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mRNA vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant transmission from home care cases to household contacts in South Korea
Hanul Park, Young Joon Park, Sang Eun Lee, Min Jei Lee, Hyungtae Ahn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(6):435-442.   Published online November 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0243
  • 1,544 View
  • 88 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Household contacts of confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) areexposed to a high risk of viral transmission, and secondary incidence is an important indicatorof community transmission. This study analyzed the secondary attack rate and mRNA vaccineeffectiveness against transmission (VET) for index cases (patients treated at home) confirmedto be infected with the Delta and Omicron variants.Methods: The subjects of the study were 4,450 index cases and 10,382 household contacts.Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the secondary attack rate byvaccination status, and adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were identified.Results: The secondary attack rate of the Delta variant was 27.3%, while the secondary attackrate of the Omicron variant was 29.8%. For the Delta variant, groups with less than 90 daysand more than 90 days after 2 doses of mRNA vaccination both showed a VET of 37%. For theOmicron variant, a 64% VET was found among those with less than 90 days after 2 doses ofmRNA vaccination.Conclusion: This study provides useful data on the secondary attack rate and VET of mRNAvaccines for household contacts of COVID-19 cases in South Korea.
Characteristics of hand-to-environment contact during indoor activities in daily life among Korean adults using a video-based observation method
Hyang Soon Oh, Mikyung Ryu, Youngran Yang
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(3):187-195.   Published online June 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0006
  • 3,132 View
  • 76 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of hand-to-environmental contact (HEC) and to identify the factors influencing HEC behavior in Korean adults’ indoor daily life.
Methods
Thirty participants were enrolled from January 14 to February 12, 2018 after providing informed consent for being videotaped. Data were collected by recording their indoor daily lives for 2 hours, resulting in 4,732 HEC cases. To ensure the accuracy and reliability of the HEC readings, 3 training sessions were conducted for the videotape readers. Rereading and verifying randomly selected data ensured the validity of intra- and inter-reader readings.
Results
The most frequent contact items were phones, papers, computer accessories, and furniture surfaces. The contact density (frequency-duration/min) was highest for category II (items occasionally shared by others, 56.8), followed in descending order by category I (items for individual use, 35.9), and category III (public use items, 3.4). Significant differences in contact density were found according to participants’ demographic characteristics.
Conclusion
As mobile phones were the most frequent contact item, regular and strict mobile phone cleansing or disinfection strategies are needed, in addition to preventative measures taken for category II and III items. Avoiding sharing personal items with others, refraining from unnecessary HEC, and maintaining strict hand hygiene are recommended.
COVID-19 transmission: a rapid systematic review of current knowledge
Panagiotis Mourmouris, Lazaros Tzelves, Christiana Roidi, Anastasia Fotsali
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):54-63.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.02
  • 5,238 View
  • 230 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The objective of this study was to identify the potential and definite sources of transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods
Due to time constraints and the acute nature of the pandemic, we searched only PubMed/Medline from inception until January 28, 2021. We analyzed the level of evidence and risk of bias in each category and made suggestions accordingly.
Results
The virus was traced from its potential origin via possible ways of transmission to the last host. Symptomatic human-to-human transmission remains the driver of the epidemic, but asymptomatic transmission can potentially contribute in a substantial manner. Feces and fomites have both been found to contain viable virus; even though transmission through these routes has not been documented, their contribution cannot be ruled out. Finally, transmission from pregnant women to their children has been found to be low (up to 3%).
Conclusion
Even though robust outcomes cannot be easily assessed, medical personnel must maintain awareness of the main routes of transmission (via droplets and aerosols from even asymptomatic patients). This is the first attempt to systematically review the existing knowledge to produce a paper with a potentially significant clinical impact.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Detection and Isolation of SARS-CoV-2 in Serum, Urine, and Stool Specimens of COVID-19 Patients from the Republic of Korea
Jeong-Min Kim, Heui Man Kim, Eun Jung Lee, Hye Jun Jo, Youngsil Yoon, Nam-Joo Lee, Junseock Son, Ye-Ji Lee, Mi Seon Kim, Yong-Pyo Lee, Su-Jin Chae, Kye Ryeong Park, Seung-Rye Cho, Sehee Park, Su Jin Kim, Eunbyeol Wang, SangHee Woo, Aram Lim, Su-Jin Park, JunHyeong Jang, Yoon-Seok Chung, Bum Sik Chin, Jin-Soo Lee, Duko Lim, Myung-Guk Han, Cheon Kwon Yoo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(3):112-117.   Published online May 8, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.3.02
  • 11,673 View
  • 519 Download
  • 82 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection characterized by the main symptoms of pneumonia and fever. It is caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is known to spread via respiratory droplets. We aimed to determine the rate and likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from COVID-19 patients through non-respiratory routes.

Methods

Serum, urine, and stool samples were collected from 74 hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 based on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory samples. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome was extracted from each specimen and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction performed. CaCo-2 cells were inoculated with the specimens containing the SARS-COV-2 genome, and subcultured for virus isolation. After culturing, viral replication in the cell supernatant was assessed.

Results

Of the samples collected from 74 COVID-19 patients, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 15 serum, urine, or stool samples. The virus detection rate in the serum, urine, and stool samples were 2.8% (9/323), 0.8% (2/247), and 10.1% (13/129), and the mean viral load was 1,210 ± 1,861, 79 ± 30, and 3,176 ± 7,208 copy/µL, respectively. However, the SARS-CoV-2 was not isolated by the culture method from the samples that tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 gene.

Conclusion

While the virus remained detectable in the respiratory samples of COVID-19 patients for several days after hospitalization, its detection in the serum, urine, and stool samples was intermittent. Since the virus could not be isolated from the SARS-COV-2-positive samples, the risk of viral transmission via stool and urine is expected to be low.

Citations

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  • Tools and Techniques for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/COVID-19 Detection
    Seyed Hamid Safiabadi Tali, Jason J. LeBlanc, Zubi Sadiq, Oyejide Damilola Oyewunmi, Carolina Camargo, Bahareh Nikpour, Narges Armanfard, Selena M. Sagan, Sana Jahanshahi-Anbuhi
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    Bashir Adelodun, Fidelis Odedishemi Ajibade, AbdulGafar Olatunji Tiamiyu, Nathaniel Azubuike Nwogwu, Rahmat Gbemisola Ibrahim, Pankaj Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Golden Odey, Krishna Kumar Yadav, Afzal Husain Khan, Marina M.S. Cabral-Pinto, Kola Yusuff Kareem, Ha
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Specification of Bacteriophage Isolated Against Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Ahmad Nasser, Reza Azizian, Mohsen Tabasi, Jamil Kheirvari Khezerloo, Fatemah Sadeghpour Heravi, Morovat Taheri Kalani, Norkhoda Sadeghifard, Razieh Amini, Iraj Pakzad, Amin Radmanesh, Farid Azizi Jalilian
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):20-24.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.05
  • 6,664 View
  • 58 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The emergence of resistant bacteria is being increasingly reported around the world, potentially threatening millions of lives. Amongst resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most challenging to treat. This is due to emergent MRSA strains and less effective traditional antibiotic therapies to Staphylococcal infections. The use of bacteriophages (phages) against MRSA is a new, potential alternate therapy. In this study, morphology, genetic and protein structure of lytic phages against MRSA have been analysed.

Methods

Isolation of livestock and sewage bacteriophages were performed using 0.4 μm membrane filters. Plaque assays were used to determine phage quantification by double layer agar method. Pure plaques were then amplified for further characterization. Sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA were run for protein evaluation, and genotyping respectively. Transmission electron microscope was also used to detect the structure and taxonomic classification of phage visually.

Results

Head and tail morphology of bacteriophages against MRSA were identified by transmission electron microscopy and assigned to the Siphoviridae family and the Caudovirales order.

Conclusion

Bacteriophages are the most abundant microorganism on Earth and coexist with the bacterial population. They can destroy bacterial cells successfully and effectively. They cannot enter mammalian cells which saves the eukaryotic cells from lytic phage activity. In conclusion, phage therapy may have many potential applications in microbiology and human medicine with no side effect on eukaryotic cells.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Safia Samir, Amira El-Far, Hend Okasha, Rania Mahdy, Fatima Samir, Sami Nasr
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    Israa M. Abd-Allah, Ghadir S. El-Housseiny, Mohammad Y. Alshahrani, Samar S. El-Masry, Khaled M. Aboshanab, Nadia A. Hassouna
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Effects of Timely Control Intervention on the Spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection
Ilsu Choi, Dong Ho Lee, Yongkuk Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(6):373-376.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.6.03
  • 3,312 View
  • 27 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in Korea caused major economic and social problems. The control intervention was conducted during the MERS-CoV outbreak in Korea immediately after the confirmation of the index case. This study investigates whether the early risk communication with the general public and mass media is an effective preventive strategy.

Methods

The SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, Recovered) model with estimated parameters for the time series data of the daily MERS-CoV incidence in Korea was considered from May to December 2015. For 10,000 stochastic simulations, the SEIR model was computed using the Gillespie algorithm. Depending on the time of control intervention on the 20th, 40th, and 60th days after the identification of the index case, the box plots of MERS-CoV incidences in Korea were computed, and the results were analyzed via ANOVA.

Results

The box plots showed that there was a significant difference between the non-intervention and intervention groups (the 20th day, 40th day, and 60th day groups) and seemed to show no significant difference based on the time of intervention. However, the ANOVA revealed that early intervention was a good strategy to control the disease.

Conclusion

Appropriate risk communication can secure the confidence of the general public in the public health authorities.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Healthcare-associated infections: the hallmark of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus with review of the literature
    J.A. Al-Tawfiq, P.G. Auwaerter
    Journal of Hospital Infection.2019; 101(1): 20.     CrossRef
The Characteristics of Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission Dynamics in South Korea
Yunhwan Kim, Sunmi Lee, Chaeshin Chu, Seoyun Choe, Saeme Hong, Youngseo Shin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(1):49-55.   Published online February 28, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.01.001
  • 2,904 View
  • 24 Download
  • 62 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The outbreak of Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was one of the major events in South Korea in 2015. In particular, this study pays attention to formulating a mathematical model for MERS transmission dynamics and estimating transmission rates.
Methods
Incidence data of MERS-CoV from the government authority was analyzed for the first aim and a mathematical model was built and analyzed for the second aim of the study. A mathematical model for MERS-CoV transmission dynamics is used to estimate the transmission rates in two periods due to the implementation of intensive interventions.
Results
Using the estimates of the transmission rates, the basic reproduction number was estimated in two periods. Due to the superspreader, the basic reproduction number was very large in the first period; however, the basic reproduction number of the second period has reduced significantly after intensive interventions.
Conclusion
It turned out to be the intensive isolation and quarantine interventions that were the most critical factors that prevented the spread of the MERS outbreak. The results are expected to be useful to devise more efficient intervention strategies in the future.

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Articles
A diversity of Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus spp. in a Public Transportation System
Pamela J. Yeh, Dawn M. Simon, Jess A. Millar, H. Forrest Alexander, Darleen Franklin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(3):202-209.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.047
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  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Our goal was to determine the diversity and abundance of Staphylococcus bacteria on different components of a public transportation system in a mid-sized US city (Portland, Oregon) and to examine the level of drug resistance in these bacteria.
Methods
We collected 70 samples from 2 cm × 4 cm sections from seven different areas on buses and trains in Portland, USA, taking 10 samples from each area. We isolated a subset of 14 suspected Staphylococcus spp. colonies based on phenotype, and constructed a phylogeny from16S rRNA sequences to assist in identification. We used the Kirbye–Bauer disk diffusion method to determine resistance levels to six common antibiotics.
Results
We found a range of pathogenic Staphylococcus species. The mean bacterial colony counts were 97.1 on bus and train floors, 80.1 in cloth seats, 9.5 on handrails, 8.6 on seats and armrests at bus stops, 3.8 on the underside of seats, 2.2 on windows, and 1.8 on vinyl seats per 8 cm2 sample area. These differences were significant (p < 0.001). Of the 14 isolates sequenced, 11 were staphylococci, and of these, five were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, while only two displayed intermediate resistance to bacitracin. All 11 isolates were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, and tetracycline.
Conclusions
We found six different strains of Staphylococcus, and while there were varying levels of drug resistance, we did not find extensive levels of multidrug-resistant bacteria, and no S. aureus was found. We found floors and cloth seats to be areas on buses and trains that showed particularly high levels of bacteria.

Citations

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