Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Articles

Page Path
HOME > Osong Public Health Res Perspect > Volume 6(3); 2015 > Article
Brief Report Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles
Yang Wha Kang, Yun Sil Ko, Yoo Jin Kim, Kyoung Mi Sung, Hyo Jin Kim, Hyung Yun Choi, Changhyun Sung, Eunkyeong Jeong
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives 2015;6(3):211-217.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.05.003
Published online: June 10, 2015
  • 1,639 Views
  • 21 Download
  • 113 Crossref
  • 107 Scopus

Division of Chronic Disease Control, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongju, Korea

∗Corresponding author. jeong68@korea.kr
• Received: January 6, 2015   • Revised: May 5, 2015   • Accepted: May 6, 2015

© 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0).

  • In 2008, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the first nationwide survey, Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS), to provide data that could be used to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health promotion and disease prevention programs. This community-based cross-sectional survey has been conducted by 253 community health centers, 35 community universities, and 1500 interviewers. The KCHS standardized questionnaire was developed jointly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff, a working group of health indicators standardization subcommittee, and 16 metropolitan cities and provinces with 253 regional sites. The questionnaire covers a variety of topics related to health behaviors and prevention, which is used to assess the prevalence of personal health practices and behaviors related to the leading causes of disease, including smoking, alcohol use, drinking and driving, high blood pressure control, physical activity, weight control, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, European Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living ), medical service, accident, injury, etc. The KCHS was administered by trained interviewers, and the quality control of the KCHS was improved by the introduction of a computer-assisted personal interview in 2010. The KCHS data allow a direct comparison of the differences of health issues among provinces. Furthermore, the provinces can use these data for their own cost-effective health interventions to improve health promotion and disease prevention. For users and researchers throughout the world, microdata (in the form of SAS files) and analytic guidelines can be downloaded from the KCHS website (http://KCHS.cdc.go.kr/) in Korean.
Owing to the different health levels among communities in Korea, there is a need to implement policies aimed at planning appropriate health services to satisfy residents' health requirements. In 1995, the Community Health Act was enacted to establish the appropriate health service plan for communities and to meet the residents' health requirements [1]. Because local governments are obliged to create their own health service plans, the demand for community-based health statistics has increased. Although local governments need their own community statistics to use the existing data such as death and health insurance statistics, they do not have any information available in the community [2,3]. Some local governments are researching the health level of residents on their own, however, survey indices and procedures are not standardized sufficiently to be comparable throughout communities or the nation. For this reason, the survey indices and procedures have not been usable as objective statistics comparable with national or other community surveys. Compared to national statistics, the survey items lack the knowledge and experience necessary to meet the demand of the communities. The Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS) is designed to establish the base for implementing well-grounded health services by producing community health statistics that establish and evaluate the community health care plan. In addition, it tries to integrate evaluation indices for the health services of local governments by standardizing survey indices and procedures comparable among communities. The KCHS was conducted by the survey performance team created in cooperation with 253 community health centers in cities, provinces, and universities within the communities. This was done to ensure a smooth survey process, improve the application of survey results, and strengthen community capability. A total of 35 universities (responsible universities) from all over the nation participated as community partners in conducting 4–14 surveys (average: 7) under the control of a community health center [4]. The Ministry of Health and Welfare and Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) standardized the survey methods, contents, and output indices to make the survey results comparable among communities [5]. In addition to this, they provided service performance guidance, technical support, and related data guidelines. The operating system consists of KCDC, 16 cities and provinces, and responsible universities (Figure 1). To give stable and professional services, it makes decisions on major issues ranging from planning to official announcement of results, thus providing a channel for spreading decisions. The technical committee aids in management in each particular area and provides the operating committee with advice on current issues. The advisory committee is organized temporarily when other matters need its attention. The management office was created in KCDC to support in conducting surveys and statistical analyses. The responsible universities carry out general activities such as surveys, field supervision, training of interviewers, and data analysis. To standardize community surveys, KCDC supports survey conduction and item guidelines, interviewer training material, and data analysis syntax.
2.1 Sample design
Because the main purpose of the KCHS is to produce health statistics comparable to the city (Si), county (Gun), and district (Gu) levels, the target population is defined as adults aged ≥ 19 years and who live in the jurisdiction of one community health center. Note, however, that it is impossible to interview the entire population residing in the area during the survey. For this reason, considering the representability and reliability of officially produced statistics, the surveyed population is limited to registered residents aged ≥19 years in the jurisdiction of the community health center. The registered population data are obtained from the Ministry of Public Administration and Security. Because the registration data are the latest available data and are representative of the current states, these are most suitable for the analysis of gender, age, and population structure as well as for the stratification and weighting of the surveyed population. Furthermore, the registration consists of Tong Ban/Lee (smallest administrative district units), and helps survey interviewers identify the location and conduct the survey right away. According to the stratification of the surveyed population, which shows the characteristics of the survey contents, the first stratum is Dong/Eup Myeon (small administrative units) where 253 community health centers are located across the country; the second one is made up of housing units (apartments and houses). The sample design seeks to produce accurate statistics with a small-scale sample survey, with the help of the stratification of the surveyed population. The sample size is selected so that the main health index in each community health center has ±3% desired sampling error with 95% confidence level [6].
2.2 Household selection
It was impossible to interview all residents aged ≥19 years in the area during the survey (surveyed population). Therefore, considering the feasibility and efficiency of the survey progress, Tong Ban/Lee was defined as the primary sampling unit, and households in the area were selected as the final sampling units.
Using the PROC SURVEYSELECT procedure of SAS (SAS, Inc., Cary, NC, USA), and based on the registered population, Tong Ban/Lee was selected as the primary sampling unit of housing types in Dong/Eup Myeon through probability proportionate sampling. Moreover, the features of its own weighting design were taken into consideration. After the number of households in the sampling point of Tong Ban/Lee was counted and the household list was completed, the survey households were sampled by systematic sampling. By contrast, the number of survey households was listed based on the number of adults per household in the Dong/Eup Myeon area where the sampling point is located [7].
2.3 Selection of participants
In the sampling point, five households on average were selected as samples, and all household members aged ≥19 years in the sample household were interviewed. In case there were no residents older than 19 years, the housing type was nonresidential, or the household members refused to take part in the survey or were absent, backup sample households were chosen as replacements (Figure 2).
2.4 Sample size
To ensure the same confidence level and accuracy of the main health index produced in 253 community health centers, within the available budget, a sample size of 900 people on average was decided in each community health center. Size management of the valid sample was performed by the time the survey progress reached 75% and 90%, with each community health center roughly calculating the estimated number of people who completed the survey. Based on this estimated number of people, the number of survey households in the target point was adjusted to 3–7, which changed according to the sampled survey households in the sampling point. At that time, the sampling method for the survey households was suggested to prevent bias in household selection.
2.5 Data processing
2.5.1

2.5.1 Weighting

For the sample survey data to be objective, they calculated the estimated figures after giving weighting factors based on the sample design structure. Weighting factors are classified as households or individuals for respective analysis. Household weighting (Whi) reflected the household sampling rate, which considers the sampling process of sample design, suitability rate of survey households, and household rate by housing type. Individual weighting (Whijkl) took personal response rate into account with the household weighting. Correction weighting (Whijkl)—which is used for estimation—was produced after individual weighting was corrected by gender and registered population structure by age in each survey conducting area [8].
Whi=Mhinhi=ehi·Nhinhi
  • Nhi: h Dong/Eup Myeon i number of households by housing type

  • Mhi: h Dong/Eup Myeon i number of suitable households by housing type

  • nhi: h Dong/Eup Myeon i number of survey households by housing type

  • ehi: h Dong/Eup Myeon i suitability rate of survey households by housing type

  • Whijkl=BFd·Whijkl

BFd=d(sex·age)registeredpopulationnumberhijklWhijklIdsex·age
Whijkl=Whijk×Phijkphijk
  • Phijk: number of household members aged ≥19 years

  • phijk: number of household members aged ≥19 years interviewed

2.5.2

2.5.2 Nonresponse

Nonresponse is classified into two types: (1) the “entity nonresponse” wherein no questions are answered because survey participants do not participate; and (2) the “item nonresponse” wherein some of the questions are not answered. In the community health survey, nonresponse was not replaced but was excluded when calculating the index [9,10].
2.5.3

2.5.3 Standardization

The population structure by age—which affects the health index—differs depending on the survey area or time. This is why standardization is needed to compare one health index with others that were created in different areas and at different times. The major index was standardized by making the population rate by gender and age identical, so that the results of the KCHS were comparable in different communities [11].
2.6 Survey contents and methods
Survey items and output indices were determined by the operating committee after getting feedback from policy departments and local governments. After such determination, the survey items and output indices were finally set, based on the results of the demand aimed at the Ministry of Health and Welfare, cities, provinces, community health center, and trusted universities. Survey contents included health behavior, physical checkups, vaccinations, contraction of diseases, medical care, injuries, accidents, addiction, activity limitation, quality of life, visiting medical institutions, education, economic activity, and household survey (Table 1).
The health index and the number of questions for a community were decided by a variety of survey demands in each community. To improve the application of the produced index, a rotating survey system was introduced in 2010 [12]. The entire cycle of the rotating survey system was determined as a 4-year period according to the community health care plan, which is supposed to be established and evaluated every 4 years. Depending on the importance, frequency, application, and social interests of the survey questions, the survey index and items were proportioned to three types of cycles: every year, every 2 years, and every 4 years (Table 2).
  • Survey form

    • Household survey (interviewing 1 household member)

    • Individual survey (interviewing all household members)

  • Common survey in all administrative areas (Si·Gun·Gu)

  • Rotating index consideration starting in 2010

The KCHS is conducted by a trained interviewer who visits the selected sample households and conducts one-on-one interviews with all adults aged ≥ 19 years using an indirect entry method. The interview takes approximately 20–30min/person (Figure 3). In July, community health centers and responsible universities mail the selected households survey selection letters along with brochures and promotional materials. This survey is conducted from September to November across the nation.
At least 253 community health centers across the country utilize their own statistics to establish community health and medical care plans. Local governments make use of the results of the KCHS to evaluate the current health services, decide the priority of health services, and make community health and medical care plans (Table 2). The KCHS is employed for evaluating and monitoring the effects of the existing community health center services based on objective data representing communities (Figure 4). Because different levels of health behavior and health care are recognized among communities, each community can make the most of the survey results to adjust the priority of health issues.
The KCHS is designed to establish the base for implementing well-grounded health services by producing community health statistics that establish and evaluate the community health care plan. In addition, it tries to integrate evaluation indices for the health services of local governments by standardizing survey indices and procedures comparable among communities. KCDC will continue to work closely with community partners to ensure that the KCHS continues to provide data that are useful for public health research and practice, and for local health policy decisions. By collecting behavioral health risk data at the local level, the KCHS has become a powerful tool for targeting and building health promotion activities.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
This research was supported by a fund (090-091-4800-4849-306) from the Health Promotion Fund of Korea.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • 1. http://www.law.go.kr/lsInfoP.do?lsiSeq=48327#0000.
  • 2. Kwon G.Y., Lim D.S., Park E.J.. Assessment of applicability of standardized rates for health state comparison among areas: 2008 Community Health Survey. J Prev Med Public Health 43(2): 2010 Mar;174−184. [Korean]. PMID: 20383051.Article
  • 3. Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention . Operating system of Community Health Survey: Center for Chronic Disease. 2007, Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Seoul (Korea).
  • 4. http://chs.cdc.go.kr/chs/index.do.
  • 5. Ministry of Health and Welfare; Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention . Development of regional health survey system. 2005, Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Seoul (Korea).
  • 6. Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention . Sample design for 2013 National community health survey and monitoring sample survey. 2013, Korean Association for Survey Research. Seoul (Korea).
  • 7. Lee K.O., Pa J.W., Lee G.J.. Sampling survey. 2013, Korea National Open University. Seoul.
  • 8. Lohr S.L.. Sampling: design and analysis. 2nd ed.2010, Cengage Brooks/Cole. Boston.
  • 9. Korn E.L., Graubard B.I.. Analysis of health surveys. 1999, John Wiley and Sons. New York.
  • 10. Statistics Korea . Guideline for a quality management of survey and administrative statistics. 2009, Statistics Korea. Daejeon (Korea).
  • 11. Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention . At a glance of 2008 Community Health Survey. 2013, Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Seoul (Korea).
  • 12. Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention . Development of rotation survey method for community health survey. 2010, Hanyang University. Seoul (Korea).
Figure 1
Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS) Conducting System. KCDC = Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
gr1
Figure 2
Replacing sample households.
gr2
Figure 3
(A) Interview survey situation and (B) CAPI equipments. CAPI = computer-assisted personal interview.
gr3
Figure 4
Korea Community Health Survey Report (2013).
gr4
Table 1
Korea Community Health Survey Contents.
Category Survey contents
Household survey Household types, housing types, annual income
Health behavior Health level, smoking, drinking, safety consciousness, exercise and physical activities, dietary life and nutrition, obesity and weight control, oral health, mental health
Vaccination and health checkup Influenza vaccination, health checkup, cancer screening
Contraction of diseases Experience of diagnosis of major diseases, disease care type
Medical care utilization Using medical institutions and reason for non-treatment
Accidents and addiction Experience and frequency of accidents and addiction
Activity limitation and quality of life Number of activity limitation days, quality of life (EQ 5D, EQ-VAS)
Health and medical institution utilization Using health and medical institutions or not and service using types
Education and economic activity Occupation, civil status, education level

EQ-VAS = EuroQol Visual Scale; EQ-5D = EuroQol 5 Dimension.

Table 2
Application to the fifth community health and medical care plans (2011–2013) of KCHS.
Division Subdivision Community health survey index 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Priority project of the community health and medical care plan
Health status and behavior Smoking Current smoking Anti-smoking project
Lifetime smoking
attempt to quit smoking
Plan to quit smoking within 1 mo
Experience of anti-smoking campaign
Drinking Lifetime drinking Regional specialized health behavior improvement project
High risk drinking
Physical activity Over-moderate physical activity practice Regional specialized health behavior improvement project
Walking exercise practice
Obesity Control Subjective obesity recognition Regional specialized health behavior improvement project
obesity population
attempt to control weight
Oral health Mastication trouble complaint (>65 y) Oral health project
Practice of toothbrushing after lunch
Mental health Subjective stress recognition Mental health project
Experience of depression
Contemplating suicide
Security consciousness Wearing seatbelt while driving
Wearing seatbelt when sitting on the front passenger seat
Diseases and injuries Vaccination Influenza vaccination Infectious disease prevention project
Non-infectious disease Checkup (cancer screening) Cancer control project
Taking a health checkup Health checkup project
High blood pressure prevalence * Cardio/cerebrovascular disease prevention project
Diabetes prevalence *
Stroke prevalence *
Angina prevalence *
Myocardial infarction prevalence *
Injuries Accidents and intoxication incidence

KCHS = Korea Community Health Survey.

* Lifetime experience of diagnosis.

Figure & Data

References

    Citations

    Citations to this article as recorded by  
    • Association between subjective cognitive decline and falls in middle-aged adults
      In Cheol Hwang, Hong Yup Ahn
      International Journal of Injury Control and Safety.2022; 29(2): 182.     CrossRef
    • Association between consumption of fruits and vegetables with suicidal ideation
      In Cheol Hwang, Seulggie Choi
      Public Health Nutrition.2022; 25(5): 1285.     CrossRef
    • Radiation risk perception and its associated factors among residents living near nuclear power plants: A nationwide survey in Korea
      Hyoju Sung, Jung Un Kim, Dalnim Lee, Young Woo Jin, Hyemi Jo, Jae Kwan Jun, Sunhoo Park, Songwon Seo
      Nuclear Engineering and Technology.2022; 54(4): 1295.     CrossRef
    • Measuring the health of people in places: A scoping review of OECD member countries
      Emily T. Murray, Nicola Shelton, Paul Norman, Jenny Head
      Health & Place.2022; 73: 102731.     CrossRef
    • Association between long-term exposure to particulate matter and childhood cancer: A retrospective cohort study
      Jae Min Lee, Tae-Hee Lee, Soontae Kim, Minkyo Song, Sanghyuk Bae
      Environmental Research.2022; 205: 112418.     CrossRef
    • Perceived social support and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic: A nationally-representative study
      Yeong Jun Ju, Woorim Kim, Soon Young Lee
      International Journal of Social Psychiatry.2022; : 002076402110667.     CrossRef
    • Body mass index and self‐rated oral health in Korean adults in 2017
      A‐Rum Han, Min‐Ho Shin, Jung ho Yang, Chang Kyun Choi, Jeong‐Tae Koh, Ok‐Su Kim
      Gerodontology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Ability to Rest at Home During COVID-19 Symptom Manifestation and Depressive Symptoms: Evidence From Korea
      Woorim Kim, Yeong Jun Ju, Soon Young Lee
      Psychiatry Investigation.2022; 19(2): 92.     CrossRef
    • Smoking-related behaviour changes among Korean men after the 2015 tobacco price increase: assessing the implications for the tobacco endgame using a reconstructed retrospective cohort study
      Seulgi Kim, Sung-il Cho
      BMJ Open.2022; 12(1): e051712.     CrossRef
    • Depression During COVID-19 Quarantine in South Korea: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis
      Yongjoo Kim, Hye-Young Kwon, Seungyoung Lee, Chang-Bo Kim
      Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Assessment of the difference in depressive symptoms of the Korean adult population before and during the COVID-19 pandemic using a community health survey
      So Young Kim, Dae Myoung Yoo, Chanyang Min, Hyo Geun Choi
      Journal of Affective Disorders.2022; 300: 130.     CrossRef
    • Stress, Depression, and Unhealthy Behavior Changes among Patients with Diabetes during COVID-19 in Korea
      Hae Ran Kim, Jeong-Soon Kim
      Healthcare.2022; 10(2): 303.     CrossRef
    • The association between episodes of night eating and levels of depression in the general population
      Woorim Kim, Yeong Jun Ju, Soon Young Lee
      International Journal of Eating Disorders.2022; 55(2): 254.     CrossRef
    • Area-based inequalities and distribution of healthcare resources for managing diabetes in South Korea: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis
      Rangkyoung Ha, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
      BMJ Open.2022; 12(2): e055360.     CrossRef
    • Socioeconomic inequality in precautions compliance and health behavior changes during COVID-19 outbreak: analysis of the Korean Community Health Survey 2020
      Ga Bin Lee, Sun Jae Jung, Yiyi Yang, Jae Won Yang, Thang Manh Hoang, Hyeon Chang Kim
      Epidemiology and Health.2022; : e2022013.     CrossRef
    • Decision Tree Algorithm−Based Prediction of Vulnerability to Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Caregivers of Children With Glaucoma
      Seoyoung Wy, Sooyeon Choe, Yun Jeong Lee, Eunoo Bak, Mirinae Jang, Seung Chan Lee, Ahnul Ha, Jin Wook Jeoung, Ki Ho Park, Young Kook Kim
      American Journal of Ophthalmology.2022; 239: 90.     CrossRef
    • The Relationship between Living Arrangements and Sleep Quality in Older Adults: Gender Differences
      Hyeon Sik Chu, Juyeon Oh, Kounseok Lee
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2022; 19(7): 3893.     CrossRef
    • Is fear of COVID-19 higher in individuals residing in more deprived areas? A nationwide study
      Woorim Kim, Soon Young Lee, Yeong Jun Ju
      Journal of Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Subjective Life Satisfaction of South Korean Adults: Bayesian Nomogram Approach
      Haewon Byeon
      Diagnostics.2022; 12(3): 761.     CrossRef
    • The association between greenness exposure and COVID-19 incidence in South Korea: An ecological study
      Kyung-Shin Lee, Hye Sook Min, Jae-Hyun Jeon, Yoon-Jung Choi, Ji Hwan Bang, Ho Kyung Sung
      Science of The Total Environment.2022; 832: 154981.     CrossRef
    • Does having various types of fear related to the COVID-19 disrupt the daily life of individuals?
      Woorim Kim, Yeong Jun Ju, Soon Young Lee
      Epidemiology and Health.2022; : e2022004.     CrossRef
    • Methods of the 2020 (Wave 1) International Tobacco Control (ITC) Korea Survey
      Anne Quah, Sungkyu Lee, Hong Gwan Seo, Sung-il Cho, Sujin Lim, Yeol Kim, Steve Xu, Matthew Grey, Mi Yan, Christian Boudreau, Mary Thompson, Pete Driezen, Geoffrey Fong
      Tobacco Prevention & Cessation.2022; 8(March): 1.     CrossRef
    • Association between sleep quality and depressive symptoms
      Hye Jin Joo, Kyung A. Kwon, Jaeyong Shin, Sohee Park, Sung-In Jang
      Journal of Affective Disorders.2022; 310: 258.     CrossRef
    • Factors Associated With Depressive Symptoms in Individuals Who Have Experienced COVID-19 Self-Quarantine
      Hye-Young Jang, Young Ko, Song-Yi Han
      Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Association Between Various Types or Statuses of Smoking and Subjective Cognitive Decline Based on a Community Health Survey of Korean Adults
      Ji Hee Kim, In Bok Chang, Yoo Hwan Kim, Chan Yang Min, Dae Myoung Yoo, Hyo Geun Choi
      Frontiers in Neurology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Residential Characteristics as Factors Related to Healthy Behavior Practices—Decision Tree Model Analysis Using a Community Health Survey from Korea
      Ae-Rim Seo, Ki-Soo Park
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2022; 19(12): 7390.     CrossRef
    • Association between Blood Glucose Control and Subjective Cognitive Decline in Korean Patients with Diabetes Aged over 50 Years
      Dae-Hyung Koh, Yu-Jin Rho, Soon Young Lee, Kyoung-Nam Kim, Yeong Jun Ju
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2022; 19(12): 7267.     CrossRef
    • Perceptions of the General Public About Health-related Quality of Life and the EQ-5D Questionnaire: A Qualitative Study in Korea
      Minsu Ock, Jeehee Pyo, Min-Woo Jo, Michael Herdman, Nan Luo
      Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(3): 213.     CrossRef
    • Impact of Disasters on Community Medical Screening Examination and Vaccination Rates: The Case of the Sewol Ferry Disaster in Ansan, Korea
      EunKyo Kang
      Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness.2021; 15(3): 286.     CrossRef
    • Associations between Chewing Difficulty, Subjective Cognitive Decline, and Related Functional Difficulties among Older People without Dementia: Focus on Body Mass Index
      Y. J. Ju, J. E. Lee, Soon Young Lee
      The journal of nutrition, health & aging.2021; 25(3): 347.     CrossRef
    • Is the Well-Being of Neighboring Cities Important to Me? Analysis of the Spatial Effect of Social Capital and Urban Amenities in South Korea
      Zhe Hong, In Kwon Park
      Social Indicators Research.2021; 154(1): 169.     CrossRef
    • The Correlation amongst Salty Taste Preference and Overactive Bladder Symptoms in Female Individuals
      Jin-Won Noh, Kyoung-Beom Kim, Jae Heon Kim, Young Dae Kwon
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2021; 18(2): 518.     CrossRef
    • Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and incident asthma among elderly adults
      Dong-Wook Lee, Chang-woo Han, Yun-Chul Hong, Jong-Min Oh, Hyun-Joo Bae, Soontae Kim, Youn-Hee Lim
      Chemosphere.2021; 272: 129619.     CrossRef
    • Association between Alcohol Drinking Status and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Adults
      Jung-Hwa Yang, Chang Kyun Choi, Hye-Yeon Kim, Young-Ran Heo, Min-Ho Shin
      Chonnam Medical Journal.2021; 57(1): 68.     CrossRef
    • Association between perceived environmental pollution and poor sleep quality: results from nationwide general population sample of 162,797 people
      Yeong Jun Ju, Joo Eun Lee, Dong-Woo Choi, Kyu-Tae Han, Soon Young Lee
      Sleep Medicine.2021; 80: 236.     CrossRef
    • Objectively Measured Built Environments and Cardiovascular Diseases in Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults
      Eun Young Lee, Jungsoon Choi, Sugie Lee, Bo Youl Choi
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2021; 18(4): 1861.     CrossRef
    • Development of a Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) Methodology to Assist the Photovoltaic Design Process
      Samuel Roberto Moraes, João Murta-Pina, Miguel Santos, Tiago C. Pereira, Fernando Monteiro, Ricardo Matos, Filipe Matos, Diogo Pinto, Francisco Oliveira, Sofia Correia, André Mora, P. Siano
      E3S Web of Conferences.2021; 239: 00021.     CrossRef
    • Perceived environmental pollution and subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or SCD-related functional difficulties among the general population
      Yeong Jun Ju, Joo Eun Lee, Soon Young Lee
      Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2021; 28(24): 31289.     CrossRef
    • Association Between Recent Experience of Childbirth and Sleep Quality in South Korean Women: Results from a Nationwide Study
      Woorim Kim, Yeong Jun Ju, Soon Young Lee
      Nature and Science of Sleep.2021; Volume 13: 467.     CrossRef
    • Change in Denture Procedures after Implementation of National Health Insurance Coverage for the Elderly in Korea: A Nationwide Database
      Ye Seol Lee, Juyeong Kim, Yoon Soo Choy, Eunkyong Kim, Jaehyun Yoo
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2021; 18(5): 2283.     CrossRef
    • Relationships of Dietary Factors with Obesity, Hypertension, and Diabetes by Regional Type among Single-Person Households in Korea
      Kyung Won Lee, Dayeon Shin
      Nutrients.2021; 13(4): 1218.     CrossRef
    • Particulate air pollution and survival after stroke in older adults: A retrospective cohort study in Korea
      Changwoo Han, Jongmin Oh, Dong-Wook Lee, Soontae Kim, Hyun-Joo Bae, Yoonyoung Jang, Yun-Chul Hong, Youn-Hee Lim
      Environmental Research.2021; 197: 111139.     CrossRef
    • Association between alcohol consumption status and obesity-related comorbidities in men: data from the 2016 Korean community health survey
      Bo-Yeon Kim, Hyewon Nam, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Yoon-Young Cho, Dug-Hyun Choi, Chan-Hee Jung, Ji-Oh Mok, Chul-Hee Kim
      BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Optimizing the maximum reported cluster size in the spatial scan statistic for survival data
      Sujee Lee, Jisu Moon, Inkyung Jung
      International Journal of Health Geographics.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Association between community deprivation and practising health behaviours among South Korean adults: a survey-based cross-sectional study
      Bich Na Jang, Hin Moi Youn, Doo Woong Lee, Jae Hong Joo, Eun-Cheol Park
      BMJ Open.2021; 11(6): e047244.     CrossRef
    • Association between neighborhood environments and suicidal ideation among Korean adults
      In Cheol Hwang, Hong Yup Ahn
      Journal of Affective Disorders.2021; 295: 488.     CrossRef
    • Association between quality and duration of sleep and subjective cognitive decline: a cross-sectional study in South Korea
      Hye Jin Joo, Jae Hong Joo, Junhyun Kwon, Bich Na Jang, Eun-Cheol Park
      Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Reliability and Validity of an Ultrasonic Device for Measuring Height in Adults
      Seon Hwa Cho, Young Gyu Cho, Hyun Ah Park, A Ra Bong
      Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2021; 42(5): 376.     CrossRef
    • Contracting Out National Immunization Program Does Not Improve Vaccination Rate Nor Socioeconomic Inequality: A Case Study of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in South Korea
      Daseul Moon, Saerom Kim, Myoung-Hee Kim, Dawoon Jeong, Hongjo Choi
      Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Association between sedentary time and sleep quality based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index among South Korean adults
      Sung Hoon Jeong, Bich Na Jang, Seung Hoon Kim, Gyu Ri Kim, Eun-Cheol Park, Sung-In Jang
      BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Epidemiology and Regional Predictors of COVID-19 Clusters: A Bayesian Spatial Analysis Through a Nationwide Contact Tracing Data
      Kwan Hong, Sujin Yum, Jeehyun Kim, Daesung Yoo, Byung Chul Chun
      Frontiers in Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Spatial epidemiologic analysis of the liver cancer and gallbladder cancer incidence and its determinants in South Korea
      Jieun Jang, Dae-Sung Yoo, Byung Chul Chun
      BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Association of regional-level perceived stress and depression with health related quality-of-life of Korean adults: a multilevel analysis of 2017 Korea Community Health Survey data
      Eunsu Kim, Minho Shin, Jung-Ho Yang, Soon-Ki Ahn, Baeg-Ju Na, Hae-Sung Nam
      Epidemiology and Health.2021; : e2021062.     CrossRef
    • Impact of a screening protocol for blood pressure level for hypertension in the Korean community health survey
      Jinho Shin, Ju-Han Kim, Jeong Hun Shin, Mi Hyang Jung, Jung-Woo Son, Eun Mi Lee, Yu Mi Kim, Jung Sun Cho, Jung Hyun Choi, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Seon Kui Lee, Sun Hye Choi, Sang Hyun Ihm
      Blood Pressure.2021; 30(6): 403.     CrossRef
    • Association Between Sleep Quality and Falls: A Nationwide Population-Based Study from South Korea
      Sujin Lee, Jae Ho Chung, Ji Hyun Kim
      International Journal of General Medicine.2021; Volume 14: 7423.     CrossRef
    • Spatial distribution and determinants of thyroid cancer incidence from 1999 to 2013 in Korea
      Jieun Jang, Dae-Sung Yoo, Byung Chul Chun
      Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Family Caregivers of People with Dementia Have Poor Sleep Quality: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
      Min Ji Song, Ji Hyun Kim
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2021; 18(24): 13079.     CrossRef
    • Smoking Cessation and Mental Health According to Use of E-cigarettes and Heated Tobacco Products by Korean Adults
      Mi Ah Han
      International Journal of Mental Health and Addicti.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Health Status and Behaviors of Adults in Korea: National Cross-sectional Web-Based Self-report Survey
      EunKyo Kang, Hyejin Lee, Jee Hoon Sohn, Jieun Yun, Jin Yong Lee, Yun-Chul Hong
      JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2021; 7(11): e31635.     CrossRef
    • Smoking Behavior Changes during COVID-19 among Korean Adults
      Mi Ah Han, Hae Ran Kim
      American Journal of Health Behavior.2021; 45(6): 1031.     CrossRef
    • Association between Body Mass Index and Prevalence of Asthma in Korean Adults
      Min Kang, Seok-Joon Sohn, Min-Ho Shin
      Chonnam Medical Journal.2020; 56(1): 62.     CrossRef
    • The association between relative income and depressive symptoms in adults: Findings from a nationwide survey in Korea
      Areum Song, Woorim Kim
      Journal of Affective Disorders.2020; 263: 236.     CrossRef
    • Association between green areas and allergic disease in Korean adults: a cross-sectional study
      Hyun-Jin Kim, Jin-young Min, Hye-Jin Kim, Kyoung-bok Min
      Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Establishing Calendar for Health Observatories Studies: Islamic Republic of Iran’s Experience
      Hossein Mirzaei, Behzad Damari
      Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Income-related inequality in quality-adjusted life expectancy in Korea at the national and district levels
      Dohee Lim, Jinwook Bahk, Minsu Ock, Ikhan Kim, Hee-Yeon Kang, Yeon-Yong Kim, Jong Heon Park, Young-Ho Khang
      Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Factors associated with poor sleep quality in the Korean general population: Providing information from the Korean version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
      Soon Young Lee, Yeong Jun Ju, Joo Eun Lee, Young Taek Kim, Seung Chul Hong, Yun Jung Choi, Min Kyoung Song, Hye Yun Kim
      Journal of Affective Disorders.2020; 271: 49.     CrossRef
    • Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the elderly
      Changwoo Han, Jongmin Oh, Youn-Hee Lim, Soontae Kim, Yun-Chul Hong
      Environment International.2020; 143: 105895.     CrossRef
    • Association between health behaviours and depression: findings from a national cross-sectional study in South Korea
      Bich Na Jang, Hyeon Ji Lee, Jae Hong Joo, Eun-Cheol Park, Sung-In Jang
      BMC Psychiatry.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Regional Variation of Suicide Mortality in South Korea
      Minjae Choi, Yo Han Lee
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2020; 17(15): 5433.     CrossRef
    • The relationship between body mass index and poor self-rated health in the South Korean population
      Eun-Seok Sung, Chang Kyun Choi, Ji-An Jeong, Min-Ho Shin, M. Harvey Brenner
      PLOS ONE.2020; 15(8): e0219647.     CrossRef
    • Association between Social Trust and Metabolic Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Population—A Longitudinal Cohort Study in South Korea
      Hyeah Park, Seulggie Choi, Kyae Hyung Kim, EunKyo Kang, Ahryoung Ko, Sang Min Park
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2020; 17(16): 5629.     CrossRef
    • Subnational Burden of Disease According to the Sociodemographic Index in South Korea
      Dun-Sol Go, Young-Eun Kim, Seok-Jun Yoon
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2020; 17(16): 5788.     CrossRef
    • Association between Intention to Quit Cigarette Smoking and Use of Heated Tobacco Products: Application of Smoking Intensity Perspective on Heated Tobacco Product Users
      Dong-Hee Ryu, Soon-Woo Park, Jun Hyun Hwang
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2020; 17(22): 8471.     CrossRef
    • Association between social trust and the risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults in Korea: a nationwide retrospective cohort study
      Seo Eun Hwang, Seulggie Choi, Kyuwoong Kim, Jong-Koo Lee, Juhwan Oh, Sang Min Park
      BMC Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Association of community level social trust and reciprocity with mortality: a retrospective cohort study
      Seulggie Choi, Juhwan Oh, Sang Min Park, Seo Eun Hwang, Hwa-Young Lee, Kyuwoong Kim, Yugo Shobugawa, Ichiro Kawachi, Jong-Koo Lee
      BMC Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Health behaviors in major chronic diseases patients: trends and regional variations analysis, 2008–2017, Korea
      Young-Jee Jeon, Jeehee Pyo, Young-Kwon Park, Minsu Ock
      BMC Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Exploring the Relationship between Forest Structure and Health
      Jinki Kim, Duk-Byeong Park, Jung Il Seo
      Forests.2020; 11(12): 1264.     CrossRef
    • Income differences in screening, incidence, postoperative complications, and mortality of thyroid cancer in South Korea: a national population-based time trend study
      Hee-Yeon Kang, Ikhan Kim, Yeon-Yong Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Young-Ho Khang
      BMC Cancer.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • A Multi-Disciplinary Study Into the Drivers of Smoking Cessation in South Korea
      James E. Prieger, Anna Choi
      SSRN Electronic Journal .2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Comparison of scaling rate data of Community Health Survey and National Health Insurance Service
      Young-Eun Jang, Kang-Ju Son, Chun-Bae Kim, Nam-Hee Kim
      Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health.2019; 43(1): 26.     CrossRef
    • Influence of Neighborhood Environment on Korean Adult Obesity Using a Bayesian Spatial Multilevel Model
      Lee, Lee, Choi, Choi
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2019; 16(20): 3991.     CrossRef
    • Does the national dental scaling policy reduce inequalities in dental scaling usage? A population-based quasi-experimental study
      Eun-Soo Kim, Baek-Il Kim, Hoi In Jung
      BMC Oral Health.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The price of tobacco and its effects on smoking behaviors in Korea: The 2015 Korea Community Health Survey
      Mi Ah Han
      Preventive Medicine.2019; 120: 71.     CrossRef
    • A mediation analysis of the effect of practical training on the relationship between demographic factors, and bystanders’ self-efficacy in CPR performance
      Wonjeong Yoon, Young Sun Ro, Sung-il Cho, Abraham Salinas-Miranda
      PLOS ONE.2019; 14(4): e0215432.     CrossRef
    • Heated tobacco products: Cigarette complements, not substitutes
      Jun Hyun Hwang, Dong Hee Ryu, Soon-Woo Park
      Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2019; 204: 107576.     CrossRef
    • Factors Associated with Single-Use and Co-Use of Tobacco and Alcohol: A Multinomial Modeling Approach
      Jin-Won Noh, Kyoung-Beom Kim, Jooyoung Cheon, Yejin Lee, Ki-Bong Yoo
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2019; 16(19): 3506.     CrossRef
    • Neighborhood Deprivation and Unmet Health Care Needs: A Multilevel Analysis of Older Individuals in South Korea
      Seung Eun Lee, Miyeon Yeon, Chul-Woung Kim, Tae-Ho Yoon, Dongjin Kim, Jihee Choi
      Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2019; 10(5): 295.     CrossRef
    • Influence of dental insurance coverage on access to preventive periodontal care in middle-aged and elderly populations: analysis of representative Korean Community Health Survey Data (2011–2015)
      Young-Eun Jang, Chun-Bae Kim, Nam-Hee Kim
      International Dental Journal.2019; 69(6): 445.     CrossRef
    • Non-linear Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Korean Males
      Chang Kyun Choi, Sun A Kim, Ji-An Jeong, Sun-Seog Kweon, Min-Ho Shin
      Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2019; 52(3): 147.     CrossRef
    • Household food insecurity and breakfast skipping: Their association with depressive symptoms
      Ye Seol Lee, Tae Hyun Kim
      Psychiatry Research.2019; 271: 83.     CrossRef
    • Socioeconomic Inequalities in e-Cigarette Use in Korea: Comparison with Inequalities in Conventional Cigarette Use Using Two National Surveys
      Youngs Chang, Sanghyun Cho, Ikhan Kim, Young-Ho Khang
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2019; 16(22): 4458.     CrossRef
    • Hand Hygiene Practices Among Adults with Diabetes Living in Communities: The 2015 Korea Community Health Survey
      Mi Ah Han
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2019; 16(7): 1279.     CrossRef
    • Association between the Type of Diabetes Treatment and Depressive Symptoms among Patients with Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study of Korea Community Health Surveys Data, 2011–2016
      Hyeon Ji Lee, Jieun Jang, Sang Ah Lee, Sarah Soyeon Oh, Eun-Cheol Park
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2019; 16(22): 4441.     CrossRef
    • A publicly well-accepted measure versus an academically desirable measure of health inequality: cross-sectional comparison of the difference between income quintiles with the slope index of inequality
      Young-Ho Khang, Dohee Lim, Jinwook Bahk, Ikhan Kim, Hee-Yeon Kang, Youngs Chang, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
      BMJ Open.2019; 9(6): e028687.     CrossRef
    • Socioeconomic differences in self- and family awareness of viral hepatitis status among carriers of hepatitis B or C in rural Korea
      Hye-Ran Ahn, Sung-Bum Cho, Ik Joo Chung, Sun-Seog Kweon
      American Journal of Infection Control.2018; 46(3): 328.     CrossRef
    • Changes in the levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety in Ansan city after the 2014 Sewol ferry disaster
      Hee Jung Yang, Gawon Kim, KangUk Lee, Jakyoung Lee, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Soon Young Lee
      Journal of Affective Disorders.2018; 241: 110.     CrossRef
    • Association between Smoking and Unintentional Injuries among Korean Adults
      Kyu-chul Choi, Sun A Kim, Nu Ri Kim, Min-Ho Shin
      Chonnam Medical Journal.2018; 54(3): 184.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence of Participating in Physical Activity From 2 Korean Surveillance Systems: KNHANES and KCHS
      JooYong Park, Aesun Shin, Miyoung Lee, Jaesung Choi, Minkyo Song, Yeonjung Kim, Jong-koo Lee, Daehee Kang, Ji-Yeob Choi
      Journal of Physical Activity and Health.2018; 15(10): 763.     CrossRef
    • Association between objectively measured built environments and adult physical activity in Gyeonggi province, Korea
      Eun Young Lee, Sugie Lee, Bo Youl Choi
      International Journal of Public Health.2018; 63(9): 1109.     CrossRef
    • Association between stages of change for smoking cessation and electronic cigarette use among adult smokers: A nationwide cross-sectional study in Korea
      Boram Kim, Seunghyun Yoo, Sung-il Cho, Mark Allen Pershouse
      PLOS ONE.2018; 13(9): e0204244.     CrossRef
    • Socioeconomic status and self-reported periodontal symptoms in community-dwelling individuals: data from the Korea Community Health Surveys of 2011 and 2013
      Han-Nah Kim, Young-Eun Jang, Chun-Bae Kim, Nam-Hee Kim
      International Dental Journal.2018; 68(6): 411.     CrossRef
    • Hand Hygiene and Tuberculosis Risk in Korea: An Ecological Association
      Mi Ah Han
      Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2018; 30(1): 67.     CrossRef
    • Injury modules in national surveys as a source of injury data in low and middle income countries
      Safa Abdalla
      Injury Prevention.2017; 23(3): 149.     CrossRef
    • Factors Related to Awareness of Cardio-cerebrovascular Disease among Korean Adults: the 2013 Community Health Survey
      Young-Hoon Lee, Se-Eung Noh
      Korean Journal of Health Promotion.2017; 17(2): 99.     CrossRef
    • Breakfast consumption and depressive mood: A focus on socioeconomic status
      Sang Ah Lee, Eun-Cheol Park, Yeong Jun Ju, Tae Hoon Lee, Euna Han, Tae Hyun Kim
      Appetite.2017; 114: 313.     CrossRef
    • The risk of stroke in spouses of people living with dementia in Korea
      Ickpyo Hong, Areum Han, Timothy A Reistetter, Annie N Simpson
      International Journal of Stroke.2017; 12(8): 851.     CrossRef
    • Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Cancer Survivors and Their Family Members: Korea Community Health Survey, 2012
      Mi Han
      International Journal of Environmental Research an.2017; 14(9): 999.     CrossRef
    • Effects of living alone versus with others and of housemate type on smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical activity among elderly people
      Seungmin Jeong, Sung il Cho
      Epidemiology and Health.2017; 39: e2017034.     CrossRef
    • Preventive behaviors by the level of recognized sensitivity to infection during the MERS outbreak in 2015
      Soon Young Lee, Hee Jung Yang, Gawon Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi
      Epidemiology and Health.2016; : e2016051.     CrossRef
    • The Association Among Individual and Contextual Factors and Unmet Healthcare Needs in South Korea: A Multilevel Study Using National Data
      Seung Eun Lee, Miyeon Yeon, Chul-Woung Kim, Tae-Ho Yoon
      Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2016; 49(5): 308.     CrossRef
    • Low socioeconomic status and suicidal ideation among elderly individuals
      Yeong Jun Ju, Eun-Cheol Park, Kyu-Tae Han, Jae Woo Choi, Jeong Lim Kim, Kyoung Hee Cho, Sohee Park
      International Psychogeriatrics.2016; 28(12): 2055.     CrossRef
    • Depression in the Family of Patients With Dementia in Korea
      Sung-In Jang, Hong-Chul Bae, Jaeyong Shin, Suk-yong Jang, Seri Hong, Kyu-Tae Han, Eun-Cheol Park
      American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other De.2016; 31(6): 481.     CrossRef
    • Association between built environment and moderate to vigorous physical activity in Korean adults: a multilevel analysis
      Jimee Kim, Hye-Young Lee, Eun Young Lee
      Journal of Public Health.2016; : fdw025.     CrossRef

    Figure

    PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives