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Volume 4(4); August 2013
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Editorial
Was the Mass Vaccination Effective During the Influenza Pandemic 2009–2010 in Korea?
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):177-178.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.07.003
  • 1,362 View
  • 16 Download
  • 1 Citations
PDF
Original Articles
Association Between Serum Vitamin D and Metabolic Risk Factors in Korean Schoolgirls
Han Byul Jang, Hye-Ja Lee, Ju Yeon Park, Jae-Heon Kang, Jihyun Song
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):179-186.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.06.004
  • 1,254 View
  • 17 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Vitamin D, a key regulator of bone metabolism, has been recently been linked with energy homeostasis and metabolic disorders in western countries. However, few studies have focused on the association of vitamin D with metabolic risk factors among Asian children. We studied the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with metabolic risk factors in Korean schoolgirls.
Methods
The sample consisted of 320 13-year-old girls recruited from two middle schools in the city of Gwacheon, Korea (latitude 37°N), in July 2011. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. We also obtained lifestyle data from questionnaires and dietary data from 3-day food diaries.
Results
Vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL] was noted in 63.8% of participants. The mean 25(OH)D level was not significantly lower in the overweight group. Level of physical activity and vitamin D intake did not significantly affect 25(OH)D. However, 25(OH)D levels were positively correlated with milk intake and negatively correlated with soft drink intake. Serum 25(OH)D had a negative relationship with fasting glucose and insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; HOMA-IR) after adjustment for physical activity and body mass index z score (r = −0.144, p = 0.015), and with metabolic risk score similarly (r = −0.141, p = 0.012). Levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and systolic blood pressure were higher in girls with deficient 25(OH)D levels than in those with sufficient levels.
Conclusion
We found that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with higher blood glucose and insulin resistance. Korean girls with low 25(OH)D levels could be at increased risk for metabolic disorders.
Obesity and Asian Americans in the United States: Systematic Literature Review
Sanggon Nam
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):187-193.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.06.001
  • 1,284 View
  • 18 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in the world today. Asian Americans are usually less overweight and obese than African Americans and Hispanic Americans, but the rate of obesity in Asian Americans is still increasing, especially in younger generations. This research examines Asian American obesity using existing research, as a means of finding the need for greater emphasis on Asian American obesity intervention research.
Methods
In this research literature review, Asian American obesity using existing research as a means of finding the need for greater emphasis on Asian American obesity intervention research is examined. A systematic review is done in order to find Asian American obesity research, due to the minimal amount of existing studies. In total, there were only nine papers which were not duplicates and which still met the criteria for inclusion, from an initial 106 papers.
Results
There is very little research on obesity in Asian Americans. Although the rate of obesity among Asian Americans is increasing, there are few related articles, projects, and surveys, and there is little information. There is a need for more specific and in-depth analysis of Asian American obesity. Asian Americans are associated with a lower waist circumference (WC) and BMI, while Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders are associated with a higher WC and BMI. Typically, Asian Americans who were born in the United States (US) tend to be overweight and more obese than those born in foreign countries.
Conclusion
Based on this literature review, it is concluded that there is a shortage of Asian American obesity research, even though there is an evident need for particular obesity intervention programs that target Asian Americans.
Instability at Short Tandem Repeats in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines
Jae-Eun Lee, Eun-Jung Hong, Ji-Hyun Kim, So Youn Shin, Young-Youl Kim, Bok-Ghee Han
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):194-196.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.06.003
  • 1,245 View
  • 11 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are a useful biological resource, however, genomic variations can happen during the generation and immortalization processes of LCLs. The purpose of this study was to identify genomic variations in LCL DNA compared with matched blood DNA using short tandem repeats (STRs) analysis.
Methods
We analyzed 15 STRs with blood DNA and their matched LCL DNA samples from 6645 unrelated healthy individuals.
Results
Mutations (such as repeat variations and triallelic patterns) of 15 STR loci were detected in 612 LCL DNAs (9.2% of total) without mutations in their matched blood DNA. The repeat variations of 15 STRs were detected in 526 LCL DNAs (mutation rate = 0.0792) and triallelic patterns were identified in 123 (mutation rate = 0.0185). Among 15 STRs, the most common repeat variations (n = 214, mutation rate = 0.0322) and triallelic patterns (n = 17, mutation rate = 0.0026) were found at FGA locus.
Conclusion
Our study shows that mutations in STRs can occur during generation and immortalization of LCLs.
Comparison of Breast Cancer Screening Results in Korean Middle-Aged Women: A Hospital-based Prospective Cohort Study
TaeBum Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):197-202.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.06.002
  • 1,290 View
  • 17 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this hospital-based prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of breast cancer screening in Korean middle-aged women using age, ultrasonography, mammography, and magnification mammography, which are commonly used in most hospitals.
Methods
A total of 21 patents were examined using ultrasonography, mammography, and magnification mammography, and their data were prospectively analyzed from August 2011 to March 2013. All patients were divided into benign and malignant groups and the screening results were classified using the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). The final pathology report was used as the reference standard and the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography, mammography, and magnification mammography were evaluated using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis.
Results
The analysis included 21 patients who underwent biopsy. Among them, three (14.3%) were positive and 18 (85.7%) negative for breast cancer. The average age was 50.5 years (range = 38–61 years). The sensitivity was the same for ultrasonography and magnification mammography and the specificity of magnification mammography was higher than that of ultrasonography. The highest area under the ROC curve (AUC) was observed in the combination of age and magnification mammography (1.000) and the decreasing order of AUC in others was magnification mammography (0.833), ultrasonography (0.787), mammography (0.667), and age (0.648).
Conclusions
In Korean women, the diagnostic accuracy of magnification mammography was better than that of ultrasonography and mammography. The combination of age and magnification mammography increased the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy.
The Influence of Media Communication on Risk Perception and Behavior Related to Mad Cow Disease in South Korea
Jee-Eun Park, Aeree Sohn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):203-208.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.06.005
  • 1,266 View
  • 13 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of media communication on risk behavior related to mad cow disease (MCD).
Methods
Mothers of elementary school students in Seoul were recruited as the survey participants of this study.
Results
Media reports affected risk behavior related to MCD. Also, knowledge and attitude toward MCD affects risk behavior.
Conclusion
Risk-related information provided by the media should maintain consistency and objectivity. For effective risk communication, there should be an open communication between the government and public, experts, and related industries, who should all collaborate.
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 Vaccine Based on an Outbreak Investigation During the 2010–2011 Season in Korean Military Camps
Kyo-Hyun Kim, Yoon Gu Choi, Hyun-Bae Yoon, Jung-Woo Lee, Hyun-Wook Kim, Chaeshin Chu, Young-Joon Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):209-214.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.07.002
  • 1,317 View
  • 14 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
In December 2010, there was an outbreak of acute febrile respiratory disease in many Korean military camps that were not geographically related. A laboratory analysis confirmed a number of these cases to be infected by the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 (H1N1pdm09) virus. Because mass vaccination against H1N1pdm09 was implemented at the infected military camps eleven months ago, the outbreak areas in which both vaccinated and nonvaccinated individuals were well mixed, gave us an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of H1N1pdm09 vaccine through a retrospective cohort study design.
Methods
A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the three military camps in which the outbreak occurred for case detection, determination of vaccination status, and characterization of other risk factors. The overall response rate was 86.8% (395/455). Case was defined as fever (≥38 °C) with cough or sore throat, influenza-like illness (ILI), and vaccination status verified by vaccination registry. Crude vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated as “1 − attack rate in vaccinated individuals/attack rate in nonvaccinated individuals”, and adjusted VE was calculated as “1 – odds ratio” using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounding factor. A number of ILI definitions were used to test the robustness of the result.
Results
The attack rate of ILI was 12.8% in register-verified vaccinated individuals and 24.0% in nonvaccinated individuals. The crude VE was thus calculated to be 46.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 14.5–66.9]. The adjusted VE rate was 46.8% (95% CI: –9.4 to 74.1). Various combinations of ILI symptoms also showed similar VE rates.
Conclusion
We evaluated the effectiveness of H1N1pdm09 vaccine in the 2010–2011 season in an outbreak setting. Although the result was not sensitive to any analytical method used and ILI case definition, the magnitude of effectiveness was lower than estimated in the 2009–2010 season.
Brief Report
Epidemic Intelligence Service Officers and Field Epidemiology Training Program in Korea
Geun-Yong Kwon, Shinje Moon, Wooseok Kwak, Jin Gwack, Chaeshin Chu, Seung-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):215-221.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.07.001
  • 1,420 View
  • 19 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Korea has adopted Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officers through the Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) since 1999 for systematic control of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Graduates of medical schools in Korea are selected and serve as public health doctors (PHDs) for their mandatory military service. The duration of service is 3 years and PHDs comprise general practitioners and specialists. Some PHDs are selected as EIS officers with 3 weeks basic FETP training and work for central and provincial public health authorities to conduct epidemiological investigations. The total number of EIS officers is 31 as of 2012. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) has 12 specialists, whereas specialists and each province has one or two EIS officers to administer local epidemiological investigations in 253 public health centers. The Korean EIS officers have successfully responded and prevented infectious diseases, but there is a unique limitation: the number of PHDs in Korea is decreasing and PHDs are not allowed to stay outside Korea, which makes it difficult to cope with overseas infectious diseases. Furthermore, after 3 years service, they quit and their experiences are not accumulated. KCDC has hired full-time EIS officers since 2012 to overcome this limitation.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives