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Volume 3(3); September 2012
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Articleses
Basis for Korean Genome Study
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):119-120.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.07.011
  • 1,203 View
  • 25 Download
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Early Detection of Nosocomial Outbreaks Caused by Rare Pathogens: A Case Study Employing Score Prediction Interval
Hiroshi Nishiura
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):121-127.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.07.010
  • 1,232 View
  • 14 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Nosocomial outbreaks involve only a small number of cases and limited baseline data. The present study proposes a method to detect the nosocomial outbreaks caused by rare pathogens, exploiting score prediction interval of a Poisson distribution.
Methods
The proposed method was applied to three empirical datasets of nosocomial outbreaks in Japan: outbreaks of (1) multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 46) from 2009 to 2010, (2) multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aerginosa (n = 18) from 2009 to 2010, and (3) Serratia marcescens (n = 226) from 1999 to 2000.
Results
The proposed method successfully detected all three outbreaks during the first 2 months. Both the model-based and empirically derived threshold values indicated that the nosocomial outbreak of rare infectious disease may be declared upon diagnosis of index case(s), although the sensitivity and specificity were highly variable.
Conclusion
The findings support the practical notion that, upon diagnosis of index patient(s), one should immediately start the outbreak investigation of nosocomial outbreak caused by a rare pathogen. The proposed score prediction interval can permit easy computation of outbreak threshold in hospital settings among healthcare experts.
Optimal Control Strategy of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Transmission in Korea
Byul Nim Kim, Kyeongah Nah, Chaeshin Chu, Sang Uk Ryu, Yong Han Kang, Yongkuk Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):128-136.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.07.005
  • 1,326 View
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  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective To investigate the optimal control strategy for Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission in Korea.
Methods
A Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission model with optimal control terms using a deterministic system of differential equations is presented, and analyzed mathematically and numerically.
Results
If the cost of reducing the reproduction rate of the mosquito population is more than that of prevention measures to minimize mosquito-human contacts, the control of mosquito-human contacts needs to be taken for a longer time, comparing the other situations. More knowledge about the actual effectiveness and costs of control intervention measures would give more realistic control strategies.
Conclusion
Mathematical model and numerical simulations suggest that the use of mosquito-reduction strategies is more effective than personal protection in some cases but not always.
Dynamics of Constructs in Successful Aging of Korean Elderly: Modified Rowe and Kahn’s Model
Sang-Nam Jeon, Hakgene Shin, Hae-Jong Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):137-144.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.07.003
  • 1,239 View
  • 14 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study examined components in Rowe and Kahn’s successful aging model to investigate their hierarchical order and led to a modification of the previous hierarchical order.
Methods
To examine the hierarchical order of components, we constructed a structural equation model and verified those paths that have discrepancies in studies and/or potential inclusion or omission errors in the model. For this purpose, we analyzed 556 cases out of stratified and purposively sampled 600 elderly people living in the city of Jeonju during the study period (2011).
Results
The paths with inclusion errors such as H3 [self-reported health → productive activity (SRH → PA)]: the effect of SRH on PA, and H6 [social network (SN) → PA]: the effect of SN on PA, were not directly but indirectly supported. The path with discrepancy, H4 [SN → physical–cognitive function (PCF)]: the effect of SN on PCFs, was statistically significant. The path with inclusion error and discrepancy, H8 (PCF → PA): the effect of PCF on PA, was not directly but indirectly supported. Also the path with the omission error, H2 [SRH → psychological trait (PT)]: the effect of SRH on PT, was statistically significant. The other paths in the hierarchical order of the model reported in previous studies were statistically significant.
Conclusion
We verified new dynamics of constructs involved in successful aging, which would provide better understanding of Rowe and Kahn’s successful aging model for Korean elderly people living in a medium-sized city.
Surveillance and Vector Control of Lymphatic Filariasis in the Republic of Korea
Shin Hyeong Cho, Da Won Ma, Bo Ra Koo, Hee Eun Shin, Wook Kyo Lee, Byong Suk Jeong, Chaeshin Chu, Won Ja Lee, Hyeng Il Cheun
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):145-150.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.07.008
  • 1,344 View
  • 11 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Until the early 2000s, lymphatic filariasis would commonly break out in the coastal areas in Korea. Through steady efforts combining investigation and treatment, filariasis was officially declared eradicated in 2008. This study surveyed the density of vector species of filariasis in past endemic areas, and inspected filariasis DNA from collected mosquitoes for protection against the reemergence of filariasis.
Methods
Between May and October 2009, mosquitoes were caught using the black night trap in past endemic coastal areas: Gyeongsangnam-do, Jeollanamdo, and Jeju-do. The collected mosquitoes were identified, and the extracted DNA from the collected vector mosquitoes was tested by polymerase chain reaction for Brugia malayi filariasis.
Results
Ochletotatus togoi, Anophel es (Hyrcanus) group and Culex pipiens were most frequently caught in Jeollanam-do (Geomun Island, Bogil Island, Heuksan Island), Jeju-do (Namone-ri, Wimi-ri). and Gyeongsangnam-do (Maemul Island). DNA of B malayi was not found in Och Togoi and An (Hyrcanus) group as main vectors of filariasis.
Conclusion
Lymphatic filariasis was not found in the vector mosquitoes collected in past endemic areas. However, considering that the proportion of vector species is quite high, there is a potential risk that filariasis could be reemerging through overseas travel or trade. Thus, there is a need to continuously monitor vector mosquitoes of lymphatic filariasis.
Comparison of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Strains Isolated From Healthy Poultry and Swine Farm Workers Using Antibiotics in Korea
Seung-Hak Cho, Yeong-Sik Lim, Yeon-Ho Kang
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):151-155.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.07.002
  • 1,276 View
  • 19 Download
  • 19 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study is to compare the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from faecal samples of workers who often use antibiotics.
Methods
A total of 163E coli strains isolated from faecal samples of livestock workers (poultry and swine farm workers) and restaurant workers in the same regions as a control group were analyzed by agar disc diffusion to determine their susceptibility patterns to 16 antimicrobial agents.
Results
Most of the tested isolates showed high antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline. The isolates showed higher resistance to cephalothin than other antibiotics among the cephems. Among the aminoglycosides, the resistance to gentamicin and tobramycin occurred at higher frequencies compared with resistance to amikacin and netilmicin. Our data indicated that faecal E coli isolates of livestock workers showed higher antibiotic resistances than nonlivestock workers (restaurant workers), especially cephalothin, gentamicin, and tobramycin (p < 0.05). Moreover, the rates of the livestock workers in the association of multidrug resistance were also higher than the rates of the restaurant workers.
Conclusion
This study implies that usage of antibiotics may contribute to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal E coli strains of humans.
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sexual Behaviors in HIV/AIDS and Predictors Affecting Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Korea
Aeree Sohn, Byonghee Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):156-164.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.07.001
  • 1,619 View
  • 20 Download
  • 22 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
In South Korea, men who have sex with men (MSM) are rather understudied, but are known to be at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study was to access HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors, and to identify the factors of condom use in HIV prevention.
Methods
We recruited 1070 MSM in Korea, using the Internet to maximize the confidentiality of the MSM.
Results
The prevalence of self-reported and sexually transmitted infections and HIV in the total sample was 10.7% and 2.7%, respectively. Factual knowledge and phobias regarding HIV/AIDS and self-efficacy were relatively high among the MSM. After controlling for age, education, marital status, and sexual identity, predictors of condom use at most recent anal sex included knowledge (OR = 1.25; p < 0.0001); self-efficacy (OR = 1.33; p = 0.02), additionally, having HIV testing (OR = 1.45; p = 0.02); and having a regular partner (OR = 0.53; p < 0.0001) were also positively associated with condom use.
Conclusion
The intervention programs for MSM in Korea may need to take the idiosyncratic societal and cultural pressures of the region into consideration in order to reduce infection risk.
JXTA: A Technology Facilitating Mobile P2P Health Management System
Rajasekaran Rajkumar, Narayana Iyengar Nallani Chackravatula Sriman
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):165-169.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.04.008
  • 1,270 View
  • 19 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Mobile JXTA (Juxtapose) gaining momentum and has attracted the interest of doctors and patients through P2P service that transmits messages. Audio and video can also be transmitted through JXTA. The use of mobile streaming mechanism with the support of mobile hospital management and healthcare system would enable better interaction between doctors, nurses, and the hospital. Experimental results demonstrate good performance in comparison with conventional systems. This study evaluates P2P JXTA/JXME (JXTA functionality to MIDP devices.) which facilitates peer-to-peer application+ using mobile-constraint devices. Also a proven learning algorithm was used to automatically send and process sorted patient data to nurses.
Methods
From December 2010 to December 2011, a total of 500 patients were referred to our hospital due to minor health problems and were monitored. We selected all of the peer groups and the control server, which controlled the BMO (Block Medical Officer) peer groups and BMO through the doctor peer groups, and prescriptions were delivered to the patient’s mobile phones through the JXTA/ JXME network.
Results
All 500 patients were registered in the JXTA network. Among these, 300 patient histories were referred to the record peer group by the doctors, 100 patients were referred to the external doctor peer group, and 100 patients were registered as new users in the JXTA/JXME network.
Conclusion
This system was developed for mobile streaming applications and was designed to support the mobile health management system using JXTA/ JXME. The simulated results show that this system can carry out streaming audio and video applications. Controlling and monitoring by the doctor peer group makes the system more flexible and structured. Enhanced studies are needed to improve knowledge mining and cloud-based M health management technology in comparison with the traditional system.
Serological Correlate of Protection in Guinea Pigs for a Recombinant Protective Antigen Anthrax Vaccine Produced from Bacillus brevis
Jeong-Hoon Chun, On-Jee Choi, Min-Hee Cho, Kee-Jong Hong, Won Keun Seong, Hee-Bok Oh, Gi-Eun Rhie
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):170-176.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.07.006
  • 1,498 View
  • 22 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective Recombinant protective antigen (rPA) is the active pharmaceutical ingredient of a second generation anthrax vaccine undergoing clinical trials both in Korea and the USA. By using the rPA produced from Bacillus brevis pNU212 expression system, correlations of serological immune response to anthrax protection efficacy were analyzed in a guinea pig model.
Methods
Serological responses of rPA anthrax vaccine were investigated in guinea pigs that were given single or two injections (interval of 4 weeks) of various amounts of rPA combined with aluminumhydroxide adjuvant. Guinea pigs were subsequently challenged by the intramuscular injection with 30 half-lethal doses (30LD50) of virulent Bacillus anthracis spores. Serumantibody titerswere determined by anti-PA IgGELISA and the ability of antibodies to neutralize the cytotoxicity of lethal toxin on J774A.1 cell was measured through the toxin neutralizing antibody (TNA) assay.
Results
To examine correlations between survival rate and antibody titers, correlation between neutralizing antibody titers and the extent of protection was determined. Toxin neutralization titers of at least 1176 were sufficient to confer protection against a dose of 30LD50 of virulent anthrax spores of the H9401 strain. Such consistency in the correlation was not observed from those antibody titers determined by ELISA.
Conclusion
Neutralizing-antibody titers can be used as a surrogate marker.
Opening of the National Biobank of Korea as the Infrastructure of Future Biomedical Science in Korea
Sang Yun Cho, Eun Jung Hong, Jung Min Nam, Bogkee Han, Chaeshin Chu, Ok Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):177-184.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.07.004
  • 1,368 View
  • 21 Download
  • 24 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
On April 26, 2012, the Korea National Institute of Health officially held the opening ceremony of newly dedicated biobank building, ‘NationalBiobank of Korea’. The stocked biospecimens and related information have been distributed for medical and public health researches. The Korea Biobank Project, which was initiated in 2008, constructed the Korea Biobank Network consisting of the National Biobank of Korea (NBK) with 17 regional biobanks in Korea. As of December 2011, a total of 525,416 biospecimens with related information have been secured: 325,952 biospecimens from the general population obtained through cohort studies and 199,464 biospecimens of patients from regional biobanks. A large scale genomic study, Korea Association Resource (KARE) and many researches utilized the biospecimens secured through Korea Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and Korea Biobank Project (KBP). Construction of ‘National Biobank of Korea’, a dedicated biobank building at Osong means that NBK can manage and check quality of the biospecimens with promising distribution of 26 million vials of biospecimen, which provide the infrastructure for the development of health technology in Korea. The NBK and the National Library of Medicine (to be constructed in 2014) will play a central role in future biomedical research in Korea.
National Biobank of Korea: Quality control Programs of Collected-human Biospecimens
Jae-Eun Lee, Ji-Hyun Kim, Eun-Jung Hong, Hye Sook Yoo, Hye-Young Nam, Ok Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):185-189.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.07.007
  • 1,281 View
  • 14 Download
  • 16 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Personalized medicine is emerging as a main paradigm for risk prediction, pre-diagnosis, and effective prevention and treatment of disease. A large number of human biospecimens and their clinical data are essential resources for the success of personalized medicine as well as other biomedical research. The National Biobank of Korea (NBK) has collected well-annotated and high quality human biospecimens, and distributes them to the Korean biomedical scientists, through the Korea Biobank Project (KBP). The ultimate goal of NBK activities is to promote biomedical research and public health. As of December- 2011, the NBK has collected various human biospecimens from 525,416 participants including 325,952 Korean populations and 199,464 patients. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the KBP and quality control programs for collection of human biospecimens with high quality of NBK.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives