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Original Articles
Changes in the pattern and disease burden of acute respiratory viral infections before and during the COVID-19 pandemic
Chungmin Park, Donghan Lee, Bryan Inho Kim, Sujin Park, Gyehee Lee, Sangwoo Tak
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):203-211.   Published online June 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0144
  • 2,123 View
  • 122 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We conducted a comparative analysis of the differences in the incidence of 8 acute respiratory viruses and the changes in their patterns before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: Three sentinel surveillance systems of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency and data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service were analyzed. The average numbers of reported cases and the related hospital admissions and outpatient data were compared between April 2018–2019 and 2020–2021. Changes in the disease burden and medical expenditures between these 2 time periods were evaluated. Results: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of reported cases of all acute respiratory viral infections, except for human bocavirus, decreased significantly. Data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service also showed decreases in the actual amount of medical service usage and a marked reduction in medical expenditures. Conclusion: Non-pharmacological interventions in response to COVID-19 showed preventive effects on the transmission of other respiratory viruses, as well as COVID-19. Although COVID-19 had a tremendous impact on society as a whole, with high social costs, there were also positive effects, such as a reduction in the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections.
Spatiotemporal analysis of environmental and physiographic factors related to malaria in Bareilly district, India
Shikhar Chaudhary, Biju Soman
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(2):123-132.   Published online March 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0304
  • 1,984 View
  • 65 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal clustering of reported malaria cases and to study the effects of various environmental and physiographic factors on malaria incidence in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods: Malaria surveillance data were collected from the state health department and cleaned into an analyzable format. These data were analyzed along with meteorological, physiographic, and 2019 population data, which were obtained from the Indian Meteorological Department, National Aeronautics and Space Administration web portal, the Bhuvan platform of the Indian Space Research Organization, and the 2011 Census of India. Results: In total, 46,717 malaria cases were reported in Bareilly district in 2019, of which 25.99% were Plasmodium vivax cases and 74.01% were P. falciparum cases. The reported malaria cases in the district showed clustering, with significant spatial autocorrelation (Moran’s I value=0.63), and space-time clustering (p<0.01). A significant positive correlation was found between monthly malaria incidence and the monthly mean temperature (with a lag of 1−2 months) and rainfall (with a lag of 1 month). A significant negative correlation was detected between the elevation of blocks (i.e., intermediate-level administrative districts) and annual malaria reporting. Conclusion: The presence of space-time clustering of malaria cases and its correlation with meteorological and physiographic factors indicate that routine spatial analysis of the surveillance data could help control and manage malaria outbreaks in the district.
Distribution of Pathogenic Vibrio Species in the Coastal Seawater of South Korea (2017–2018)
Seung Hun Lee, Hee Jung Lee, Go Eun Myung, Eun Jin Choi, In A Kim, Young Il Jeong, Gi Jun Park, Sang Moon Soh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(6):337-342.   Published online December 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.6.03
  • 3,846 View
  • 162 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Pathogenic Vibrio species are widely distributed in warm estuarine and coastal environments, and can infect humans through the consumption of raw or mishandled contaminated seafood and seawater. For this reason, the distribution of these bacteria in South Korea was investigated.

Methods

Seawater samples were collected from 145 coastal area points in the aquatic environment in which Vibrio species live. Environmental data (i.e., water temperature, salinity, turbidity, and atmospheric temperature) was collected which may help predict the distribution of the species (data not shown). Seawater samples were filtered, and incubated overnight in alkaline peptone water, at 37°C. Using species-specific polymerase chain reaction methods, screening tests were performed for the hlyA, ctxA, vvhA, and tlh genes. Clones of pathogenic Vibrio species were isolated using 3 selective plating media.

Results

In 2017, total seawater isolation rates for Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae (non-pathogenic, non-O1, non-O139 serogroups), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were 15.82%, 13.18%, 65.80%, respectively. However, in 2018 isolation rates for each were 21.81%, 19.40%, and 70.05%, respectively.

Conclusion

The isolation rates of pathogenic Vibrio species positively correlated with the temperature of seawater and atmosphere, but negatively correlated with salinity and turbidity. From 2017 to 2018, the most frequent seawater-isolated Vibrio species were V. parahaemolyticus (68.10 %), V. vulnificus (16.54%), and non-toxigenic V. cholerae (19.58%). Comprehensive monitoring, prevention, and control efforts are needed to protect the public from pathogenic Vibrio species.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Nested Spatial and Temporal Modeling of Environmental Conditions Associated With Genetic Markers of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Washington State Pacific Oysters
    Brendan Fries, Benjamin J. K. Davis, Anne E. Corrigan, Angelo DePaola, Frank C. Curriero
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Spatial and temporal effects of fish feed on antibiotic resistance in coastal aquaculture farms
    Shahbaz Raza, Sangki Choi, Minjeong Lee, Jingyeong Shin, Heejong Son, Jinhua Wang, Young Mo Kim
    Environmental Research.2022; 212: 113177.     CrossRef
  • An Assay Combining Droplet Digital PCR With Propidium Monoazide Treatment for the Accurate Detection of Live Cells of Vibrio vulnificus in Plasma Samples
    Ling Hu, Yidong Fu, Shun Zhang, Zhilei Pan, Jiang Xia, Peng Zhu, Jing Guo
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Seasonal variation, virulence gene and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio in a semi-enclosed bay with mariculture (Dongshan Bay, Southern China)
    Qiancheng Gao, Xiaowan Ma, Zhichao Wang, Haisheng Chen, Yu Luo, Bi Wu, Shanni Qi, Miaozhen Lin, Jing Tian, Ying Qiao, Hans-Peter Grossart, Wei Xu, Lixing Huang
    Marine Pollution Bulletin.2022; 184: 114112.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Profiles of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Vibrio spp. Isolated from Coastal Seawater for Aquaculture
    Saharuetai Jeamsripong, Varangkana Thaotumpitak, Saran Anuntawirun, Nawaphorn Roongrojmongkhon, Edward R. Atwill, Woranich Hinthong
    Antibiotics.2022; 11(12): 1688.     CrossRef
  • Meteorological and Water Quality Factors Associated with Microbial Diversity in Coastal Water from Intensified Oyster Production Areas of Thailand
    Saharuetai Jeamsripong, Varangkana Thaotumpitak, Saran Anuntawirun, Nawaphorn Roongrojmongkhon, Edward R. Atwill
    Water.2022; 14(23): 3838.     CrossRef
  • Predictive models for the effect of environmental factors on the abundance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster farms in Taiwan using extreme gradient boosting
    Nodali Ndraha, Hsin-I Hsiao, Yi-Zeng Hsieh, Abani K. Pradhan
    Food Control.2021; 130: 108353.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, detection of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogen Vibrio species isolated from different types of seafood samples at “La Nueva Viga” market in Mexico City
    Ana Karen Álvarez-Contreras, Elsa Irma Quiñones-Ramírez, Carlos Vázquez-Salinas
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.2021; 114(9): 1417.     CrossRef
Brief Report
Enhancing ‘Whole-of-Government’ Response to Biological Events in Korea: Able Response 2014
Sangwoo Tak, Anton Jareb, Suon Choi, Marvin Sikes, Yeon Hwa Choi, Hyeong-wook Boo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(1):32-35.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.06
  • 3,601 View
  • 34 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Since 2011, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and United States (U.S.) have been collaborating to conduct inter- and intra-governmental exercises to jointly respond to biological events in Korea. These exercises highlight U.S. interest in increasing its global biosurveillance capability and the ROK’s interest in improving cooperation among ministries to respond to crises. With Able Response (AR) exercises, the ROK and U.S. have improved coordination among US and ROK government and defense agencies responding to potential bio-threats and identified additional areas on which to apply refinements in policies and practices. In 2014, the AR exercise employed a Biosurveillance Portal (BSP) to facilitate more effective communication among participating agencies and countries including Australia. In the present paper, we seek to provide a comprehensive assessment of the AR 2014 (AR14) exercise and make recommendations for future improvements. Incorporating a more realistic response in future scenarios by integrating a tactical response episode in the exercise is recommended.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Whole of government and whole of society approaches: call for further research to improve population health and health equity
    Flaminia Ortenzi, Robert Marten, Nicole B Valentine, Aku Kwamie, Kumanan Rasanathan
    BMJ Global Health.2022; 7(7): e009972.     CrossRef
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    Carrie M Long, Andrea Marzi
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases.2021; 21(8): e222.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Tuberculosis Notification Completeness and Timeliness in the Republic of Korea During 2012–2014
Hae-Young Kang, Hyosoon Yoo, Wonseo Park, Unyeong Go, Eunkyeong Jeong, Ki-Suck Jung, Hyunjin Son
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):320-326.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.08.002
  • 2,577 View
  • 22 Download
  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Completeness and timeliness are key attributes of accurate disease surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the completeness and timeliness of tuberculosis (TB) notification in the Republic of Korea, by comparing notification data from the Korean National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and reimbursement data from the National Health Insurance.
Methods
We evaluated reimbursement data from 103,075 cases (2012–2014) and surveillance data from 215,055 cases (2011–2015); cases were matched using Resident Registration Numbers. Completeness was evaluated using notifications that were reported within 365 days of the corresponding insurance claim. Timeliness was evaluated using the delay between starting TB treatment and the corresponding notification. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze factors that affected completeness (e.g., sex, age, institution type, and nationality).
Results
The completeness values were 90.0% in 2012 (33,094/36,775), 93.0% in 2013 (31,445/33,803), and 94.0% in 2014 (30,537/32,497). The rates of notification within 7 days of the corresponding claim were 81.6% in 2012 (27,323/33,489), 79.8% in 2013 (25,469/31,905), and 80.4% in 2014 (24,891/30,978). Increases over time were observed in the sex-, age-, institution type-, and nationality-specific analyses. Multivariate analyses revealed that completeness was affected by institution type [hospitals: odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, p < 0.001; general hospitals: OR = 4.18, p < 0.001] and nationality (native Korean status: OR = 1.48, p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Notification completeness exhibited a 4.0% increase during 2012–2014 in Korea, and institution type and nationality significantly affected the completeness of TB notifications.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cohort Profile: Korean Tuberculosis and Post-Tuberculosis Cohort Constructed by Linking the Korean National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and National Health Information Database
    Dawoon Jeong, Hee-Yeon Kang, Jinsun Kim, Hyewon Lee, Bit-Na Yoo, Hee-Sun Kim, Hongjo Choi
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(3): 253.     CrossRef
  • Hidden loss to follow-up among tuberculosis patients managed by public–private mix institutions in South Korea
    Hyung Woo Kim, Sohee Park, Jinsoo Min, Jiyu Sun, Ah Young Shin, Jick Hwan Ha, Jae Seuk Park, Sung-Soon Lee, Marc Lipman, Ibrahim Abubakar, Helen R. Stagg, Ju Sang Kim
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Tao Li, Lijia Yang, Sarah E. Smith-Jeffcoat, Alice Wang, Hui Guo, Wei Chen, Xin Du, Hui Zhang
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2021; 18(5): 2264.     CrossRef
  • Quality and Utility of Information Captured by Surveillance Systems Relevant to Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR): A Systematic Review
    Mustafa Al-Haboubi, Rebecca E. Glover, Elizabeth Eastmure, Mark Petticrew, Nick Black, Nicholas Mays
    Antibiotics.2021; 10(4): 431.     CrossRef
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    Seongman Bae, Ye-Jee Kim, Min-ju Kim, Jwa Hoon Kim, Sung-Cheol Yun, Jiwon Jung, Min Jae Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sung-Han Kim, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Sang-Oh Lee
    Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer.2021; 9(9): e002960.     CrossRef
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    Frederik D. Thrane, Peter H. Andersen, Isik S. Johansen, Inge K. Holden
    Scandinavian Journal of Public Health.2020; 48(8): 870.     CrossRef
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    Honghyok Kim, Sarah Yu, Hongjo Choi
    Epidemiology and Health.2020; 42: e2020012.     CrossRef
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    Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.2020; 83(3): 218.     CrossRef
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    BMC Infectious Diseases.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    BMC Public Health.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Mi Joo, Mi Han, Sun Park, Hwan Shin
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    Cho, Kyung Sook
    Health and Social Welfare Review.2017; 37(4): 179.     CrossRef
Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Diarrheal Patients in Korea in 2014
Nan-Ok Kim, Su-Mi Jung, Hae-Young Na, Gyung Tae Chung, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Won Keun Seong, Sahyun Hong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(4):233-240.   Published online August 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.07.005
  • 2,056 View
  • 18 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The aim of this study was to characterize the pathogens responsible for causing diarrhea according to season, region of isolation, patient age, and sex as well as to provide useful data for the prevention of diarrheal disease.
Methods
Stool specimens from 14,886 patients with diarrhea were collected to identify pathogenic bacteria from January 2014 to December 2014 in Korea. A total of 3,526 pathogenic bacteria were isolated and analyzed according to season, region of isolation, and the age and sex of the patient.
Results
The breakdown of the isolated pathogenic bacteria were as follows: Salmonella spp. 476 (13.5%), pathogenic Escherichia coli 777 (22.0%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus 26 (0.74%), Shigella spp. 13 (0.37%), Campylobacter spp. 215 (6.10%), Clostridium perfringens 508 (14.4%), Staphylococcus aureus 1,144 (32.4%), Bacillus cereus 356 (10.1%), Listeria monocytogenes 1 (0.03%), and Yersinia enterocolitica 10 (0.3%). The isolation rate trend showed the highest ratio in the summer season from June to September for most of the pathogenic bacteria except the Gram-positive bacteria. The isolation rate of most of the pathogenic bacteria by patient age showed highest ratio in the 0–19 year age range. For isolation rate by region, 56.2% were isolated from cities and 43.8% were isolated from provinces.
Conclusion
Hygiene education should be addressed for diarrheal disease-susceptible groups, such as those younger than 10 years, aged 10–19 years, and older than 70 years, and monitoring for the pathogens is still required. In addition, an efficient laboratory surveillance system for infection control should be continued.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence, co-infection and seasonality of fecal enteropathogens from diarrheic cats in the Republic of Korea (2016–2019): a retrospective study
    Ye-In Oh, Kyoung-Won Seo, Do-Hyung Kim, Doo-Sung Cheon
    BMC Veterinary Research.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from dromedary camels, pastures and herders
    Mahmoud Fayez, Ibrahim Elsohaby, Theeb Al-Marri, Kamal Zidan, Ali Aldoweriej, Elham El-Sergany, Ahmed Elmoslemany
    Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectiou.2020; 70: 101460.     CrossRef
  • Comparative Analysis of Aerotolerance, Antibiotic Resistance, and Virulence Gene Prevalence in Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Retail Raw Chicken and Duck Meat in South Korea
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    Microorganisms.2019; 7(10): 433.     CrossRef
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    Youn Jeong Kim, Ki-Ho Park, Dong-Ah Park, Joonhong Park, Byoung Wook Bang, Seung Soon Lee, Eun Jung Lee, Hyo-Jin Lee, Sung Kwan Hong, Yang Ree Kim
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    Chizoba Mercy Enemchukwu, Angus Nnamdi Oli, Ebere Innocent Okoye, Nonye Treasure Ujam, Emmanuel O. Osazuwa, George Ogonna Emechebe, Kenneth Nchekwube Okeke, Christian Chukwuemeka Ifezulike, Obiora Shedrack Ejiofor, Jude Nnaemeka Okoyeh
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    Reza Ranjbar, Mehrdad Halaji
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    Jay Prakash Yadav, Suresh Chandra Das, Pankaj Dhaka, Deepthi Vijay, Manesh Kumar, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Goutam Chowdhury, Pranav Chauhan, Rahul Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Satya Veer Singh Malik, Ashok Kumar
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    Jin Eui Kim, Young ju Lee
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Emerging Pathogens and Vehicles of Food- and Water-borne Disease Outbreaks in Korea, 2007–2012
Shinje Moon, Il-Woong Sohn, Yeongseon Hong, Hyungmin Lee, Ji-Hyuk Park, Geun-Yong Kwon, Sangwon Lee, Seung-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):34-39.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.12.004
  • 1,971 View
  • 16 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Food- and water-borne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) are an important public health problem worldwide. This study investigated the trends in FBDOs in Korea and established emerging causal pathogens and causal vehicles.
Methods
We analyzed FBDOs in Korea by year, location, causal pathogens, and causal vehicles from 2007 to 2012. Information was collected from the FBDOs database in the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Results
During 2007–2012, a total of 1794 FBDOs and 48,897 patients were reported. After 2007, FBDOs and patient numbers steadily decreased over the next 2 years and then plateaued until 2011. However, in 2012, FBDOs increased slightly accompanied by a large increase in the number of affected patients. Our results highlight the emergence of norovirus and pathogenic Escherichia coli other than enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in schools in 2012. We found that pickled vegetables is an emerging causal vehicle responsible for this problem.
Conclusion
On the basis of this study we recommend intensified inspections of pickled vegetable manufacturers and the strengthening of laboratory surveillance of relevant pathogens.

Citations

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Study on Entomological Surveillance and its Significance during a Dengue Outbreak in the District of Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India
Parasuraman Basker, Pichai Kannan, Rajagopal Thirugnanasambandam Porkaipandian, Sivsankaran Saravanan, Subramaniam Sridharan, Mahaligam Kadhiresan
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(3):152-158.   Published online June 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.04.005
  • 2,003 View
  • 16 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To study the significance of entomological surveillance, the house index (HI), container index (CI), and Breteau index (BI) were determined to estimate the degree of a major dengue outbreak in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India (Latitude: 8°42′N; Longitude: 77°42′E) in May 2012.
Methods
The HI, CI, and BI were determined in a primary health center (PHC) in the village of Maruthamputhur (Pappakudi taluk, Tirunelveli) by carrying out an antilarval (AL) work that involved door-to-door search for immature stages of Aedes spp. mosquitoes by trained field workers and volunteers. The work of field workers was evaluated by a junior and senior entomologist the following day.
Results
Before the AL work, the reported numbers of fever cases from Week 1 to 5 in Maruthamputhur were 211, 394, 244, 222, and 144 with two deaths. By contrast, after the AL work, these numbers were considerably reduced and there was no fever-related death (the HI was reduced from 48.2% to 1.6%, the CI from 28.6% to 0.4%, and the BI from 48.2 to 1.6).
Conclusion
Because no specific medicine and vaccines are available to treat dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, entomological surveillance and its significance can be used to halt the outbreak of dengue as shown in this study.

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Review Article
Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases
Jeongmin Lee, Su Yeon Kim, Kyu Jam Hwang, Young Ran Ju, Hee-Jong Woo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(1):57-66.   Published online February 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.12.008
  • 1,969 View
  • 16 Download
  • 18 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea.

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Articles
Early Detection of Nosocomial Outbreaks Caused by Rare Pathogens: A Case Study Employing Score Prediction Interval
Hiroshi Nishiura
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(3):121-127.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.07.010
  • 1,827 View
  • 14 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Nosocomial outbreaks involve only a small number of cases and limited baseline data. The present study proposes a method to detect the nosocomial outbreaks caused by rare pathogens, exploiting score prediction interval of a Poisson distribution.
Methods
The proposed method was applied to three empirical datasets of nosocomial outbreaks in Japan: outbreaks of (1) multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 46) from 2009 to 2010, (2) multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aerginosa (n = 18) from 2009 to 2010, and (3) Serratia marcescens (n = 226) from 1999 to 2000.
Results
The proposed method successfully detected all three outbreaks during the first 2 months. Both the model-based and empirically derived threshold values indicated that the nosocomial outbreak of rare infectious disease may be declared upon diagnosis of index case(s), although the sensitivity and specificity were highly variable.
Conclusion
The findings support the practical notion that, upon diagnosis of index patient(s), one should immediately start the outbreak investigation of nosocomial outbreak caused by a rare pathogen. The proposed score prediction interval can permit easy computation of outbreak threshold in hospital settings among healthcare experts.

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Original Articles
Modeling for Estimating Influenza Patients from ILI Surveillance Data in Korea
Joo-Sun Lee, Sun-Hee Park, Jin-Woong Moon, Jacob Lee, Yong Gyu Park, Yong Kyun Roh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(2):89-93.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.08.001
  • 2,032 View
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  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective Prediction of influenza incidence among outpatients from an influenza surveillance system is important for public influenza strategy.
Methods
We developed two influenza prediction models through influenza surveillance data of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (each year, each province and metropolitan city; total reported patients with influenza-like illness stratified by age) for 6 years from 2005 to 2010 and disease-specific data (influenza code J09-J11, monthly number of influenza patients, total number of outpatients and hospital visits) from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service.
Results
Incidence of influenza in each area, year, and month was estimated from our prediction models, which were validated by simulation processes. For example, in November 2009, Seoul and Joenbuk, the final number of influenza patients calculated by prediction models A and B underestimated actual reported cases by 64 and 833 patients, respectively, in Seoul and 6 and 9 patients, respectively, in Joenbuk. R-square demonstrated that prediction model A was more suitable than model B for estimating the number of influenza patients.
Conclusion
Our prediction models from the influenza surveillance system could estimate the nationwide incidence of influenza. This prediction will provide important basic data for national quarantine activities and distributing medical resources in future pandemics.

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  • Assessment of Intensive Vaccination and Antiviral Treatment in 2009 Influenza Pandemic in Korea
    Chaeshin Chu, Sunmi Lee
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(1): 47.     CrossRef
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    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
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    Young June Choe, Hyunju Lee, Hoan Jong Lee, Eun Hwa Choi
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    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
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Surveillance and Control of Rubella in the Republic of Korea From 2001 to 2009: The Necessity for Enhanced Surveillance to Monitor Congenital Rubella Syndrome
Young June Choe, Sang Taek Lee, Kyung Min Song, Heeyeon Cho, Geun-Ryang Bae, Jong-Koo Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2010;1(1):23-28.   Published online December 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2010.12.007
  • 1,840 View
  • 15 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to review the epidemiologic data of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) supplied by surveillance systems from 2001 to 2009 and to propose measures to improve the quality of the surveillance system in the Republic of Korea.
Methods
The epidemiological data for rubella and CRS cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2001 to 2009 were retrospectively reviewed, and insurance reimbursement data from the Korea National Health Insurance Review Agency were collected for comparison.
Results
The number of yearly reported rubella cases to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2001 to 2009 was 128, 24, 8, 24, 15, 12, 35, 30, and 36, respectively. The occurrence of rubella shifted to a slightly higher age group during the 9-year period, i.e. from 0–9 years to 10–19 years. Among the 309 reported rubella cases, three were confirmed cases of CRS. In addition, according to data sourced from Health Insurance Review Agency, 24, 19, 19, 9, and 5 CRS cases were reported for medical insurance reimbursement from 2005 to 2009, respectively.
Conclusion
According to available surveillance data, the reported cases of rubella and CRS were not high, but a more detailed surveillance with emphasis on susceptible women of childbearing age is necessary for better monitoring and control of rubella and CRS in the Republic of Korea.

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    Seung-Ah Choe, Young June Choe, Jin Young Paek
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    Jill Hutton
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives