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Volume 6(3); June 2015
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Editorial
Discrimination and Stigma
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):141-142.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.06.004
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  • 16 Download
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Original Articles
Study on the Behavior of Dengue Viruses during Outbreaks with Reference to Entomological and Laboratory Surveillance in the Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, and Tirunelveli Districts of Tamil Nadu, India
Parasuraman Basker, Karumana Gounder Kolandaswamy
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):143-158.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.05.001
  • 1,684 View
  • 23 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study was carried out in order to understand the behavior of dengue viruses through the entomological and laboratory surveillance of outbreaks. The aim of the study was to provide additional research to support current knowledge of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus and ultimately to use this information to forecast dengue as well as to justify intervention measures.
Methods
Data on the presence of Aedes larvae in human dwellings during the entomological surveillance in Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, and Tirunelveli dengue outbreaks were taken to compute indices, namely the House Index (HI), Container index (CI), and the Breteau Index (BI). Standard procedures were followed for nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1) and immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the confirmation of dengue. Serovar confirmation was made in the Kottayam field station of the Vector Control Research Center, Puducherry.
Results
Larval indices HI < 2–3% and BI < 20 contributed to halting the outbreak. Incubation of the dengue viruses in humans was detected at 15 days, NS1 was identified as a tool for the early diagnosis of dengue cases and its presence indicated the need to implement all available interventions. It was also discovered that it is helpful to search for hidden habitats of Aedes when dengue cases have not been reduced even after the sustainable management of the larval indices, HI < 5% and BI < 20. Based on the observed incidences of stopping dengue outbreaks, it was learnt that neighborhood areas of the outbreak villages, around 400 m, should have permissible larval indices < 5% HI and BI < 20. Heterogeneous serovars that led to dengue hemorrhagic fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) were identified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and reconfirmed in the field as DEN-1 and DEN-3 viruses and were circulating in Tirunelveli during the outbreak.
Conclusion
The behaviors of dengue viruses experienced in experimental, clinical, epidemiological, entomological, and laboratory surveillance did not deviate from observations in the field during dengue outbreaks in the Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu, India.
Experience of Late–Middle-Aged Women who Reside in Small and Medium-Sized Cities in Becoming Psychologically Mature Women
Euna Park, Haeok Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):159-163.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.04.002
  • 1,699 View
  • 17 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study is to search the inner world of postmenopausal women in late-middle age who are facing senescence and live in small and medium-sized cities.
Methods
The methods of the study were the investigation and classification of answers to questions according to a declarative ethnography analysis. The questions asked to late–middle-aged women living in small and medium-sized cities were “How do you interpret and recognize the changes in the body after menopause?” and “Which methods do you choose and practice to maintain your health in relation to aging during middle age?”.
Results
Four positive topics and two negative topics were drawn from the study. The four positive themes were: ambition; completion of a great mission; life with a sense of affection; and gratitude for maintaining health. The negative themes were: undulating emotion; and filling the emptiness.
Conclusion
The recognition of changes in the body after menopause in late–middle-aged women in small and medium-sized cities can affect their preparation processes towards senescence. It is critical to find the means to manage emergency health cases from early adulthood to middle age, based on the outcomes of the study. The study also emphasizes the importance of the woman's family's alternative strategies and supportive systems, which can fit into the cultural context of the community.
The Use of Task-based Cognitive Tests for Defining Vocational Aptness of Individuals with Disabilities
Jae-Sung Kwon, Duck-Won Oh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):164-169.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.05.002
  • 1,794 View
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of task-based cognitive tests to detect potential problems in the assessment of work training for vocational rehabilitation.
Methods
Eleven participants with a normal range of cognitive functioning scores were recruited for this study. Participants were all trainees who participated in a vocational training program. The Rey Complex Figure Test and the Allen Cognitive Level Screen were randomly administered to all participants. Responses to the tests were qualitatively analyzed with matrix and scatter charts.
Results
Observational outcomes derived from the tests indicated that response errors, distortions, and behavioral problems occurred in most participants. These factors may impede occupational performance despite normal cognitive function. These findings suggest that the use of task-based tests may be beneficial for detecting potential problems associated with the work performance of people with disabilities.
Conclusion
Specific analysis using the task-based tests may be necessary to complete the decision-making process for vocational aptness. Furthermore, testing should be led by professionals with a higher specialization in this field.
A Study on the Characteristics of Infrequent and Frequent Outpatients Visiting Korean Traditional Medical Facilities
Jinwon Yoon, Haemo Park, Chaeshin Chu, Sung-Yong Choi, Kibum Lee, Sundong Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):170-183.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.06.001
  • 1,648 View
  • 16 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study was intended to analyze the characteristics of infrequent and frequent outpatients visiting Korean medical facilities, and find the related variables of frequent users.
Methods
The data source was the Report on the Usage and Consumption of Korean Medicine (2011) published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. We analyzed outpatient data using SAS 9.2.
Results
As much as 46.6% of the patients used Korean medical services over 11 times in 3 months. The proportion of frequent users increased depending on age, and their proportion was high in the low-income and low-education group. People with musculoskeletal disease, stroke, hypertension, and obesity were more likely to use Korean medical services. In general, patients were satisfied with their treatment, with frequent outpatients being more satisfied than infrequent outpatients. In logistic regression analysis, age and musculoskeletal disease were significant determinants of frequency of use of Korean medical services.
Conclusion
Age, musculoskeletal disease, and specific diseases were highly associated with frequent Korean medical utilization.
Modification of AxSYM Human Immunodeficiency Virus Assay to Identify Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Korean Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Individuals
Jin-Sook Wang, Mee-Kyung Kee, Byeong-Sun Choi, Sung Soon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):184-191.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.06.002
  • 1,589 View
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence using HIV avidity assays in Korea, we established a serological testing method to differentiate recent HIV infections from long-standing ones.
Methods
We adopted two incidence assays, the BED HIV-1 incidence test (Calypte Biomedical) and an HIV avidity assay (using Abbott AxSYM HIV Antigen/Antibody Combo), and performed them on Korean HIV samples obtained from 81 HIV seroconverters (n = 193), 135 HIV-positive samples, and three HIV commercial incidence panels (PRB965, PRB933, and PRB601 from SeaCare). To determine the most optimal concentration of the chaotropic agent (Guanidine) and the cutoff value for the avidity assay, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the assay at different concentration levels.
Results
We determined that the concentration of Guanidine to be used in the avidity assay was 1.5M. The cutoff value of the avidity index (AI) was 0.8, and the sensitivity and specificity were 90.2% and 83.8%, respectively, under this condition. The gray zone for the avidity assay was 0.75–0.85 AI. The mean of coefficient of variation was low, at 5.43%.
Conclusion
An optimized avidity assay for the diagnosis of recent HIV infections using Korean samples was established. This assay will be applied to investigate the level of recent infection and will provide basic data to the HIV prevention policy in Korea.
Identifying Barriers to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing for Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Korea
Aeree Sohn, Byonghee Cho, Harvey A. Kennedy
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):192-200.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.06.003
  • 1,633 View
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  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The principal objective of this study was to identify the barriers to testing for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Korea, something that might prove useful in future studies of this nature.
Methods
This study was conducted at gay bars nationwide in Korea. After considering several offline locations (gay bars) where MSM candidates are commonly located, random recruitment was performed using time–location sampling. A total of 944 individuals participated in this survey. A total sample of 921 cases (23 cases were excluded) was used for analysis. A self-administered questionnaire measuring the individuals' demographics, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS knowledge, stigma, phobia, optimism bias, self-efficacy for condom use, and sexual practices was used.
Results
About 61.8% (N = 569) of respondents reported having been tested at least once in their lifetime, and 38.9% (N = 358) acknowledged being tested within the past 12 months. After adjusting for age, education, and number of partners in a logistic regression analysis, awareness of testing place [odds ratio (OR) = 4.04], exposure to HIV prevention campaign (1.54), fear (OR = 1.13), and discrimination toward people with HIV/AIDS (OR = 0.94) were the main factors associated with HIV testing.
Conclusion
To accomplish widespread HIV testing for Korean MSM, the accessibility of testing centers and advertisement of voluntary counseling and testing to MSM are needed.
High Prevalence of AmpC β-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli in Ilam, Iran
Abbas Maleki, Afra Khosravi, Sobhan Ghafourian, Iraj Pakzad, Shiva Hosseini, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):201-204.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.02.001
  • 1,941 View
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  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Widespread use of β-lactam antibiotics could cause resistance to this group of antibiotics in pathogenic bacteria through the production of the enzyme β-lactamases. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular detection of AmpC β-lactamases among clinical Escherichia coli isolated from Ilam hospitals in Ilam, Iran.
Methods
One hundred and twelve clinical isolates of E. coli were collected from hospitalized patients and were identified by biochemical tests. They were evaluated for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) production, and the positive strains were subjected to AmpC enzymes; for detection of AmpC cluster genes, multiplex polymerase chain reaction was applied.
Results
The analysis showed 62.5% of isolates were ESBLs positive and that five strains revealed the AmpC cluster genes. This is the first report of FOXM cluster genes in E. coli in Iran.
Conclusion
Based on our results, the prevalence of AmpC β-lactamases is increasing in Iran, which caused failure in antibiotic therapy. So, the current study recommended the revision of antibiotic policy in Iranian hospitals.
Joint Disease Mapping of Two Digestive Cancers in Golestan Province, Iran Using a Shared Component Model
Parisa Chamanpara, Abbas Moghimbeigi, Javad Faradmal, Jalal Poorolajal
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):205-210.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.02.002
  • 1,653 View
  • 15 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Recent studies have suggested the occurrence patterns and related diet factor of esophagus cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC). Incidence of these cancers was mapped either in general and stratified by sex. The aim of this study was to model the geographical variation in incidence of these two related cancers jointly to explore the relative importance of an intended risk factor, diet low in fruit and vegetable intake, in Golestan, Iran.
Methods
Data on the incidence of EC and GC between 2004 and 2008 were extracted from Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hamadan, Iran. These data were registered as new observations in 11 counties of the province yearly. The Bayesian shared component model was used to analyze the spatial variation of incidence rates jointly and in this study we analyzed the data using this model. Joint modeling improved the precision of estimations of underlying diseases pattern, and thus strengthened the relevant results.
Results
From 2004 to 2008, the joint incidence rates of the two cancers studied were relatively high (0.8–1.2) in the Golestan area. The general map showed that the northern part of the province was at higher risk than the other parts. Thus the component representing diet low in fruit and vegetable intake had larger effect of EC and GC incidence rates in this part. This incidence risk pattern was retained for female but for male was a little different.
Conclusion
Using a shared component model for joint modeling of incidence rates leads to more precise estimates, so the common risk factor, a diet low in fruit and vegetables, is important in this area and needs more attention in the allocation and delivery of public health policies.
Brief Report
Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles
Yang Wha Kang, Yun Sil Ko, Yoo Jin Kim, Kyoung Mi Sung, Hyo Jin Kim, Hyung Yun Choi, Changhyun Sung, Eunkyeong Jeong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):211-217.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.05.003
  • 1,923 View
  • 21 Download
  • 125 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
In 2008, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the first nationwide survey, Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS), to provide data that could be used to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health promotion and disease prevention programs. This community-based cross-sectional survey has been conducted by 253 community health centers, 35 community universities, and 1500 interviewers. The KCHS standardized questionnaire was developed jointly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff, a working group of health indicators standardization subcommittee, and 16 metropolitan cities and provinces with 253 regional sites. The questionnaire covers a variety of topics related to health behaviors and prevention, which is used to assess the prevalence of personal health practices and behaviors related to the leading causes of disease, including smoking, alcohol use, drinking and driving, high blood pressure control, physical activity, weight control, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, European Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living ), medical service, accident, injury, etc. The KCHS was administered by trained interviewers, and the quality control of the KCHS was improved by the introduction of a computer-assisted personal interview in 2010. The KCHS data allow a direct comparison of the differences of health issues among provinces. Furthermore, the provinces can use these data for their own cost-effective health interventions to improve health promotion and disease prevention. For users and researchers throughout the world, microdata (in the form of SAS files) and analytic guidelines can be downloaded from the KCHS website (http://KCHS.cdc.go.kr/) in Korean.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives