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2 "urinary tract infections"
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Prevalence of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in southwestern Iran
Nabi Jomehzadeh, Khadijeh Ahmadi, Zahra Rahmani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(6):390-395.   Published online December 1, 2021
  • 5,439 View
  • 100 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was undertaken to evaluate AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli urine isolates and to characterize the frequency of plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC)-encoding genes.
Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the disk diffusion technique. AmpC β-lactamase production was assessed with a phenotypic inhibitor-based method. The presence of 6 pAmpC-encoding cluster genes was detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
The proportion of antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolates ranged from 7.4% to 90.5%, and more than half (51.6%) of the total isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Among the 95 E. coli isolates, 60 (63.2%) were found to be cefoxitin-resistant, but only 14 (14.7%) isolates were confirmed as AmpC β-lactamase-producers. In the PCR assay, pAmpC-encoding genes were found in 15 (15.8%) isolates, and blaDHA was the most prevalent type. However, blaFOX, blaMOX, and blaACC genes were not detected in the isolates.
Our findings contributed valuable information concerning antibiotic resistance, confirmatory phenotypic testing for AmpC production, and pAmpC β-lactamase gene content in E. coli isolates in southwestern Iran. The level of MDR recorded in AmpC-producing strains of this study was worrying; therefore, implementing strong infection control approaches to reduce the MDR burden is recommended.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A review of the mechanisms that confer antibiotic resistance in pathotypes of E. coli
    Sina Nasrollahian, Jay P. Graham, Mehrdad Halaji
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association Between Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Genes and Severity of Infection and Resistance to Antibiotics
    Sofía Alejandra Fonseca-Martínez, Ruth Aralí Martínez-Vega, Ana Elvira Farfán-García, Clara Isabel González Rugeles, Libeth Yajaira Criado-Guerrero
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2023; Volume 16: 3707.     CrossRef
  • Extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) prevalence in Nepal: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Christina Khadka, Manita Shyaula, Gopiram Syangtan, Shrijana Bista, Reshma Tuladhar, Anjana Singh, Dev Raj Joshi, Lok R. Pokhrel, Prabin Dawadi
    Science of The Total Environment.2023; 901: 166164.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Resistant Genes in Escherichia coli Isolates from Central China during 2016–2019
    Zui Wang, Qin Lu, Xiaohui Mao, Li Li, Junfeng Dou, Qigai He, Huabin Shao, Qingping Luo
    Animals.2022; 12(22): 3191.     CrossRef
  • Molecular detection and characterization of Shigella spp. harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in children with diarrhea in northwest Iran
    Sahar Sabour, Amir Teimourpour, Jafar Mohammadshahi, Hadi Peeridogaheh, Roghayeh Teimourpour, Taher Azimi, Zahra Hosseinali
    Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-Lactamase gene analysis in Klebsiella Pneumoniae clinical isolates
    Nabi Jomehzadeh, Khadijeh Ahmadi, Hasti Shaabaninejad, Gholamali Eslami
    Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal (BBR.2022; 6(4): 582.     CrossRef
Relationships between Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance among Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections and Commensal Isolates in Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Mehri Habibi, Saeid Bouzari
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(5):217-224.   Published online October 31, 2018
  • 7,267 View
  • 143 Download
  • 31 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the major cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Here, we determined whether sensitivity to antibiotics was related to the prevalence of iron scavenging genes, or to biofilm and hemolysis formation.


A total of 110 UPEC and 30 E coli isolates were collected from the urine of UTI patients and feces of healthy individuals without UTI, respectively. The presence of iron receptor genes and phenotypic properties were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and phenotypic methods, respectively. Susceptibility to routine antibiotics was evaluated using the disc diffusion method.


The prevalence of iron scavenging genes ranged from 21.8% (ireA) to 84.5% (chuA) in the UPEC. Resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime was significantly correlated with the presence of fyuA and iutA iron genes. Biofilm production was significantly associated with the prevalence of fyuA and hma iron genes. A higher degree of antibiotic resistance was exhibited by isolates that produced biofilms than by their non-biofilm producing counterparts.


Our study clearly indicates that biofilm production is associated with antibiotic resistance, and that iron receptors and hemolysin production also contribute to reduced antibiotic sensitivity. These results further our understanding of the role that these virulence factors play during UPEC pathogenesis, which in turn may be valuable for the development of novel treatment strategies against UTIs.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Correlation between antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence determinants in uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Egyptian hospital
    Sara A. Alshaikh, Tarek El-banna, Fatma Sonbol, Mahmoud H. Farghali
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Multidrug resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from urinary tract infections in dogs, Spain
    Ana Abad-Fau, Eloisa Sevilla, Ainara Oro, Inmaculada Martín-Burriel, Bernardino Moreno, Mariano Morales, Rosa Bolea
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Resistant Escherichia coli isolated from wild mammals from two rescue and rehabilitation centers in Costa Rica: characterization and public health relevance
    Rita Fernandes, Raquel Abreu, Isa Serrano, Roger Such, Encarnación Garcia-Vila, Sandy Quirós, Eva Cunha, Luís Tavares, Manuela Oliveira
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Progress toward a vaccine for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) II: efficacy of a toxin-autotransporter dual antigen approach
    Yikun Xing, Justin R. Clark, James D. Chang, Jacob J. Zulk, Dylan M. Chirman, Felipe-Andres Piedra, Ellen E. Vaughan, Haroldo J. Hernandez Santos, Kathryn A. Patras, Anthony W. Maresso, Kimberly A. Kline
    Infection and Immunity.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Escherichia coli isolated from pyometra and cystitis in the same animal exhibit a wide phenotypic similarity
    Camila Azevedo Moni, Maria Eduarda Dias, Cassiane Elisabete Lopes, Franciele Maboni Siqueira
    Journal of Applied Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC)-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: The Molecular Basis for Challenges to Effective Treatment
    Shane Whelan, Brigid Lucey, Karen Finn
    Microorganisms.2023; 11(9): 2169.     CrossRef
  • Susceptibility and Virulence of Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Benin
    Funkè F. Assouma, Haziz Sina, Tomabu Adjobimey, Agossou Damien Pacôme Noumavo, Akim Socohou, Bawa Boya, Ange D. Dossou, Lauriane Akpovo, Basile Boni Saka Konmy, Jacques F. Mavoungou, Adolphe Adjanohoun, Lamine Baba-Moussa
    Microorganisms.2023; 11(1): 213.     CrossRef
  • Association Between Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Genes and Severity of Infection and Resistance to Antibiotics
    Sofía Alejandra Fonseca-Martínez, Ruth Aralí Martínez-Vega, Ana Elvira Farfán-García, Clara Isabel González Rugeles, Libeth Yajaira Criado-Guerrero
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2023; Volume 16: 3707.     CrossRef
  • Incidence of biofilms among the multidrug resistant E. coli, isolated from urinary tract infections in the Nilgiris district, South India
    A. P. Cardiliya, M. J. N. Chandrasekar, M. J. Nanjan
    Brazilian Journal of Microbiology.2023; 54(3): 1809.     CrossRef
  • Correlation of biofilm formation, virulence factors, and phylogenetic groups among Escherichia coli strains causing urinary tract infection: A global systematic review and meta-analysis
    HosseinKarballaei Mirzahosseini, Farhad Najmeddin, Atabak Najafi, Arezoo Ahmadi, Hamidreza Sharifnia, Azad Khaledi, Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh
    Journal of Research in Medical Sciences.2023; 28(1): 66.     CrossRef
  • Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis Caused by Co-Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Multidrug-Resistant Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli: A Case Report
    Shiori Kitaya, Chieko Miura, Ayano Suzuki, Yoshimichi Imai, Koichi Tokuda, Hajime Kanamori
    Applied Microbiology.2023; 3(3): 1046.     CrossRef
  • Fluoroquinolone resistance determinants in carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from urine clinical samples in Thailand
    Parichart Boueroy, Peechanika Chopjitt, Rujirat Hatrongjit, Masatomo Morita, Yo Sugawara, Yukihiro Akeda, Tetsuya Iida, Shigeyuki Hamada, Anusak Kerdsin
    PeerJ.2023; 11: e16401.     CrossRef
  • Characterization of virulence determinants and phylogenetic background of multiple and extensively drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from different clinical sources in Egypt
    Rana El-baz, Heba Shehta Said, Eman Salama Abdelmegeed, Rasha Barwa
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.2022; 106(3): 1279.     CrossRef
  • A global systematic review and meta-analysis on correlation between biofilm producers and non-biofilm producers with antibiotic resistance in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
    Mitra Garousi, Sina Monazami Tabar, Hosein Mirazi, Parnia Asgari, Paniz Sabeghi, Astireh Salehi, Azad Khaledi, Mohammad Ghenaat Pisheh Sanani, Hossein Karballaei Mirzahosseini
    Microbial Pathogenesis.2022; 164: 105412.     CrossRef
  • Virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance and the relationship between these characteristics in uropathogenic Escherichia coli
    Farzaneh Firoozeh, Mohammad Zibaei, Farzad Badmasti, Azad Khaledi
    Gene Reports.2022; 27: 101622.     CrossRef
  • Association between Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates from North Kerala
    Ramya Kumaran, R.V. Geetha, Sabitha Baby
    Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology.2022; 16(2): 867.     CrossRef
  • Characterization of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance pattern of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains in a tertiary care center
    Naveen Kumar M, Sevitha Bhat, Archana Bhat K, Vishwas Saralaya, Shalini Shenoy Mulki
    F1000Research.2022; 11: 1163.     CrossRef
  • Antibiotic Resistance, Biofilm Formation and Sub-Inhibitory Hydrogen Peroxide Stimulation in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
    Prabin Dawadi, Santosh Khanal, Tista Prasai Joshi, Sudeep KC, Reshma Tuladhar, Bijaya Laxmi Maharjan, Anjani Darai, Dev Raj Joshi
    Microbiology Insights.2022; 15: 117863612211352.     CrossRef
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    F1000Research.2022; 11: 1163.     CrossRef
  • Insects, Rodents, and Pets as Reservoirs, Vectors, and Sentinels of Antimicrobial Resistance
    Willis Gwenzi, Nhamo Chaukura, Norah Muisa-Zikali, Charles Teta, Tendai Musvuugwa, Piotr Rzymski, Akebe Luther King Abia
    Antibiotics.2021; 10(1): 68.     CrossRef
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    BMC Infectious Diseases.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Detection of Virulence-Associated Genes in Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Commercial Broilers
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    Antibiotics.2021; 10(11): 1303.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Biofilm Formation and Virulence Genes and Association with Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in Southwestern Iran
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    Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Differences of virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility according to phylogenetic group in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from Korean patients
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    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Changes in Bacterial Spectrum and Resistance Patterns Over Time in the Urine of Patients with Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Due to Spinal Cord Injury
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    Urologia Internationalis.2021; 105(5-6): 483.     CrossRef
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic resistance patterns, and the correlation between biofilm formation with virulence factors in uropathogenic E. coli isolated from urinary tract infections
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives