or moderate level of activity, and having HT or HT + T2DM, were significantly associated with an increased body mass index.

Conclusion

Parental health/disease conditions and environmental factors (social network and lifestyle habits) played the greatest role in the development of obesity and disease.

Health Related Nutritional Knowledge and Dietary Behavior Regarding Caffeine Intake among High School Students in Yongin Region
Seong Yeong Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):299-308.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.03
  • 3,153 View
  • 31 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

We aimed to examine health-related nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior related to caffeine intake among high school students (n = 310) in the Yongin region of Korea.

Methods

Data were collected using a face-to-face survey, and analyzed using chi-square test, t- test, and logistic regression analysis.

Results

The level of caffeine intake in respondents was divided into low (< 30 mg/d; n = 208) and high caffeine intake groups (> 30 mg/d; n = 102). Total nutritional knowledge related to bone disease was higher in the low intake group (score 2.75) than the high intake group (score 2.39; p < 0.05). The high intake group had lower scores for nutritional knowledge (score 0.70; p < 0.05) related to how caffeinated beverages affect sleep and for dietary behavior (score 3.25; p < 0.001), based on “I avoid caffeinated foods before sleep,” than the low intake group (nutritional knowledge score, 0.80; dietary behavior score, 3.76).

Conclusion

In the overall analysis, the low caffeine intake group had better nutritional knowledge related to bone and sleep health, and healthier dietary behavior related to sleep health compared with the high intake group.

Neck Pain in Adults with Forward Head Posture: Effects of Craniovertebral Angle and Cervical Range of Motion
Dae-Hyun Kim, Chang-Ju Kim, Sung-Min Son
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):309-313.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.04
  • 4,603 View
  • 133 Download
  • 23 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cranial vertebral angle (CVA) and the range of motion (ROM) was different between participants with a forward head posture (FHP), with or without pain.

Methods

Forty-four participants who had FHP participated in this study. The FHP was assessed digitally by measuring a lateral view the CVA for each subject. A cervical ROM device measured the cervical ROM. The volunteers were allocated to either, with pain (n = 22), or without pain (n = 22) groups, and pain was evaluated using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale.

Results

The FHP in the pain group showed a significant difference in the CVA, and the cervical ROM in both flexion and extension, compared with those in the FHP without pain group (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the occurrence of cervical area pain was higher amongst subjects who had a decreased CVA and flexion motion.

Conclusion

This study suggested that decreased CVA and cervical flexion range, were predictive factors for the occurrence of pain in the cervical region.

A Preliminary Study to Determine Comprehensive Research and Development Plans for Promoting Mental Health Services
Chul Eung Kim, Young-Mi Ko, Sang-Uk Lee, SungKu Choi, Kiwan Han, Se Jin Park, MinKyung Jo, Yu Kyong Park, Hye Young Lee, Subin Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):314-324.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.05
  • 4,360 View
  • 57 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to analyze research and development projects in mental health services in Korea, using priority evaluation of mental health promotion policies to determine direction of the service.

Methods

An online survey was conducted that targeted experts in the mental health service regarding promotion of mental health in Korea in 2016. The survey was based on 32 policy projects that resulted from 12 strategies according to 4 policy objectives.

Results

Analysis of 32 mental health projects were assessed regarding the possibility of technology development success, magnitude of the ripple effect, and necessity of a national response. It was observed that 3 policy projects relevant to suicide, had a high relative priority. This was followed by policies for improvement of health insurance and the medical benefit cost system, and policies for reinforcement of crisis psychological support such as those for disaster victims.

Conclusion

The prioritization of mental health services should place an emphasis on promotion of a healthy mental lifestyle, rehabilitation support for patients with serious mental illness, and reinforcement of social safety networks for suicide prevention.

Association between Beta-lactam Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Factors in AmpC Producing Clinical Strains of P. aeruginosa
Sanaz Dehbashi, Hamed Tahmasebi, Mohammad Reza Arabestani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):325-333.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.06
  • 20,812 View
  • 129 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of IMP and OXA genes in clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) that are carriers of the ampC gene.

Methods

In this study, 105 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected. Antibiotic resistance patterns were determined using the disk diffusion method. The strains carrying AmpC enzymes were characterized by a combination disk method. Multiplex-PCR was used to identify resistance and virulence genes, chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between variables.

Results

Among 105 isolates of P. aeruginosa, the highest antibiotic resistance was to cefotaxime and aztreonam, and the least resistance was to colictin and ceftazidime. There were 49 isolates (46.66%) that showed an AmpC phenotype. In addition, the frequencies of the resistance genes were; OXA48 gene 85.2%, OXA199, 139 3.8%, OXA23 3.8%, OXA2 66.6%, OXA10 3.8%, OXA51 85.2% and OXA58 3.8%. The IMP27 gene was detected in 9 isolates (8.57%) and the IMP3.34 was detected in 11 isolates (10.47%). Other genes detected included; lasR (17.1%), lasB (18%) and lasA (26.6%). There was a significant relationship between virulence factors and the OX and IMP genes (p ≤ 0.05).

Conclusion

The relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence factors observed in this study could play an important role in outbreaks associated with P. aeruginosa infections.

Anti-Human Rhinovirus 1B Activity of Dexamethasone viaGCR-Dependent Autophagy Activation
Jae-Sug Lee, Seong-Ryeol Kim, Jae-Hyoung Song, Yong-Pyo Lee, Hyun-Jeong Ko
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):334-339.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.07
  • 2,971 View
  • 60 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the major cause of the common cold. Currently there is no registered, clinically effective, antiviral chemotherapeutic agent to treat diseases caused by HRVs. In this study, the antiviral activity of dexamethasone (DEX) against HRV1B was examined.

Methods

The anti–HRV1B activity of DEX was assessed by sulforhodamine B assay in HeLa cells, and by RT-PCR in the lungs of HRV1B-infected mice. Histological evaluation of HRV1B-infected lungs was performed and a histological score was given. Anti-HRV1B activity of DEX via the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR)-dependent autophagy activation was assessed by blocking with chloroquine diphosphate salt or bafilomycin A1 treatment.

Results

In HRV1B-infected HeLa cells, treatment with DEX in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in a cell viability of > 70% indicating that HRV1B viral replication was reduced by DEX treatment. HRV1B infected mice treated with DEX, had evidence of reduced inflammation and a moderate histological score. DEX treatment showed antiviral activity against HRV1B via GCR-dependent autophagy activation.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that DEX treatment showed anti-HRV1B activity via GCR-dependent autophagy activation in HeLa cells and HRV1B infected mice. Further investigation assessing the development of topical formulations may enable the development of improved DEX effectiveness.

Intra-Oral Factors Influencing Halitosis in Young Women
Ho Sun Shon, Kyoung Ok Kim, Jae Kwan Jung, Eun Jong Cha, Su Ok Lee, Kyung Ah Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):340-347.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.08
  • 3,582 View
  • 34 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this research was to determine intra-oral factors that affect halitosis in young women.

Methods

This study was performed between March 2014 to May 2014, and included 35 women in their 20s with good oral health. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the change in halitosis immediately, and 1 hour after scaling.

Results

In both oral gas (OG) and extraoral gas (EG) groups, halitosis was reduced after scaling compared to before scaling. The logistic regression analysis of oral state factors in OG showed that as oral fluid [odds ratio (OR) = 0.792, p = 0.045] and dental plaque (OR = 0.940, p = 0.016) decreased by 1 unit, the OR in the OG group decreased (> 50). In addition, as glucose levels in the oral cavity (OR = 1.245, p = 0.075) and tongue coating index (OR = 2.912, p = 0.064) increased by 1 unit, the OR in the OG group increased (> 50). Furthermore, in the EG group, as oral fluid (OR = 0.66, p = 0.01) and dental plaque (OR = 0.95, p = 0.04) decreased, the OR in the EG group decreased (> 50) significantly.

Conclusion

To control halitosis, it is necessary to increase oral fluid and decrease the amount of tongue plaque. Furthermore, maintaining a healthy oral environment, aided by regular scaling and removal of dental plaque, may significantly control halitosis.

Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils Possessing Anti-Influenza A/WS/33 Virus Activity
Hwa-Jung Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):348-353.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.09
  • 17,192 View
  • 244 Download
  • 26 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study was conducted to determine whether essential oils had anti-influenza A/WS/33 virus activity and whether there were specific compounds associated with this activity.

Methods

There were 63 essential oils evaluated for anti-influenza (A/WS/33 virus) activity using a cytopathic effect reduction method. The chemical composition of the anti-influenza essential oils was phytochemically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results

The antiviral assays demonstrated that 11 of the 62 essential oils (100 μg/mL) possessed anti-influenza activity, reducing visible cytopathic effects of influenza A/WS/33 virus activity by > 30%. Furthermore, marjoram, clary sage and anise oils exhibited anti-influenza A/WS/33 virus activity of > 52.8%. However, oseltamivir (the anti-influenza A and B drug), showed cytotoxicity at the same concentration (100 μg/mL) as the essential oils. The chemical composition detected by GC–MS analysis, differed amongst the 3 most potent anti-viral essential oils (marjoram, clary sage and anise oils) except for linalool, which was detected in all 3 essential oils.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated anti-influenza activity in 11 essential oils tested, with marjoram, clary sage and anise essential oils being the most effective at reducing visible cytopathic effects of the A/WS/33 virus. All 3 oils contained linalool, suggesting that this may have anti-influenza activity. Further investigation is needed to characterize the antiviral activity of linalool against influenza A/WS/33 virus.

Effects of Injection Laryngoplasty with Hyaluronic Acid in Patients with Vocal Fold Paralysis
Geun-Hyo Kim, Jae-Seok Lee, Chang-Yoon Lee, Yeon-Woo Lee, In-Ho Bae, Hee-June Park, Byung-Joo Lee, Soon-Bok Kwon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):354-361.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.10
  • 3,087 View
  • 41 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of injection laryngoplasty (IL) with hyaluronic acid in patients with vocal fold paralysis (VFP).

Methods

A total of 50 patients with VFP participated in this study. Pre- and post-IL assessments were performed, which included analyzing the sustained vowel /a/ phonation, and the patient reading 1 Korean sentence from the “Walk” passage that comprised 25 syllables in 10 words. To investigate the effect of IL on vocal fold function, acoustic analysis (acoustic voice quality index, cepstral peak prominence, maximum phonation time, speaking fundamental frequency) was conducted and auditory-perceptual (grade and overall severity), visual judgment (gap), and self-questionnaire (voice handicap index-10) assessments were performed.

Results

The patients with VFP showed statistically significant differences between pre-and post-IL assessments for acoustic and auditory-perception, visual judgment, and self-questionnaire assessments.

Conclusion

The patients with VFP showed positive change in vocal fold function between pre- and post-IL measurements. The findings showed that IL with hyaluronic acid is an effective method to improve vocal fold function in patients with VFP.

Corrigendums
Corrigendum to “Epidemiological Characterization of Imported Systemic Mycoses Occurred in Korea” [Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2018;9(5):255–60]
Seung-Hak Cho, Young-Bin Yu, Je-Seop Park, Keun-Dol Yook, Young-Kwon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):362-362.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.11
  • 3,018 View
  • 30 Download
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Corrigendum to “Evaluation of Potency on Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid for Adult Vaccines by In Vivo Toxin Neutralization Assay Using National Reference Standards”[Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2018;9(5):278–82]
Chan Woong Choi, Jae Hoon Moon, Jae Ok Kim, Si Hyung Yoo, Hyeon Guk Kim, Jung-Hwan Kim, Tae Jun Park, Sung Soon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):363-363.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.12
  • 10,558 View
  • 27 Download
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives