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12 "Perception"
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Original Articles
Voluntary testing for COVID-19: perceptions and utilization among the inhabitants of Saudi Arabia
Ehab A. Abo-Ali, Ahmed Mousa, Rania Hussien, Shahad Mousa, Shayma Al-Rubaki, Mennatulla Omar, Badr Al-Haffashi, Abdullah Almilaibary
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):212-220.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0062
  • 592 View
  • 37 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Voluntary testing (VT) plays a crucial role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. The present study investigated the perceptions and utilization of VT services for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the inhabitants of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In total, 3,510 adult participants from all provinces of Saudi Arabia were recruited via a national online survey. Results: Of the 3,510 participants, 88.9% were aware of the testing services available to them and of those, more than half (59.5%) had used the VT services and 96.1% were satisfied with the services. Contact with a positive COVID-19 case was the top reason for accessing VT, while a lack of awareness about the availability of VT services was the top perceived limiting factor. A history of chronic health conditions, anxiety and/or depression, and previous symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 were found to be predictors of the utilization of VT services (odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22−1.96; OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16−1.88; and OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.77−3.95), respectively. Conclusion: The awareness of voluntary COVID-19 testing services was satisfactory among the Saudi Arabian population, but can be improved. Sociodemographic and health history predictors of the utilization of VT services were identified.
Perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to receive vaccination among health workers in Nigeria
Oluseyi Ademola Adejumo, Olorunfemi Akinbode Ogundele, Cynthia Roli Madubuko, Rosena Olubanke Oluwafemi, Ogochukwu Chinedum Okoye, Kenechukwu Chukwuemeka Okonkwo, Sunday Samson Owolade, Oladimeji Adedeji Junaid, Olutoyin Morenike Lawal, Adenike Christianah Enikuomehin, Maureen Iru Ntaji, Aisha Sokunbi, Aina Omodele Timothy, Olatunji Sunday Abolarin, Emmanuel Olalekan Ali, John Oghenevwirhe Ohaju-Obodo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(4):236-243.   Published online July 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0023
  • 5,870 View
  • 379 Download
  • 13 Citations
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The study aimed to examine health workers’ perceptions of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine in Nigeria and their willingness to receive the vaccine when it becomes available.
Methods
This multi-center cross-sectional study used non-probability convenience sampling to enroll 1,470 hospital workers aged 18 and above from 4 specialized hospitals. A structured and validated self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data entry and analysis were conducted using IBM SPSS ver. 22.0.
Results
The mean age of respondents was 40±6 years. Only 53.5% of the health workers had positive perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine, and only slightly more than half (55.5%) were willing to receive vaccination. Predictors of willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine included having a positive perception of the vaccine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.50−5.69), perceiving a risk of contracting COVID-19 (AOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.25–3.98), having received tertiary education (AOR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.40−6.86), and being a clinical health worker (AOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01−1.68).
Conclusion
Perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to receive the vaccine were sub-optimal among this group. Educational interventions to improve health workers' perceptions and attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine are needed.
Sex differences in weight perception and weight gain among Black college students in the USA
Jounghee Lee, Jaesin Sa, Jean-Philippe Chaput, James Heimdal, Beatrice Nelson, Beom-Young Cho, Elizabeth Kwon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):96-104.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.07
  • 2,801 View
  • 96 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of overweight/obesity and to explore sex differences in body weight perceptions and correlates of weight gain among Black students at 2 historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the USA.
Methods
Participants completed a paper-based survey, and their height and weight were measured (67% completion rate).
Results
The overweight and obesity rates were 33.8% and 26.9%, respectively. More females than males accurately assessed their weight (p<0.05). Body weight underestimation was associated with male sex, excellent/very good perceived overall health, and not being informed by a doctor of having overweight or obesity (p<0.01). Higher odds of ≥5% weight gain were related to female sex, living on campus, and not being informed by a doctor of having overweight or obesity (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Given the high overweight and obesity rates among Black students, HBCUs in the USA should develop intervention strategies for the prevention and management of overweight and obesity. College health educators at HBCUs need to provide regular check-ups or health screenings that help male students perceive their weight accurately and prevent weight underestimation. It is important for HBCUs to monitor and address weight gain among Black students as early as possible.
Educational Needs Associated with the Level of Complication and Comparative Risk Perceptions in People with Type 2 Diabetes
Youngji Hwang, Dongsuk Lee, Yeon Sook Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):170-176.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.05
  • 3,037 View
  • 137 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to identify the educational needs of people with type 2 diabetes according to risk perceptions and the level of severity of complications.

Methods

There were 177 study participants who were outpatients of the internal medicine department at a university hospital located in the Republic of Korea, who consented to participate in the survey from December 10, 2016 to February 10, 2017. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, ANOVA with post-hoc comparison, and multiple regression analysis. Type 2 diabetes complications were classified into 3 groups: no complications, common complications, and severe complications.

Results

There were statistically significant positive correlations between educational needs and comparative risk perceptions, and the level of complication and comparative risk perception. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the factor predicting educational needs of type 2 diabetes people was their comparative risk perceptions, rather than the severity of diabetes complications or sociodemographic variables.

Conclusion

Since risk perception is the factor that indicates the educational needs of people with type 2 diabetes, there is a need to explore factors which increase risk perception, in order to meet educational needs. The findings suggest that a more specific and individualized educational program, which focuses on each person's risk perceptions, should be developed.

Body Weight Misperception and Psychological Distress Among Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-V Study
Roya Riahi, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Ramin Heshmat, Mostafa Qorbani, Seyede Shahrbanoo Daniali, Roya Kelishadi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(5):315-324.   Published online October 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.5.08
  • 2,999 View
  • 155 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Misperception of weight status is a risk factor that affects psychological health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weight misperception patterns and psychological distress among Iranian children and adolescents.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional nationwide study where data was collected from 14,440 students, aged 7–18 years who participated in the national school-based surveillance program (CASPIAN-V). The students’ weight perception and psychological distress were assessed by validated questionnaires. Weight misperception was classified as misperception of being either underweight or overweight with respect to actual weight.

Results

The rate of weight misperception in all study participants was 59.1%. In groups with a perception of being underweight or overweight, the risks of worthlessness, being worried, experiencing aggression, insomnia, or depression, were significantly higher than groups with an accurate weight perception (p < 0.05). The risk of anxiety in girls of normal weight who perceived themselves as underweight, decreased by 57% compared to girls with an accurate weight perception (OR: 0.43; 95% CI, 0.28–0.66).

Conclusion

Weight misperception is highly prevalent among Iranian children and adolescents and is associated with their psychological health status. Appropriate education intervention needs to be developed to improve the children and adolescents’ perception of their body weight status.

The Effects of the Korean Medicine Health Care Program on Stroke-Related Factors and Self-Care Enhancement
Kyoung-Oh Chang, Jung-Hye Lim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(5):307-314.   Published online October 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.5.07
  • 2,908 View
  • 171 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study was performed to examine the effects of the Korean medicine healthcare program on stroke-related factors and self-care enhancement.

Methods

This study was a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design study (N = 58 participants), with 28 in the treatment group (Korean medicine health care program) and 30 in the control group (no intervention). The program was conducted twice a week for 2 hours, for a total of 12 weeks.

Results

There were statistically significant differences in systolic (p = 0.005) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.006), cholesterol (p < 0.001), blood glucose (p < 0.001), self-esteem (p = 0.001), self-efficacy (p < 0.001), health perception (p < 0.001), and the health behavior (p < 0.001) between the experimental group and the control group.

Conclusion

Thus, the Korean medicine healthcare program was effective in managing stroke-related factors and enhancing self-care, and should be actively used to develop community health promotion strategies to prevent strokes and prepare long-term measures.

Therapeutic Intervention for Visuo-Spatial Neglect after Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Jae-Sung Kwon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(2):59-65.   Published online April 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.2.04
  • 2,958 View
  • 63 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aims of this meta-analysis were to examine intervention methods of qualitatively, well-designed studies from the past 10 years for treating visuo-spatial neglect (VSN) in patients who had suffered a stroke, and to evaluate the combined effects of intervention.

Methods

Studies published between 2008 and 2017 on the theme of VSN were collected from PubMed, CINAHL, and MEDLINE, representative academic databases and search engines. The PEDro scale was used for evaluating the quality of methodology. The sample size, mean, and standard deviation of identified studies were used for meta-analysis.

Results

Eight studies were selected for analysis. The PEDro scores of the selected studies were ≥ 7, with 237 subjects analyzed. The results of intervention were classified into “mental function” and “activity and participation” based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The analyzed effect sizes for combined outcomes, mental function and, activity and participation, were 0.728 (medium effect size), 0.850 (large effect size), and 0.536 (medium effect size), respectively.

Conclusion

Intervention methods for treating VSN had a short-term effect on cognitive function (visual perception). In particular, non-invasive brain stimulation therapy showed a large effect size for VSN treatment.

Body-related Perspectives and Weight Control Methods of Korean-Chinese Nursing School Students in Yanbian, China: A Pilot Study
Jounghee Lee, Meixiang Jin, Heejung Son, Wenying Cui
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(4):275-281.   Published online August 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.4.08
  • 2,278 View
  • 21 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed at identifying the current nutrition knowledge, body-related perspectives, and weight control behaviors of Korean-Chinese college students.

Methods

We conducted a pilot study by employing a healthy weight education program targeting Korean-Chinese nursing school students at the Yanbian University of Science and Technology in Yanbian, China.

Results

This pilot study included 40 participants (38 women and 2 men; mean age, 20.5 years). The current weight status of the participants was as follows: 7.9% underweight, 78.9% normal weight, 7.9% overweight, and 5.3% obese. However, nearly two-thirds of the participants were dissatisfied with their current body size (43.6% a little dissatisfied; 20.5% very dissatisfied). Fifty percent of the participants perceived their current body size as being either slightly fat (35.0%) or very fat (15.0%). The following unhealthy weight control methods were commonly used among the 24 participants who practiced weight control: (1) laxatives or diuretics (91.7%), (2) saunas or spas (87.5%), and (3) a one-food diet (79.2%). In addition, the nutrition knowledge of the participants increased by 24 points from 117 points (pretest) to 141 points (posttest) through the healthy weight education program.

Conclusion

The findings of this study indicate an urgent need to educate Korean-Chinese college students on healthy weight control methods and body-related perspectives.

Management of Sodium-reduced Meals at Worksite Cafeterias: Perceptions, Practices, Barriers, and Needs among Food Service Personnel
Jounghee Lee, Sohyun Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):119-126.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.12.011
  • 1,549 View
  • 14 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The sodium content of meals provided at worksite cafeterias is greater than the sodium content of restaurant meals and home meals. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between sodium-reduction practices, barriers, and perceptions among food service personnel.
Methods
We implemented a cross-sectional study by collecting data on perceptions, practices, barriers, and needs regarding sodium-reduced meals at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We implemented Chi-square tests and analysis of variance for statistical analysis. For post hoc testing, we used Bonferroni tests; when variances were unequal, we used Dunnett T3 tests.
Results
This study involved 104 individuals employed at the worksite cafeterias, comprised of 35 men and 69 women. Most of the participants had relatively high levels of perception regarding the importance of sodium reduction (very important, 51.0%; moderately important, 27.9%). Sodium reduction practices were higher, but perceived barriers appeared to be lower in participants with high-level perception of sodium-reduced meal provision. The results of the needs assessment revealed that the participants wanted to have more active education programs targeting the general population. The biggest barriers to providing sodium-reduced meals were use of processed foods and limited methods of sodium-reduced cooking in worksite cafeterias.
Conclusion
To make the provision of sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias more successful and sustainable, we suggest implementing more active education programs targeting the general population, developing sodium-reduced cooking methods, and developing sodium-reduced processed foods.
Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children
Hae Ok Kim, Gyo Nam Kim, Euna Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):121-125.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.007
  • 1,613 View
  • 36 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology.
Methods
A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results.
Results
There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.”
Conclusion
The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity.
Suicidal Ideation and its Correlates among Juvenile Delinquents in South Korea
Suyoung Kim, Hyekyeong Kim, Dong-Chul Seo, Dong Hwan Lee, Han-Ik Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):258-265.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.007
  • 1,628 View
  • 20 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study investigated suicidal ideation and its correlates among juvenile delinquents in South Korea.
Methods
Suicidal ideation, psychological health status, and health-related behaviors were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire in 1682 juvenile offenders aged between 15 and 18 years in 2012.
Results
The prevalence of suicidal ideation in juvenile delinquents was 15.2%. Girls were more likely to report suicidal thoughts than boys (30.3% vs. 12.7%). Suicidal ideation was more common among adolescents who were not living with their family prior to entering detention centers (22.6% vs. 13.2%) than their counterparts. The likelihood of suicidal ideation was significantly associated with problem drinking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.84], psychedelic drug use (OR = 2.04), feeling unhappy (OR = 3.05), feeling sad or depressed (OR = 13.37) after controlling for sociodemographic factors, other health behaviors and perceptions.
Conclusion
The present study provides evidence for an association between suicidal ideation and psychological health and health risk behaviors among juvenile delinquents. It also highlights the importance of mental health and behavioral interventions for this population to prevent suicidality.
Review Article
Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases
Jeongmin Lee, Su Yeon Kim, Kyu Jam Hwang, Young Ran Ju, Hee-Jong Woo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(1):57-66.   Published online February 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.12.008
  • 1,639 View
  • 16 Download
  • 16 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives