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Volume 3(2); June 2012
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Articleses
Can Stigma Still Distort the Spectrum of a Disease?
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):65-67.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.04.009
  • 1,195 View
  • 23 Download
  • 1 Citations
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Effect of Maternal Immune Status on Responsiveness of Bacillus Calmette-Gurin Vaccination in Mouse Neonates
Jong Su Choi, Ryang Yeo Kim, Semi Rho, Fanny Ewann, Nathalie Mielcarek, Man Ki Song, Cecil Czerkinsky, Jae-Ouk Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):68-73.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.01.008
  • 1,246 View
  • 17 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination has proven to be efficient in immunologically naïve infants; however, it has not been investigated that maternal natural exposure to Mycobacterium and/or BCG vaccine could influence the characteristics of immune responses to BCG in newborns. In this study, we analyzed whether the maternal immune status to M tuberculosis (M tb) can affect neonatal immunity to BCG using a mouse model.
Methods
Neonates were obtained from mice that were previously exposed to live BCG, to live M avium, or to heat-killed M tb H37Rv, and from naïve control mothers. One week after birth, the neonates were divided into two subgroups: one group immunized with live BCG via the subcutaneous route and the other group of neonates sham-treated. Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) secretion in response to in vitro stimulation with heat-killed BCG or purified protein derivative (PPD) was examined. Protection against M tb infection was evaluated by challenging mice nasally with live M tb H37Rv followed by counting colonies from spleen and lung homogenates.
Results
BCG-immunized neonates showed increased IFNγ secretion in response to heat-killed BCG or PPD. All mice in BCG-immunized neonates subgroups showed reduced bacterial burden (colony forming unit) in the lungs when compared with control naive neonate mice. However, no statistically significant difference was observed when comparing BCG-immunized mice born from mothers previously exposed to M avium or immunized with either heat-killed H37Rv or live BCG and mice born from naïve mothers.
Conclusion
The maternal immune status to M tb does not appear to impact on the immunogenicity of BCG vaccine in their progeny in our experimental conditions
Proteomic Analysis of Cellular and Membrane Proteins in Fluconazole-Resistant Candida glabrata
Jae Il Yoo, Chi Won Choi, Hwa Su Kim, Jung Sik Yoo, Young Hee Jeong, Yeong Seon Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):74-78.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.04.001
  • 1,297 View
  • 13 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Candida glabrata is one of the most common causes of Candida bloodstream infections worldwide. Some isolates of C glabrata may be intermediately resistant to azoles, with some strains developing resistance during therapy or prophylaxis with fluconazole. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed proteins between fluconazoleresistant and -susceptible strains.
Methods
Membrane and cellular proteins were extracted from fluconazolesusceptible and fluconazole-resistant C glabrata strains. Differentially expressed proteins were compared using two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Proteins with >1.5-fold difference in expression were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
Results
A total of 65 proteins were differentially expressed in the cellular and membrane fractions. Among the 39 cellular proteins, 11 were upregulated and 28 were downregulated in fluconazole-resistant strains in comparison with fluconazole-susceptible strains. In the membrane fraction, a total of 26 proteins were found, of which 19 were upregulated and seven were downregulated. A total of 31 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS that are involved in glycolysis, carbohydrate transport, energy transfer, and other metabolic pathways. Heat shock proteins were identified in various spots.
Conclusion
Heat shock and stress response proteins were upregulated in the membrane fraction of the fluconazole-resistant C glabrata strain. Compared with susceptible strains, fluconazole-resistant strains showed increased expression of membrane proteins and decreased expression of cellular proteins.
Non-chromatographic Method for the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Using Elastin-Like Polypeptide Fusion Protein
Soon-Hwan Kwon, Hyeseong Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):79-84.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.04.003
  • 1,398 View
  • 13 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family. The HBV genome contains four genes designated as S, C, P, and X. The HBV X (HBx) gene encodes for a 16.5-kDa regulatory protein that enhances HBV replication and exerts multifunctional activities. The aim of this study is to describe the rapid and easy purification of HBx using ELP (elastin-like polypeptide) fusion protein.
Methods
The ELP–HBx fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Environmental sensitivity was demonstrated via turbidity and dynamic light scattering as a function of temperature. HBx was purified as an ELP fusion protein. ELPs are biopolymers of the pentapeptide repeat Val-Pro-Gly-Xaa-Gly that undergo an inverse temperature phase transition. ELP follows in temperature and salt consistency, precipitation, and solution repetition (inverse transition cycling) with polypeptide, where it purifies the protein in a simple manner.
Results
Fusion proteins underwent supramolecular aggregation at 40 ℃ in 1 M NaCl and slowly resolubilized at subphysiologic temperatures. ELP domain proteolysis liberated a peptide of comparable size and immunoreactivity to the commercial HBx.
Conclusion
This study suggests that HBx can be purified rapidly and easily using inverse transition cycling, and that this method can be applied in determination of HBx 3D structures and HBx stability study.
Improvements in the Metabolic Syndrome and Stages of Change for Lifestyle Behaviors in Korean Older Adults
Seunghyun Yoo, Hyekyeong Kim, Han-Ik Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):85-93.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.04.007
  • 1,271 View
  • 15 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a 6-month lifestyle modification program on the improvement in metabolic syndrome (MetS) status and in stages of change for lifestyle behaviors associated with MetS among Korean older adults.
Methods
A lifestyle modification program was developed based on the transtheoretical model. The program consisted of health counseling, education classes, a self-management handbook, newsletters and a health diary. Older adults aged ≥60 (n = 480) with MetS were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG) or the comparison group (CG). The IG received a comprehensive 6-month lifestyle modification intervention, while the CG received minimal information on MetS and lifestyle modification. Health examination and selfadministered survey were conducted before and after the intervention to determine the effectiveness of the program.
Results
After the intervention, the prevalence of MetS decreased to 38.1% in the IG and 52.4% in the CG (p = 0.046). The IG improved abdominal obesity (p = 0.016), blood pressure (p = 0.030), and triglyceride (p = 0.005) more than the CG did. The IG demonstrated significant improvements in the behavioral stages for portion control (p = 0.021), balanced diet (p < 0.001) and adequate intake of fruits and vegetables (p = 0.012). The IG reduced the prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR = 2.34) and improved MetS status (OR = 1.79) better than the CG. The IG were more likely to advance from preaction stages at baseline to action stage at post-intervention for portion control (OR = 3.29) and adequate intake of fruits and vegetables (OR = 2.06).
Conclusion
Lifestyle modification can improve the MetS status and behavioral stages in older adults.
Improving Service Quality in Long-term Care Hospitals: National Evaluation on Long-term Care Hospitals and Employees Perception of Quality Dimensions
Jinkyung Kim, Woosok Han
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):94-99.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.04.005
  • 1,189 View
  • 15 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To investigate predictors for specific dimensions of service quality perceived by hospital employees in long-term care hospitals.
Methods
Data collected from a survey of 298 hospital employees in 18 long-term care hospitals were analysed. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis with hospital fixed effects was used to determine the predictors of service quality using respondents’ and organizational characteristics.
Results
The most significant predictors of employee-perceived service quality were job satisfaction and degree of consent on national evaluation criteria. National evaluation results on long-term care hospitals and work environment also had positive effects on service quality.
Conclusion
The findings of the study show that organizational characteristics are significant determinants of service quality in long-term care hospitals. Assessment of the extent to which hospitals address factors related to employeeperceived quality of services could be the first step in quality improvement activities. Results have implications for efforts to improve service quality in longterm care hospitals and designing more comprehensive national evaluation criteria.
Epidemiological and Immunological Characteristics at the Time of HIV Diagnosis for HIV/AIDS Cohort Registrants Representative of HIV-Infected Populations in Korea
Jin-Hee Lee, Seung Hyun Kim, Jin-Sook Wang, Kyoung Mi Sung, Sung Soon Kim, Mee-Kyung Kee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):100-106.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.04.002
  • 1,344 View
  • 20 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The Korea HIV/AIDS cohort was constructed with 18 hospitals that care for HIV-infected individuals in 2006. We compared the epidemiological and immunological characteristics of the cohort registrants with those of the HIVinfected population at the time of HIV diagnosis.
Methods
This study was conducted on 5717 people living with HIV/AIDS from 1985 to 2009, of which 789 individuals registered with the Korea HIV/AIDS cohort study. Individuals who had data from initial CD4+ T-cell counts measured within 6 months following HIV diagnosis were selected as study participants to predict the status of disease progression at the time of HIV diagnosis. A total of 2886 patients (50%) were selected from people living with HIV/AIDS, of whom 424 individuals (54%) were cohort registrants. The χ2 test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for analysis.
Results
The distributions of age, marital status, diagnosed regions, reason for HIV testing, and screening site were similar between the HIV-infected population and the cohort registrants. In 1985–2004, the male ratio for the cohort registrants (94.3%) was significantly higher than that measured for the HIV-infected population (89.5%) (p = 0.0339). With regard to transmission route, homosexual contact of cohort registrants (46.6%) was higher than that of the HIV-infected population (40.1%) (p = 0.022) in 2005–2009. No statistical difference in CD4+ T-cell counts at the time of HIV diagnosis was found between the HIVinfected population and cohort registrants (p = 0.2195).
Conclusion
The Korea HIV/AIDS cohort registrants represent the HIV-infected population, and the data collected from this cohort could be used as a foundation for national statistics.
Changes in Human Immunodeficiency Virusrelated Knowledge and Stigmatizing Attitudes among Korean Adolescents from 2006 to 2011
Aeree Sohn, SungBok Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):107-112.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.04.006
  • 1,352 View
  • 19 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study assessed the prevalence and changes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge and stigmatizing attitudes in 2006, 2008, and 2011.
Methods
Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006, 2008, and 2011. A cross-sectional sample of high school students in Seoul, South Korea was targeted. A self-administered questionnaire measuring general and transmission and discriminatory attitudes was used.
Results
Misconceptions about casual contact were widespread, even though the proportion responding incorrectly decreased significantly over the 5-year period. The respondents in all surveys displayed a high level of discrimination against those with HIV/AIDS in some situations, particularly in the idea of HIV/AIDS making the respondent feel disgusted (63.3% in 2006, 57.5% in 2008, and 52.6% in 2011), avoiding sitting with people with HIV/AIDS (50.6% in 2006, 50.5% in 2008, and 48.5% in 2011), and blaming those with HIV for becoming infected (46.6% in 2006, 42.8% in 2008, and 43.0% in 2011). Even though respondents had a high level of stigmatizing attitudes, the survey showed that the stigma has declined over the 5-year period.
Conclusion
The survey results showed that public health policy should recognize that HIV stigmatizing attitudes persist in Korea. This finding has implications for the development of intervention programs focusing on reducing the levels of discrimination.
Multiplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Method for the Rapid Detection of gyrA and parC Mutations in Quinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli and Shigella spp.
Junyoung Kim, Semi Jeon, Hyungjun Kim, Misun Park, Soobok Kim, Seonghan Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):113-117.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.04.004
  • 1,465 View
  • 14 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were developed to detect mutations in codons 83 and 87 in gyrA and in codons 80 and 91 in parC, the main sites that causes quinolone resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. isolates. These assays can be employed as a useful method for controlling infections caused by quinolone-resistant E coli and Shigella isolates.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Outbreak and its Incubation Period: Is it Short or Long? [Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2012, Pages 43–47]
Dong-Woo Lee, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):118-118.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.06.001
  • 1,284 View
  • 31 Download
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives