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Volume 6(2); April 2015
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Editorial
From Seoul to Lima: Korean Doctors in Peru
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):71-72.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.04.001
  • 1,515 View
  • 19 Download
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Original Articles
Knowledge and Attitude Toward Informed Consent Among Private Dental Practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India
Vivek V. Gupta, Nagesh Bhat, Kailash Asawa, Mridula Tak, Salil Bapat, Pulkit Chaturvedi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):73-78.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.12.005
  • 1,783 View
  • 17 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
A study was conducted with the purpose to assess the knowledge and attitude towards informed consent among private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all private dental practitioners in Bathinda City. A self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 14 items was used to assess their knowledge and attitude regarding informed consent. The response format was based on a 3-point Likert scale. One-way analysis of variance, independent sample t test, and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were utilized for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5%, respectively.
Results
The mean scores for knowledge and attitude were 19.37 ± 31.82 and 9.40 ± 1.72, respectively. Analysis revealed that qualification and years of experience was statistically significant among both dependent variables (p ≤ 0.05).
Conclusion
An unbalanced knowledge of informed consent among the current dentists has suggested the need for awareness programs to fill the knowledge gaps and instill positive attitudes.
Antibiotic Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in Iran: A Systemic Review of the Published Literature
Jale Moradi, Farhad B. Hashemi, Abbas Bahador
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):79-86.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.12.006
  • 1,971 View
  • 25 Download
  • 43 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterium responsible for health care-associated infections, and it frequently develops multiple drug resistance (MDR). The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii in Iran has increased, and this may cause significant clinical problems. Therefore, in order to elucidate the development of antibiotic resistance, we performed a systematic review of the literature published on antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii reported in Iran.
Methods
Thirty-six publications that met the criteria for inclusion were reviewed from an initial 87 papers. Selected papers published between 2008 and September 2014, were categorized on the basis of the sample collecting year been between 2001 and 2013.
Results
Analysis of data revealed that, in general, there was an increase in antimicrobial resistance. During the initial time point of these studies (2001–2007) there was a high rate of resistance to all antibiotics, with the exception of carbapenems, lipopeptides, and aminoglycosides that had a low resistance rate in comparison with the others. Also, the resistance rate was increased in one group of these three antimicrobial groups from 2010 to 2013. In particular, there was an increase in resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) from 2010–2011 and 2012–2013, whereas no significant change in the resistance rate of the other two antimicrobial groups (lipopeptides and aminoglycosides) during the study time was observed, although we did observe certain trends in amikacin (aminoglycoside group antibiotic) between 2011–2012 and 2012–2013.
Conclusion
These findings indicate that antimicrobial resistance of A. baumannii in Iran has increased, which may very well affect the antimicrobial resistance of this organism worldwide. Based on these results, novel prevention and treatment strategies against A. baumannii infections are warranted. Furthermore, these data may assist in revising treatment guidelines and regional policies in care units to slow the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
Effects of Fenugreek Seed Extract and Swimming Endurance Training on Plasma Glucose and Cardiac Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Sajad Arshadi, Salar Bakhtiyari, Karimeh Haghani, Ahmad Valizadeh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):87-93.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.12.007
  • 1,759 View
  • 19 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia condition resulting from defective insulin secretion or resistance insulin action, or both. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6 weeks swimming training and Trigonella foenum-graecum seed (fenugreek) extract, alone and in combination, on plasma glucose and cardiac antioxidant enzyme activity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Methods
Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: diabetic control (DC, n = 8); healthy control (HC, n = 11); swimming training (S, n = 11); swimming training + fenugreek seed extract (1.74 g/kg body weight; SF1, n = 11); and swimming training + fenugreek seed extract (0.87 g/kg body weight; SF2, n = 9). Streptozotocin was used for the induction of diabetes. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey test.
Results
In comparison with the DC group, all groups exhibited a significant decrease in body weight (p < 0.05), except for the HC group. SF1 and HC groups showed significant decreases in plasma glucose levels compared with the DC group (p < 0.05). S, SF1, SF2, and HC groups showed significant elevations in cardiac antioxidant enzymes activity in comparison with the DC group.
Conclusion
The results indicated that the combination of endurance swimming training and fenugreek seed extract can significantly reduce the plasma glucose levels and increase cardiac antioxidant enzymes activity in diabetic rats. Our findings suggest that this combination could be useful for the treatment of hyperglycemia and cardiac oxidative stress induced by diabetes mellitus.
Association of TNF-α 308 G/A Polymorphism With Type 2 Diabetes: A Case–Control Study in the Iranian Kurdish Ethnic Group
Hasan Golshani, Karimeh Haghani, Majid Dousti, Salar Bakhtiyari
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):94-99.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.003
  • 1,670 View
  • 19 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays roles in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and possibility of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the association of TNF-α promoter−308 G/A polymorphism with T2DM.
Methods
In all, 1038 patients with T2DM and 1023 normoglycemic controls were included in this study. All participants were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were then analyzed in each group. Serum lipids, fasting glucose, fasting serum insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and hemoglogin A1c levels were determined by conventional methods.
Results
The allelic frequency of the A allele was significantly different between case and control participants (p = 0.006). Genotypes GA and AA were found to be significantly associated with 2.24- and 3.18-fold increased risk for T2DM, respectively. Similarly, the dominant model of -308 G/A polymorphism was found to have a higher risk for T2DM (odds ratio = 2.34, p = 0.001). Individuals with T2DM carrying the GA + AA genotypes of -308 G/A variation had significantly lower fasting plasma insulin than those carrying GG genotype.
Conclusion
Our findings revealed that there is an association between the TNF-α promoter -308 G/A polymorphism and T2DM in this population.
Gastric and Esophageal Cancers Incidence Mapping in Golestan Province, Iran: Using Bayesian–Gibbs Sampling
Atefeh-Sadat Hosseintabar Marzoni, Abbas Moghimbeigi, Javad Faradmal
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):100-105.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.004
  • 1,606 View
  • 16 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Recent studies of esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC) have been reported to have high incidence rates of these cancers in Golestan Province of Iran. The present study describes the geographical patterns of EC and GC incidence based on cancer registry data and display statistically significant regions within this province.
Methods
In order to map the distribution of upper gastrointestinal cancer, relative risk (RR) were calculated. Therefore, to estimate a more reliable RR, Poisson regression models were used. The adjusted models (adjusted to urban–rural area, sex, and grouped age proportion) were utilized. We considered two-component random effects for each observation, an unstructured (noncorrelated) and a group of “neighbor” (correlated) heterogeneities. We estimated the model parameters using Gibbs sampling and empirical Bayes method. We used EC and GC data that were registered with Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology in the years 2004–2008.
Results
The EC and GC maps were drawn for 2004–2008 in the province. Kalaleh and Minoodasht counties have a high RR of EC and GC in the years of study. In almost all years, the areas with a high RR were steady.
Conclusion
The EC and GC maps showed significant spatial patterns of risk in Golestan province of Iran. Further study is needed to multivariate clustering and mapping of cancers RRs with considering diet and socioeconomic factors.
H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the Republic of Korea: Epidemiology During the First Wave, from January Through July 2014
Hachung Yoon, Oun-Kyong Moon, Wooseog Jeong, Jida Choi, Young-Myong Kang, Hyo-Young Ahn, Jee-Hye Kim, Dae-Sung Yoo, Young-Jin Kwon, Woo-Seok Chang, Myeong-Soo Kim, Do-Soon Kim, Yong-Sang Kim, Yi-Seok Joo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):106-111.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.005
  • 1,819 View
  • 24 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study describes the outbreaks of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Korea during the first wave, from January 16, 2014 through July 25, 2014. Its purpose is to provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of H5N8 HPAI.
Methods
Information on the outbreak farms and HPAI positive wild birds was provided by the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency. The epidemiological investigation sheets for the outbreak farms were examined.
Results
During the 7-month outbreak period (January–July 2014), H5N8 HPAI was confirmed in 212 poultry farms, 38 specimens from wild birds (stools, birds found dead or captured). Ducks were the most frequently infected poultry species (159 outbreak farms, 75.0%), and poultry in 67 (31.6%) outbreak farms was asymptomatic.
Conclusion
As in the previous four H5N1 epidemics of HPAI that occurred in Korea, this epidemic of H5N8 proved to be associated with migratory birds. Poultry farms in Korea can hardly be free from the risk of HPAI introduced via migratory birds. The best way to overcome this geographical factor is to reinforce biosecurity to prevent exposure of farms, related people, and poultry to the pathogen.
Application of Gap-Constraints Given Sequential Frequent Pattern Mining for Protein Function Prediction
Hyeon Ah Park, Taewook Kim, Meijing Li, Ho Sun Shon, Jeong Seok Park, Keun Ho Ryu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):112-120.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.006
  • 1,493 View
  • 15 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Predicting protein function from the protein–protein interaction network is challenging due to its complexity and huge scale of protein interaction process along with inconsistent pattern. Previously proposed methods such as neighbor counting, network analysis, and graph pattern mining has predicted functions by calculating the rules and probability of patterns inside network. Although these methods have shown good prediction, difficulty still exists in searching several functions that are exceptional from simple rules and patterns as a result of not considering the inconsistent aspect of the interaction network.
Methods
In this article, we propose a novel approach using the sequential pattern mining method with gap-constraints. To overcome the inconsistency problem, we suggest frequent functional patterns to include every possible functional sequence—including patterns for which search is limited by the structure of connection or level of neighborhood layer. We also constructed a tree-graph with the most crucial interaction information of the target protein, and generated candidate sets to assign by sequential pattern mining allowing gaps.
Results
The parameters of pattern length, maximum gaps, and minimum support were given to find the best setting for the most accurate prediction. The highest accuracy rate was 0.972, which showed better results than the simple neighbor counting approach and link-based approach.
Conclusion
The results comparison with other approaches has confirmed that the proposed approach could reach more function candidates that previous methods could not obtain.
Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children
Hae Ok Kim, Gyo Nam Kim, Euna Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):121-125.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.007
  • 1,818 View
  • 36 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology.
Methods
A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results.
Results
There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.”
Conclusion
The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity.
Comparison of Consensus on Life-sustaining Treatment of the Elderly in Care Facilities and Family Member Dyad
Sunmi Lim, Seong Ae Hong, Hyun Sook Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):126-132.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.02.003
  • 1,665 View
  • 15 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study is to compare the agreement in opinion between the elderly in care facilities and their family members regarding the life-sustaining treatment at the deathbed and to find out if the intentions of the elderly are being properly reflected in their deathbed treatment.
Methods
Data were collected from 85 elderly individuals at five care facilities in Chunkcheongnam-do and 85 family members. The data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire from July 22, 2013 to August 15, 2014. A total of 170 cases were analyzed using SPSS version 21.
Results
First, the family members' preference for life-sustaining treatment was higher than the patients' preference. The preference between the elderly and their family members regarding life-sustaining treatment was statistically significant with regards to oral nutrition, pain control through oral and anal administration, pain control through intravenous administration, transfusion, and admission to an intensive care unit. Second, looking at the agreement between elderly and guardians regarding life-sustaining treatment, there was significant concordance about general testing, oral nutrition, intravenous hydration, intravenous nutrition, antibiotic treatment for severe infection with low resiliency, admission to an intensive care unit, blood pressure increase medication use, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and tracheotomy.
Conclusion
It is essential for the medical staff to confirm agreement between the elderly and their family members regarding life-sustaining treatment, and if such a prior agreement is not feasible, the patient's intention should be considered more actionable than their family members.
Brief Report
Review for the Korean Health Professionals and International Cooperation Doctors Dispatched to Peru by the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)
Bongyoung Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):133-139.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.02.004
  • 1,701 View
  • 21 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
South Korea dispatches Korean nationals to partner developing countries as an Official Development Assistance (ODA) project through the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). In the health sector, KOICA dispatches international cooperation doctors (ICDs), nurses, physical therapists, radiologic technologists, nutritionists, medical laboratory technologists, occupational therapists, and dental hygienists. A total of 216 ICDs were dispatched over 19 times from 1995 until 2013. There were 19 areas of specialties among the ICDs. The most common specialty was internal medicine (61/216, 28.2%), the second most common specialty was general surgery (43/216, 19.9%), followed by oriental medicine (27/216, 12.5%), pediatrics (17/216, 7.9%), orthopedics (16/216, 7.4%), family medicine (16/216, 7.4%), and odontology (14/216, 6.5%). The ICDs have worked in 21 countries. KOICA dispatched the highest number of ICDs to Asia (97/216, 44.9%), followed by Africa (50/216, 23.1%), Latin America (34/216, 15.7%), the commonwealth of independent states (31/216, 14.4%), and Oceania (4/216, 1.9%). Nobody was dispatched to the Middle East. A total of 134 KOICA health professionals were dispatched to Peru from 1996 until October 1, 2014. Of these, 19.4% (26/134) were ICDs, 44.8% (60/216) were nurses, 20.1% (27/134) were physical therapists, 6.7% (9/134) were radiologic technologists, 2.2% (3/134) were nutritionists, and 6.7% (9/134) were medical laboratory. ICDs' specialties comprised internal medicine (13/26, 50%), family medicine (8/26, 30.8%), pediatrics (2/26, 7.7%), otorhinolaryngology (1/26, 3.8%), orthopedics (1/26, 3.8%), and oriental medicine (1/26, 3.8%). Most of the dispatched health professionals worked at institutions that were supported by KOICA. For this reason, the proportion of health professionals who worked at public health centers (PHCs) was the highest (58.2%, 78/134) when classified by workplace type. Other KOICA health professionals worked at hospitals, governmental organizations (GOs), or schools.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives