Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives



Page Path
HOME > Osong Public Health Res Perspect > Volume 7(5); 2016 > Article
Original Article
Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca in Clinical Isolates in Tehran Hospitals, Iran by Chromogenic Medium and Molecular Methods
Majid Validia, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallala,b, Masoumeh Douraghia,b, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadic, Abbas Rahimi Foroushanid
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives 2016;7(5):301-306.
Published online: August 31, 2016

aDivision of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

bFood Microbiology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

cLister Laboratory of Microbiology, Tehran, Iran

dDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

∗Corresponding author.
• Received: July 19, 2016   • Revised: August 2, 2016   • Accepted: August 22, 2016

© 2016 Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published by Elsevier Korea LLC.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

  • 37 Download
  • 8 Crossref
  • 7 Scopus
  • Objectives
    Production of carbapenemase, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC), is one of the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella oxytoca. This study aimed to investigate and identify KPC-producing K. oxytoca isolates using molecular and phenotypic methods.
  • Methods
    A total of 75 isolates of K. oxytoca were isolated from various clinical samples, and were verified as K. oxytoca after performing standard microbiological tests and using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using a disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. CHROMagar KPC chromogenic culture media was used to examine and confirm the production of the carbapenemase enzyme in K. oxytoca isolates; in addition, PCR was used to evaluate the presence of blaKPC gene in K. oxytoca strains.
  • Results
    Of a total of 75 K. oxytoca isolates, one multidrug resistant strain was isolated from the urine of a hospitalized woman. This strain was examined to assess its ability to produce carbapenemase enzyme; it produced a colony with a blue metallic color on the CHROMagar KPC chromogenic culture media. In addition, the blaKPC gene was confirmed by PCR. After sequencing, it was confirmed and deposited in GenBank.
  • Conclusion
    To date, many cases of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae, in particular K. pneumoniae, have been reported in different countries; there are also some reports on the identification of KPC-producing K. oxytoca. Therefore, to prevent the outbreak of nosocomial infections, the early detection, control, and prevention of the spread of these strains are of great importance.
According to Ambler classification, β-lactamases are categorized into four classes (A–D) based on their molecular structure (sequence of amino acids and nucleic acids). Class A includes the genes for TEM, SHV, CTX-M, and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) β-lactamase enzymes. KPC can hydrolyze a range of β-lactams including third-generation cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), which is classified as a molecular class A β-lactamase, is a serious clinical challenge. In addition, KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates, especially KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, are rapidly spreading all over the world. The worldwide emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates is a challenge for physicians and clinical microbiologists [1]. Therefore, early diagnosis and prevention of strain dissemination is a medical emergency [2].
KPCs are not just limited to the K. pneumoniae strain, and nowadays KPCs are also found extensively in other bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella oxytoca, Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas putida 3, 4. To date, a total of 24 genotypes have been identified [5], and KPC-2 and KPC-3 are the most common genotypes isolated from clinical specimens. Among the identified genotypes, KPC-2 is the most dominant genotype worldwide 6, 7. The KPC gene is on transposon Tn 4401, which facilitates the transmission between plasmids and bacterial species from a bacterium to other bacteria, from one patient to another, and even from one country to another; it can also generate multidrug-resistant strains [8]. KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates have high levels of antibiotic resistance; because of the plasmid transfer of the KPC gene to other genes and species of Enterobacteriaceae, they have been responsible for many outbreaks of nosocomial infections in the world in recent years. In addition, there have been many reports on the identification of KPC-producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae, in particular K. pneumoniae, in different countries [9].
The first case of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae was identified and introduced in North Carolina in 2001 through Project Intensive Care Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology [10]. From 1990 to 2015, there were many studies that reported the identification of the first cases of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in different countries such as USA, Canada, Italy, Poland, France, Spain, UK, Colombia, India, Argentina, China, Ireland, Greece, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, South Korea, and Iran 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17. KPC-producing K. oxytoca isolates are rarely reported [18]. K. oxytoca is an opportunistic pathogen and is now identified and introduced as an important clinical pathogen that is associated with nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients, including children, newborns, and individuals with immune deficiency [19]. A few studies have reported the identification of the KPC gene in K. oxytoca strains in some countries such as Austria [18], Brazil [20], and Venezuela [21]. Identification of this gene plays an important role in the study of K. oxytoca antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to evaluate the use of phenotypic method (CHROMagar KPC chromogenic culture media) and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of KPC-producing K. oxytoca isolates. In this study, we report the first detection of the blaKPC gene among isolates of K. oxytoca in Iran.
2.1 Bacterial isolates
A total of 75 K. oxytoca strains were collected from several hospitals in Tehran between 2013 and 2014. Clinical strains were isolated from stool, blood, urine, sputum, and wounds.
2.2 Microbiological methods
Using standard microbiological tests in the laboratory, all bacterial isolates were identified as K. oxytoca. In addition, all K. oxytoca isolates were also identified and confirmed by PCR method, which was performed through the amplification of galacturonase specific gene (pehX).
PCR was performed through the amplification of 344 base pairs (bp) specific to K. oxytoca. To amplify pehX gene we used the forward primer PEH C (5′-GAT ACG GAG TAT GCC TTT ACG GTG-3′) and reverse primer PEH D (5′-TAG CCT TTA TCA AGC GGA TAC TTG-3′) [22].
2.3 Antimicrobial susceptibility testing
Susceptibility testing of isolates was performed by disc-diffusion method, using antibiotic discs manufactured by MAST Company (Bootle, Merseyside, UK) and according to criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [23]. Antibiotic discs used were: getamycin (10 μg), imipenem (10 μg), meropenem (10 μg), cefotaxime (30 μg), ciprofloxacin (5 μg), ampicillin (10 μg), amoxicillin (25 μg), aztreonam (30 μg), ceftriaxone (30 μg), cefepime (30 μg), cefuroxime (30 μg), ticarcillin (75 μg), ceftazidime (30 μg), amikacin (30 μg), ampicillin/sulbactam (20 μg), cephalothin (30 μg), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (25 μg).
2.4 Molecular detection of blaKPC gene
Genomic DNA of K. oxytoca isolates was obtained through boiling two or three colonies in 500 μL of distilled water for 10 minutes and centrifugation for 10 minutes at 10,000 rpm. The supernatants were then used as a template for amplification [24]. To identify the blaKPC gene, KPC-Forward and KPC-Reverse primers, with the following sequences, were used: KPC-Forward: 5′-CAG CTC ATT CAA GGG CTT TC-3′, KPC-Reverse: 5′-AGT CAT TTG CCG TGC CAT AC-3′ [25]. PCR reaction was performed in a final volume of 20 μL. To perform each PCR reaction, we used 10 μL Master mix (Ampliqon, Odense, Denmark), 0.5 μL forward primer 10 pmol (Bioneer, Daejeon, Korea), 0.5 μL reverse primer 10 pmol (Bioneer), 8.5 μL distilled water, and 50 ng of bacterial DNA.
PCR reaction was performed in a thermocycler (PEQLAB, Erlangen, Germany) with an initial denaturation at 95°C for 5 minutes; and 35 cycles including denaturation steps at 94°C for 45 seconds, the annealing at 52°C for 45 seconds, the extension at 72°C for 45 seconds, and final extension at 72°C for 10 minutes. The electrophoresis of the PCR products was performed in a 1% agarose gel. The gel was stained using ethidium bromide (50 mg/L) and DNA detected by Gel Doc (GVM20 model; Syngene, Cambridge, UK). The positive PCR product for sequencing was submitted to Macrogen, Inc. (Seoul, Korea). A KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strain with accession number JX966417 was used as a positive control strain.
2.5 Detection by use of chromogenic medium
To study the production of carbapenemase enzyme in isolates of K. oxytoca, we used the CHROMagar chromogenic media (CHROMagar, Paris, France) 6, 7, 26. The K. oxytoca strains were isolated from clinical specimens cultured in the prepared CHROMagar medium. K. oxytoca strains that produce carbapenemase enzyme are detected when they produce a colony with a blue metallic color on this chromogenic culture media.
A total of 75 K. oxytoca isolates from clinical specimens were collected from stool (9.3%), blood (14.7%), urine (68%), sputum (5.3%), and wounds (2.7%) of patients in four hospitals in Tehran between 2013 and 2014. The primary assessment of isolated strains showed that all strains had a galacturonase-specific gene and they were identified as K. oxytoca isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed for all the examined isolates (Table 1) and we identified a multidrug-resistant phenotype.
The PCR confirmed the presence of blakpc gene; in addition, the presence of carbapenemase enzyme was confirmed by the production of a colony with a blue metallic color on CHROMagar culture media (Figure 1). Hence the isolate was identified as a strain of KPC-producing K. oxytoca. This strain was isolated from a urine sample of a 73-year-old female patient admitted to a women's surgery ward. First, using standard microbiological tests and using PCR, it was identified as a K. oxytoca strain. Antibiotic susceptibility test which was performed using a disc-diffusion method showed that this isolate was resistant to imipenem, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, amikacin, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, cefazolin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. A molecular method then confirmed the presence of the blaKPC gene in this isolate (Figure 2).
Sequence analysis of the blakpc gene revealed that it was 99% identical to the other of the blaKPC genes deposited in GenBank database. The nucleotide sequence of the blaKPC gene, which was determined in our study, was assigned to the GenBank nucleotide sequence database under the accession number KU057943.
Many studies have reported the identification of Gram-negative bacteria producing class A, B, C, D carbapenemases in the Middle East [27]. In recent years, many cases of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae, in particular K. pneumoniae, have been reported in different countries 7, 9, 26, 28. KPC-producing K. oxytoca isolates are rarely reported in various parts of the world [28]. In this study, first the K. oxytoca isolates were examined in terms of the presence of KPC gene by using molecular and phenotypic methods. In study by Samra et al [26], chromogenic medium CHROMagar KPC was shown to have a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98.4% relative to PCR. The CHROMagar chromogenic KPC culture media was used as a KPC screening method. One isolate was identified as a positive KPC. After sequencing, it was confirmed and deposited in GenBank. This is the first case of KPC-producing K. oxytoca ever detected and reported in Iran, although others studies have detected KPC-producing P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates 29, 30. In July 2012, Nobari et al [17] identified a strain of K. pneumoniae blaKPC gene that was isolated from the urine of a female patient hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit ward; they reported it as the first case of K. pneumoniae blaKPC gene in Iran. Some cases of K. oxytoca have also been identified and reported in Brazil [20] and Venezuela [21]. A study in Austria reported the identification of 31 strains of KPC-producing K. oxytoca isolated from five patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit wards [1]. In the present study, one carbapenem-resistant isolate of K. oxytoca was recovered. Antibiotic susceptibility test results showed that highest and lowest resistances were related to ticarcillin (81.3%) and meropenem and imipenem (1.3%), respectively.
Because of high antibiotic resistance, the location of the KPC gene on Tn 4401 transposons, and plasmid transfer of the genes to other species of Enterobacteriaceae, KPC-producing K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca isolates are often associated with nosocomial infections [8]. These isolates can rapidly disseminate and lead to widespread resistance; in recent years, they have been responsible for outbreaks of nosocomial infections around the world 3, 7, 9. Since the identification and prevalence of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae is considered a medical emergency, timely diagnosis, control, and prevention the spread of bacteria is of great importance. The mortality rate associated with KPC-producing bacterial infections is 22–59% [7]; thus, after the emergence of KPC-producing bacteria, the main challenge is to treat infections caused by these bacteria. However, the treatment is very difficult and therefore the mortality rate is high [8]. Given the increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates, KPC-producing bacteria are spreading in the community and in the hospitals; therefore, it is going to become a treatment challenge that requires some necessary measures to control the disease and successfully treat the infections.
To date, many cases of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae, in particular K. pneumoniae, have been reported in different countries; there are also some reports about the identification of KPC-producing K. oxytoca in some countries. In this study, we reported the first detection of the blaKPC gene among isolates of K. oxytoca in Iran. This study showed that there is an urgent need for the implementation of strategies to control the dissemination of KPC-producing K. oxytoca isolates.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
This work was supported by Vice-Chancellor for Research grant (no. 27720) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran).
  • 1. Hirsch E.B., Tam V.H.. Detection and treatment options for Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemases (KPCs): an emerging cause of multidrug-resistant infection. J Antimicrob Chemother 65(6). 2010 Jun;1119−1125. PMID: 20378670.ArticlePubMed
  • 2. Perez F., Van Duin D.. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a menace to our most vulnerable patients. Cleve Clin J Med 80(4). 2013 Apr;225−233. PMID: 23547093.ArticlePubMed
  • 3. Wendt C., Schütt S., Dalpke A.H.. First outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Germany. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29(5). 2010 May;563−570. PMID: 20213255.ArticlePubMed
  • 4. Almeida A.C., Vilela M.A., Cavalcanti F.L.. First description of KPC-2-producing Pseudomonas putida in Brazil. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56(4). 2012 Apr;2205−2206. PMID: 22290946.ArticlePubMed
  • 5.
  • 6. Tzouvelekis L.S., Markogiannakis A., Psichogiou M.. Carbapenemases in Klebsiella pneumonia and other Enterobacteriaceae: an evolving crisis of global dimensions. Clin Microbiol Rev 25(4). 2012 Oct;682−707. PMID: 23034326.ArticlePubMed
  • 7. Chen L.F., Anderson D.J., Paterson D.L.. Overview of the epidemiology and the threat of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) resistance. Infect Drug Resist 5:2012 Sep;133−141. PMID: 23055754.ArticlePubMed
  • 8. Munoz-Price L.S., Quinn J.P.. The spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases: a tale of strains, plasmids, and transposons. Clin Infect Dis 49(11). 2009 Dec;1739−1741. PMID: 19886796.ArticlePubMed
  • 9. Canton R., Akova M., Carmeli T.. Rapid evolution and spread of carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 18(5). 2012 May;413−431. PMID: 22507109.ArticlePubMed
  • 10. Munoz-Price L.S., Poirel L., Bonomo R.A.. Clinical epidemiology of the global expansion of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases. Lancet Infect Dis 13(9). 2013 Sep;785−796. PMID: 23969216.ArticlePubMed
  • 11. Roche C., Cotter M., O Connell N.. First identification of class A carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Republic of Ireland. Euro Surveill 14(13). 2009 Apr 2;pii 19163.Article
  • 12. Giakkoupi P., Papagiannitsis C.C., Miriagou V.. An update of the evolving epidemic of blaKPC-2-carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece. J Antimicrob Chemother 66(7). 2011 Jul;1510−1513. PMID: 21543359.ArticlePubMed
  • 13. Monteiro J., Santos A.F., Asensi M.D.. First report of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in Brazil. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53(1). 2009 Jan;333−334. PMID: 19015350.ArticlePubMed
  • 14. Labarca J., Poirel L., Ozdamar M.. KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, finally targeting Turkey. New Microbe New Infect 2(2). 2014 Mar;50−51.Article
  • 15. Saito R., Takahashi R., Sawabe E.. First report of KPC-2 carbapenamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Japan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58(5). 2014 May;2961−2963. PMID: 24566171.ArticlePubMed
  • 16. Hong K., Yong D., Kim K.. First outbreak of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 258 in a hospital in South Korea. J Clin Microbiol 51(11). 2013 Nov;3877−3879. PMID: 24006005.ArticlePubMed
  • 17. Nobari S., Shahcheraghi F., Rahmati Gh F.. Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Iranian patients: first identification of blaKPC gene in Iran. Microbial Drug Resist 20(4). 2014 Aug;285−293.Article
  • 18. Hoenigl M., Valentin T., Zarfel G.. Nosocomial outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca in Austria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56(4). 2012 Apr;2158−2161. PMID: 22290949.ArticlePubMed
  • 19. Darby A., Lertpiriyapong K., Sarkar U.. Cytotoxic and pathogenic properties of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from laboratory animals. PLoS One 9(7). 2014 Jul;e100542PMID: 25057966.ArticlePubMed
  • 20. Almeida A.C., Cavalcanti F.L., Martins W.M.. First description of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella oxytoca in Brazil. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57(8). 2013 Aug;4077−4078. PMID: 23752512.ArticlePubMed
  • 21. Labrador I., Araque M.. First description of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from a pediatric patient with nosocomial pneumonia in Venezuela. Case Rep Infect Dis 2104:2014;434987. ArticlePDF
  • 22. Kovtunovych G., Lytvynenko T., Negrutska V.. Identification of Klebsiella oxytoca using a specific PCR assay targeting the polygalacturonase pehX gene. Res Microbiol 154(8). 2003 Oct;587−592. PMID: 14527660.ArticlePubMed
  • 23. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute . Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: Twenty-Fourth Informational Supplement M100–S24. 2014. CLSI; Wayne, PA.
  • 24. Freschi C.R., Silva Carvalho L.F., Oliveira C.J.. Comparison of DNA-extraction methods and selective enrichment broths on the detection of Salmonella typhimurium in swine feces by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Braz J Microbiol 36(4). 2005 Oct/Dec;363−367.Article
  • 25. Gröbner S., Linke D., Schütz W.. Emergence of carbapenem-non-susceptible extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates at the university hospital of Tübingen. J Med Microbiol 58(7). 2009 Jul;912−922. PMID: 19502377.ArticlePubMed
  • 26. Samra Z., Bahar J., Madar-Shapiro L.. Evaluation of CHROMagar KPC for rapid detection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. J Clin Microbiol 46(9). 2008 Sep;3110−3111. PMID: 18632915.ArticlePubMed
  • 27. Zahedi Bialvaei A., Samadi Kafil H., Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo H.. Dissemination of carbapenemases producing Gram negative bacteria in the Middle East. Iran J Microbiol 7(5). 2015 Oct;226−246. PMID: 26719779.PubMed
  • 28. Albiger B., Glasner C., Struelens M.J.. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe: assessment by national experts from 38 countries, May 2015. Euro Surveill 20(45). 2015;pii 30062.Article
  • 29. Rastegar Lari A., Alaghehbandan R., Azimi L.. Identification of KPC-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in a burned infant: a case report. J Med Bacteriol 1(1-2). 2012;46−49.
  • 30. Azimi L., Talebi M., Pourshafie M.R.. Characterization of carbapenemases in extensively drug resistance Acinetobacter baumannii in a burn care center in Iran. Int J Mol Cell Med 4(1). 2015 Winter;48−53.
Figure 1
Electrophoresis of PCR products amplified from KPC gene in 1% agarose gel. Lane 1, positive control; Lane 2, negative isolate; Lane 3, positive isolate; Lane 4, negative control; M, 100 bp ladder.
Figure 2
The growth of K. oxytoca in CHROMagar KPC medium and produce carbapenamase by produce metallic blue colonies.
Table 1
Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of all Klebsiella oxytoca isolated in this study.
Antibiotic Susceptible, n (%) Intermediate, n (%) Resistant, n (%)
GM 67 (89.3) 1 (1.3) 7 (9.4)
AK 66 (88) 7 (9.3) 2 (2.7)
IMI 74 (98.7) 0 (0) 1 (1.3)
MEM 74 (98.7) 0 (0) 1 (1.3)
AP 14 (18.7) 2 (2.7) 59 (78.6)
A 14 (18.7) 3 (4) 58 (77.3)
SAM 58 (77.3) 3 (4) 14 (18.7)
TC 9 (12) 5 (6.7) 61 (81.3)
ATM 72 (96) 0 (0) 3 (4)
CRO 56 (74.7) 5 (6.7) 14 (18.6)
CTX 53 (70.) 7 (9.3) 15 (20)
CPM 64 (85.3) 2 (2.7) 9 (12)
KF 55 (73.3) 3 (4) 17 (22.7)
CAZ 61 (81.3) 6 (8) 8 (10.7)
CXM 66 (88) 0 (0) 9 (12)
TS 48 (64) 2 (2.7) 25 (33.3)
CIP 56 (74.7) 6 (8) 13 (17.3)

A = amoxicillin; AK = amikacin; AP = ampicillin; ATM = aztreonam; CAZ = ceftazidime; CIP = ciprofloxacin; CPM = cefepime; CRO = ceftriaxone; CTX = cefotaxime; CXM = cefuroxime; GM = gentamycin; IMI = imipenem; KF = cephalothin; MEM = meropenem; SAM = ampicillin/sulbactam; TC = ticarcillin; TS = trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Figure & Data



    Citations to this article as recorded by  
    • Klebsiella oxytoca Complex: Update on Taxonomy, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Virulence
      Jing Yang, Haiyan Long, Ya Hu, Yu Feng, Alan McNally, Zhiyong Zong
      Clinical Microbiology Reviews.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Development and comparison of immunochromatographic strips with four nanomaterial labels: Colloidal gold, new colloidal gold, multi-branched gold nanoflowers and Luminol-reduced Au nanoparticles for visual detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood
      Meijiao Wu, Youxue Wu, Cheng Liu, Yachen Tian, Shuiqin Fang, Hao Yang, Bin Li, Qing Liu
      Aquaculture.2021; 539: 736563.     CrossRef
    • Variation in Accessory Genes Within the Klebsiella oxytoca Species Complex Delineates Monophyletic Members and Simplifies Coherent Genotyping
      Amar Cosic, Eva Leitner, Christian Petternel, Herbert Galler, Franz F. Reinthaler, Kathrin A. Herzog-Obereder, Elisabeth Tatscher, Sandra Raffl, Gebhard Feierl, Christoph Högenauer, Ellen L. Zechner, Sabine Kienesberger
      Frontiers in Microbiology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Alternative Methods to Control Them: An Overview
      Roberto Vivas, Ana Andréa Teixeira Barbosa, Silvio Santana Dolabela, Sona Jain
      Microbial Drug Resistance.2019; 25(6): 890.     CrossRef
    • Molecular typing of cytotoxin-producing Klebsiella oxytoca isolates by 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer PCR
      M.M. Soltan Dallal, M. Validi, M. Douraghi, B. Bakhshi
      New Microbes and New Infections.2019; 30: 100545.     CrossRef
    • Determination of antibiotic resistance and minimum inhibitory concentration of meropenem and imipenem growth in Klebsiella strains isolated from urinary tract infection in Shahrekord educational hospitals
      Farshad Kakian, Behnam Zamzad, Abolfazl Gholipour, Kiarash Zamanzad
      Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Scienc.2019; 21(2): 80.     CrossRef
    • Evaluation the cytotoxic effect of cytotoxin-producing Klebsiella oxytoca isolates on the HEp-2 cell line by MTT assay
      Mohammad Mehdi Soltan-Dallal, Majid Validi, Masoumeh Douraghi, Jalil Fallah-Mehrabadi, Leila Lormohammadi
      Microbial Pathogenesis.2017; 113: 416.     CrossRef
    • Outbreak by Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 Isolates with Carbapenem Resistance in a Tertiary Hospital in China
      Lingling Zhan, Shanshan Wang, Yinjuan Guo, Ye Jin, Jingjing Duan, Zhihao Hao, Jingnan Lv, Xiuqin Qi, Longhua Hu, Liang Chen, Barry N. Kreiswirth, Rong Zhang, Jingye Pan, Liangxing Wang, Fangyou Yu
      Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef

    • PubReader PubReader
    • Cite
      export Copy
    • XML DownloadXML Download

    PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives