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Volume 6(1); February 2015
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Editorial
Doing Mathematics with Aftermath of Pandemic Influenza 2009
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):1-2.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.001
  • 1,680 View
  • 23 Download
PDF
Original Articles
TEM and SHV Genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Cockroaches and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern
Abbas Doosti, Mohammad Pourabbas, Asghar Arshi, Mohammad Chehelgerdi, Hamidreza Kabiri
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):3-8.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.10.011
  • 1,710 View
  • 44 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative rod bacterium, a known cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and is an important hospital-acquired pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify the TEM and SHV genes in K. pneumoniae isolated from cockroaches obtained from hospitals.
Methods
In this study, 250 cockroaches were collected from different hospitals in the province of Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari, which is located in southwest Iran. The samples were examined for the presence of K. pneumoniae by plating onto a combination of culture media, and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated K. pneumoniae from samples were evaluated using the disk diffusion test. In addition, from the culture, genomic bacterial DNA was extracted, and sequence-specific targets (TEM and SHV genes) were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
Results
Out of 250 cockroach samples collected from various hospitals, 179 samples (71.60%) were positive for K. pneumoniae. PCR reaction was performed using specific oligonucleotide primers (TEM-F, TEM-R and SHV-F, SHV-R) for the amplification of each gene, and amplified products were visualized on 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. Of all the specimens amplified by PCR in this research, 32 samples (17.87%) were positive for TEM and 15 samples (8.37%) were positive for SHV.
Conclusion
Detection of TEM and SHV genes using molecular methods and their pattern of antimicrobial resistance can provide useful information about the epidemiology of and risk factors associated with K. pneumoniae infection.
Preparation and Evaluation of a New Lipopolysaccharide-based Conjugate as a Vaccine Candidate for Brucellosis
Seyed Davar Siadat, Farzam Vaziri, Mamak Eftekhary, Maryam Karbasian, Arfa Moshiri, Mohammad R. Aghasadeghi, Mehdi S. Ardestani, Meghdad Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Amin Arsang, Abolfazl Fateh, Shahin Najar Peerayeh, Ahmad R. Bahrmand
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):9-13.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.10.012
  • 1,931 View
  • 20 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Development of an efficacious vaccine against brucellosis has been a challenge for scientists for many years. At present, there is no licensed vaccine against human brucellosis. To overcome this problem, currently, antigenic determinants of Brucella cell wall such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are considered as potential candidates to develop subunit vaccines.
Methods
In this study, Brucella abortus LPS was used for conjugation to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B outer membrane vesicle (OMV) as carrier protein using carbodiimide and adipic acid–mediated coupling and linking, respectively. Groups of eight BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with 10 μg LPS alone, combined LPS + OMV and conjugated LPS–OMV on 0 days, 14 days, 28 days and 42 days. Anti-LPS IgG was measured in serum.
Results
The yield of LPS to OMV in LPS–OMV conjugate was 46.55%, on the basis of carbohydrate content. The ratio for LPS to OMV was 4.07. The LPS–OMV conjugate was the most immunogenic compound that stimulated following the first injection with increased IgG titer of ∼5-fold and ∼1.3-fold higher than that produced against LPS and LPS in noncovalent complex to OMV (LPS + OMV), respectively. The highest anti-LPS IgG titer was detected 2 weeks after the third injection (Day 42) of LPS–OMV conjugate. The conjugated compound elicited higher titers of IgG than LPS + OMV, that showed a 100–120-fold rise of anti-LPS IgG in mice.
Conclusion
These results indicate that our conjugated LPS–OMV can be used as a brucellosis vaccine, but further investigation is required.
Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties and Drug Permeability of Chitosan/Eudragit RL Composite Film
Maryam Kouchak, Somayeh Handali, Basireh Naseri Boroujeni
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):14-19.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.12.001
  • 1,680 View
  • 15 Download
  • 23 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a chitosan-based film that has properties required for successful wound dressing, and can control drug penetration and maintenance time in the location.
Methods
Several formulations of a film containing chitosan (3%) and different concentrations of Eudragit RL (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) were prepared using the casting/solvent evaporating technique. Mechanical properties, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), oxygen permeability, water uptake, and nitrofurazone permeability through the films were investigated.
Results
The study results showed that by increasing the Eudragit RL content of composite films, their thickness and tensile strength were enhanced, while their elongation was decreased. No significant difference was observed between the oxygen permeability, WVTR, and water uptake results of pure chitosan films and different composite films containing Eudragit RL. Nitrofurazone permeability of chitosan films was increased by the inclusion of Eudragit RL in composite films, while by increasing the concentration of Eudragit RL, the permeation rate of drug was decreased.
Conclusion
In conclusion, addition of Eudragit RL can improve mechanical properties of chitosan films without any undesirable effect on their water uptake, oxygen permeability, and WVTR qualities. The permeation rate of drugs through the composite films can be modified by changing Eudragit RL/chitosan ratio.
Health Status of the Residents in Occidental Mindoro, Philippines: A Way to Make a Healthy Community
Rosa Mistica C. Ignacio, Ma Easter Joy V. Sajo, Eun Woo Nam, Chun Bae Kim, Dong Won Ahn, Pan Suk Kim, Kyu Jae Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):20-26.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.11.006
  • 1,666 View
  • 14 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Even though Philippines is widely known as exporters of health workers in the world, the Occidental Mindoro province suffers from a lack of health workers compared with the total population of each municipality. The aim of this study was to observe, identify, and understand the persisting health status, knowledge, and practices among the three selected communities in Occidental Mindoro, Philippines.
Methods
The study applied a survey using basic questions with three key topics, with relevance to the health condition of the villagers, such as demographics (social capital and regional characteristics), lifestyle (healthy living, and healthy lifestyle and behavior), and status or position in the society (general demographics, and personal behavior and attitudes), with a random sample of 256 adult respondents.
Results
Only about 54.3% rated themselves as fair/moderately healthy, and a total of 17.2% suffered from chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease, while 9% have been diagnosed with tuberculosis in the past 6 months. Respondents mostly have low income and low education.
Conclusion
The majority of the respondents have only primary and secondary education, and a very low average income; these suggest that respondents were afflicted with poverty and low educational attainment. Respondents who are deprived of their rights to obtain a higher education also have a higher chance of having less knowledge on their well-being. Health programs do not guarantee a healthy individual and a healthy society, but a combination of health programs and socioeconomic support can help in creating a healthy community.
Comparative Study of the Impact of Intoxication on Injuries in China and Korea
Lydia Sarponmaa Asante, Maxine Newell, Mieun Yun, Sunmee Yun-Welch, Sungsoo Chun
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):27-33.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.002
  • 1,770 View
  • 13 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Alcohol misuse has been widely studied as a substantial contributor to injured patients' visits to emergency departments. The current research studied differences in alcohol-related injury variables in China and Korea.
Methods
Data were collected from a sample of 4,509 patients (2,862 males and 1,667 females) reporting at emergency departments in China and Korea using the World Health Organization collaborative study on alcohol and injuries protocol.
Results
More injuries were reported by men, young people aged 25–34 years, employed individuals, and persons who had at least a high-school education. The proportion of injury cases among intoxicated patients was 14% for Chinese and 20% for Koreans. The odds of intentional injuries to intoxicated patients increased significantly when the perpetrator had been drinking, especially for severely intoxicated victims in both countries. The odds of injuries for intoxicated persons in both countries were high during sports and leisure activities; odds ratio (OR) = 3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.76–5.59 for Chinese and OR = 10.97, 95% CI = 6.06–19.85 for Koreans.
Conclusion
These findings are a contribution to research in the two Asian countries about the effect of intoxication on injuries especially when both victim and perpetrator are intoxicated.
Evaluation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Early Secreted Antigenic Target 6 Recombinant Protein as a Diagnostic Marker in Skin Test
Jale Moradi, Nader Mosavari, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Reza Arefpajohi, Majid Tebianian
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):34-38.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.12.002
  • 1,617 View
  • 17 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious disease in the developing world. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test diagnoses TB using tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD), but this test is incapable of distinguishing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection from bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination or an infection caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This study was performed to evaluate the use of recombinant early secretory antigenic target 6 (rESAT-6), a secretory protein found only in MTB, Mycobacterium bovis, and few other mycobacterial species, as a skin marker for MTB in guinea pigs.
Methods
We prepared recombinant MTB ESAT-6 and evaluated its use as a specific antigen for MTB in guinea pigs.
Results
Our results show that the purified MTB rESAT-6 antigen is capable of inducing a positive reaction only in guinea pigs sensitized to MTB. No such reaction was observed in the animals sensitized to M. bovis, BCG vaccination, or NTM (Mycobacterium avium).
Conclusion
Our study results confirm that the ESAT-6 antigen is more specific to MTB infection than PPD and could be used in more specific skin tests for detection of MTB in large animals and in humans.
Isolation and Identification of Endosulfan-Degrading Bacteria and Evaluation of Their Bioremediation in Kor River, Iran
Farshid Kafilzadeh, Moslem Ebrahimnezhad, Yaghoob Tahery
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):39-46.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.12.003
  • 1,702 View
  • 19 Download
  • 23 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Endosulfan is a lipophilic insecticide, which causes severe health issues due to its environmental stability, toxicity, and biological reservation in organisms. It is found in the atmosphere, soil, sediments, surface waters, rain, and food in almost equal proportions. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify endosulfan-degrading bacteria from the Kor River and evaluate the possibility of applying bioremediation in reducing environmental pollution in the desired region.
Methods
Samples of surface sediments and water were collected from three different stations in two seasons (summer and autumn), as these are areas with high agricultural activity. Isolated bacteria were identified by various biochemical tests and morphological characteristics. The amounts of degradation of endosulfan isomers and metabolites produced as a result of biodegradation were then analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Results
In this study, the following five bacterial genera were able to degrade endosulfan: Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, and Bacillus. During biodegradation, metabolites of endosulfan diol, endosulfan lactone, and endosulfan ether were also produced, but these had lesser toxicity compared with the original compound (i.e., endosulfan).
Conclusion
The five genera isolated can be used as a biocatalyst for bioremediation of endosulfan.
Assessment of Intensive Vaccination and Antiviral Treatment in 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Korea
Chaeshin Chu, Sunmi Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):47-51.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.11.007
  • 1,592 View
  • 15 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We characterized and assessed public health measures, including intensive vaccination and antiviral treatment, implemented during the 2009 influenza pandemic in the Republic of Korea.
Methods
A mathematical model for the 2009 influenza pandemic is formulated. The transmission rate, the vaccination rate, the antiviral treatment rate, and the hospitalized rate are estimated using the least-squares method for the 2009 data of the incidence curves of the infected, vaccinated, treated, and hospitalized.
Results
The cumulative number of infected cases has reduced significantly following the implementation of the intensive vaccination and antiviral treatment. In particular, the intensive vaccination was the most critical factor that prevented severe outbreak.
Conclusion
We have found that the total infected proportion would increase by approximately six times under the half of vaccination rates.
Complete Sequence Analysis and Antiviral Screening of Medicinal Plants for Human Coxsackievirus A16 Isolated in Korea
Jae-Hyoung Song, Kwisung Park, Aeri Shim, Bo-Eun Kwon, Jae-Hee Ahn, Young Jin Choi, Jae Kyung Kim, Sang-Gu Yeo, Kyungah Yoon, Hyun-Jeong Ko
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):52-58.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.12.004
  • 1,669 View
  • 16 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Coxsackievirus A group 16 strain (CVA16) is one of the predominant causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).
Methods
Using a specimen from a male patient with HFMD, we isolated and performed sequencing of the Korean CVA16 strain and compared it with a G10 reference strain. Also, we were investigated the effects of medicinal plant extract on the cytopathic effects (CPE) by CPE reduction assay against Korean CVA16.
Results
Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean CVA16 isolate belonged to cluster B-1 and was closely related to the strain PM-15765-00 isolated in Malaysia in 2000. The Korean CVA16 isolate showed 73.2% nucleotide identity to the G10 prototype strain and 98.7% nucleotide identity to PM-15765-00. Next, we assessed whether the Korean CVA16 isolate could be used for in vitro screening of antiviral agents to treat HFMD infection. Vero cells infected with the Korean CVA16 isolate showed a cytopathic effect 2 days after the infection, and the treatment of cells with Cornus officinalis, Acer triflorum, Pulsatilla koreana, and Clematis heracleifolia var. davidiana Hemsl extracts exhibited strong antiviral activity against CVA16.
Conclusion
Collectively, our work provides potential candidates for the development of vaccine and novel drugs to treat the CVA16 strain isolated from a Korean patient.
Experiences in Healthy Dieting of Male College Students with Obesity in Korea
Jeong Soo Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):59-63.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.11.008
  • 1,586 View
  • 15 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to describe and understand experiences of healthy dieting in male college students with obesity.
Methods
The interview data were collected from nine male students and analyzed by using descriptive phenomenology of Colaizzi. The procedural steps described the phenomenon of interest, collected participants' descriptions of the phenomenon, extracted the meaning of significant statements, organized the meanings into clusters, wrote exhaustive descriptions, and then incorporated data into an exhaustive description.
Results
The findings in 246 restatements, 47 constructed meanings, 31 themes, eight theme clusters, and four categories were deduced. The four categories were “Uneasiness at interpersonal relationships”, “Developing durability in dieting strategies”, “Practicing healthy diets based on information”, and “Perceived on healthy diets as a whole health support strategies”.
Conclusion
This study described experiences in healthy dieting of male college students who were discharged from military services. These findings have important implications for understanding healthy dieting in young men and must be considered in developing health promotion in youth.
Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Appadurai Daniel Reegan, Munusamy Rajiv Gandhi, Micheal Gabriel Paulraj, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(1):64-69.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.009
  • 2,166 View
  • 25 Download
  • 34 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant.
Methods
Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison.
Results
Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females.
Conclusion
It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives