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Original Article
How do Sexual Identity, and Coming Out Affect Stress, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation and Attempts Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in South Korea?
Byonghee Cho, Aeree Sohn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):281-288.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.09.001
  • 2,110 View
  • 25 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study investigated the status of sexual identity, perceived stigma, stress, depression, and suicidal ideation and attempts. It also examined how sexual identity and “coming out” affect stress, depression, and suicidal ideation and attempts.
Methods
Suicidal ideation, psychological health status, and health-related behaviors were assessed using the Internet to maximize the confidentiality of the participants, men who have sex with men (MSM). The data were collected from a total of 873 MSM aged between 19 years and 59 years in 2014.
Results
Only 20.9% of the MSM had come out (18.0% voluntarily and 2.9% by others). The prevalences of perceived stress and depression among MSM were 46.7% and 42.7%, respectively, compared with 20.1% and 7.4% among general men. Approximately 32% of the MSM reported any suicidal ideation, and 3.3% had attempted suicide in the past year. The likelihood of suicidal ideation was significantly associated with being age 30–39 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8], high school or less (OR = 1.6), having been outed (OR = 5.2), feeling stressed (OR = 1.8), and feeling depressed (OR = 12.4) after sociodemographic factors and other perceptions were controlled for.
Conclusion
The present study provides evidence that MSM are at an elevated risk for suicidal ideation and attempts with high stress and depression. Some risk factors were specific to being gay or bisexual in a hostile environment.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • HIV-Related Stigma, Sexual Identity, and Depressive Symptoms Among MSM Living With HIV in China: A Moderated Mediation Modeling Analysis
    Tianyue Mi, Guanghua Lan, Xueying Yang, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Zhiyong Shen, Yuejiao Zhou
    American Journal of Men's Health.2022; 16(2): 155798832210875.     CrossRef
  • Age Differences in the Associations Between Outness and Suicidality Among LGBTQ+ Youth
    Brian A. Feinstein, Ethan H. Mereish, Mary Rose Mamey, Cindy J. Chang, Jeremy T. Goldbach
    Archives of Suicide Research.2022; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Sexual Minority Stigma, Sexual Orientation Concealment, Social Support and Depressive Symptoms Among Men Who have Sex with Men in China: A Moderated Mediation Modeling Analysis
    Changmian Ding, Xiangfan Chen, Wei Wang, Bin Yu, Huimin Yang, Xiaoyan Li, Shumin Deng, Hong Yan, Shiyue Li
    AIDS and Behavior.2020; 24(1): 8.     CrossRef
  • TRANSNATIONAL INTEREST CONVERGENCE AND GLOBAL KOREA AT THE EDGE OF RACE AND QUEER EXPERIENCES
    Patrick S. Thomsen
    Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race.2020; 17(2): 411.     CrossRef
  • Is Perceived Stigma in Clinical Settings Associated With Poor Health Status Among New York City’s Residents of Color?
    Prabal De, Alexis Pozen, Henna Budhwani
    Medical Care.2019; 57(12): 960.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of depression and anxiety between HIV-negative men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and men who have sex with men only (MSMO): a cross-sectional study in Western China
    Ying Hu, Xiao-ni Zhong, Bin Peng, Yan Zhang, Hao Liang, Jiang-hong Dai, Juying Zhang, Xiao-hua Zhong, Ai-long Huang
    BMJ Open.2019; 9(1): e023498.     CrossRef
  • Transgender Women's Experiences with Stigma, Trauma, and Attempted Suicide in the Dominican Republic
    Henna Budhwani, Kristine R. Hearld, Adrienne N. Milner, Rebecca Charow, Elaine M. McGlaughlin, Mayra Rodriguez-Lauzurique, Santo Rosario, Robert Paulino-Ramirez
    Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior.2018; 48(6): 788.     CrossRef
  • The Reciprocal Relationship between Suicidality and Stigma
    Bernardo Carpiniello, Federica Pinna
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Fallen Flowers
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2016; 7(5): 279.     CrossRef
Articleses
Changes in Human Immunodeficiency Virusrelated Knowledge and Stigmatizing Attitudes among Korean Adolescents from 2006 to 2011
Aeree Sohn, SungBok Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):107-112.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.04.006
  • 1,936 View
  • 19 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study assessed the prevalence and changes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge and stigmatizing attitudes in 2006, 2008, and 2011.
Methods
Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006, 2008, and 2011. A cross-sectional sample of high school students in Seoul, South Korea was targeted. A self-administered questionnaire measuring general and transmission and discriminatory attitudes was used.
Results
Misconceptions about casual contact were widespread, even though the proportion responding incorrectly decreased significantly over the 5-year period. The respondents in all surveys displayed a high level of discrimination against those with HIV/AIDS in some situations, particularly in the idea of HIV/AIDS making the respondent feel disgusted (63.3% in 2006, 57.5% in 2008, and 52.6% in 2011), avoiding sitting with people with HIV/AIDS (50.6% in 2006, 50.5% in 2008, and 48.5% in 2011), and blaming those with HIV for becoming infected (46.6% in 2006, 42.8% in 2008, and 43.0% in 2011). Even though respondents had a high level of stigmatizing attitudes, the survey showed that the stigma has declined over the 5-year period.
Conclusion
The survey results showed that public health policy should recognize that HIV stigmatizing attitudes persist in Korea. This finding has implications for the development of intervention programs focusing on reducing the levels of discrimination.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Barriers and Facilitators toward HIV Testing and Health Perceptions among African-American Men Who Have Sex with Women at a South Side Chicago Community Health Center: A Pilot Study
    Ian J. Cooke, Rohan D. Jeremiah, Nataka J. Moore, Karriem Watson, Michael A. Dixon, Gregory L. Jordan, Marcus Murray, Mary K. Keeter, Courtney M. P. Hollowell, Adam B. Murphy
    Frontiers in Public Health.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Discrimination and Stigma
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(3): 141.     CrossRef
  • Identifying Barriers to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing for Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Korea
    Aeree Sohn, Byonghee Cho, Harvey A. Kennedy
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(3): 192.     CrossRef
  • Changing Patterns of HIV Epidemic in 30 Years in East Asia
    S. Pilar Suguimoto, Teeranee Techasrivichien, Patou Masika Musumari, Christina El-saaidi, Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele, Masako Ono-Kihara, Masahiro Kihara
    Current HIV/AIDS Reports.2014; 11(2): 134.     CrossRef
  • HIV Stigmatization Harms Individuals and Public Health
    Jun Yong Choi
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2014; 46(2): 139.     CrossRef
  • What is Next for HIV/AIDS in Korea?
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2013; 4(6): 291.     CrossRef
  • Can Stigma Still Distort the Spectrum of a Disease?
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2012; 3(2): 65.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sexual Behaviors in HIV/AIDS and Predictors Affecting Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Korea
    Aeree Sohn, Byonghee Cho
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2012; 3(3): 156.     CrossRef
HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Stigmatizing Attitudes, and Related Behaviors and Factors that Affect Stigmatizing Attitudes against HIV/AIDS among Korean Adolescents
Aeree Sohn, SungBok Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):24-30.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.01.004
  • 1,991 View
  • 14 Download
  • 27 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study examined the sex differentials for specific aspects of knowledge regarding HIV, stigmatizing attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS (PWHAs) and sexual behavior. In addition, the factors that affect stigmatizing attitudes toward PWHAs were investigated.
Methods
The population of this study comprised of senior high students in Seoul, Korea. Eight high schools were selected randomly and 1566 adolescents participated in the survey. A total sample of 1548 cases (18 cases were excluded) was used for analysis. A self-administered questionnaire measuring their general and transmission and discriminatory attitudes was used.
Results
The level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among Korean adolescents was low, as indicated by a correct response rate of 54% (7.0 out of 13). The students answered correctly about HIV transmission by kissing at 50.2%, toilets at 59.4%, cup sharing at 57.4%, and daily school life at 60.5%. The level of discriminatory attitudes towards HIV-infected persons was high. Boys reported a higher proportion of sexual experience (7.0% vs. 2.6%, OR=2.89, p < 0.001). Only 39.0% used a condom during their last sexual encounter and more girls (53.3%) than boys (35.3%) reported using a condom.
Conclusions
These findings highlight the need for increasing HIV knowledge, reducing HIV stigma, and providing sex education focusing on safer sex practices.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS and associated factors among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis using the most recent demographic and health survey of each country
    Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale, Yigizie Yeshaw, Adugnaw Zeleke Alem, Hiwotie Getaneh Ayalew, Alemneh Mekuriaw Liyew, Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema, Misganaw Gebrie Worku, Tesfa Sewunet Alamneh
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission modes and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS infected people and the level of HIV/AIDS awareness among the general population in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study
    Fadi S. Qashqari, Radi T. Alsafi, Saeed M. Kabrah, Rayda'a A. AlGary, Sara A. Naeem, Malak S. Alsulami, Hatim Makhdoom
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Correlates of Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Knowledge among Women Aged 15–49 Years in Pakistan
    Hira Siddique, Saira Abbas, Muhammad Rizwan Safdar, Muhammad Atif Ayoub, Mahnoor Shahzad
    Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences.2022; : 167.     CrossRef
  • Positive attitudes towards persons living with HIV in North Kosovo: The university students' perspective
    Marija Milic, Jelena Dotlic, Tatjana Gazibara, Milan Parlic, Desmond Nicholson, Katarina Mitic, Dragoslav Lazic, Jasmina Stevanovic
    Health & Social Care in the Community.2021; 29(4): 1100.     CrossRef
  • Suboptimal medication adherence in young women living with HIV infection: a Korean nationwide claims study
    Eunyoung Lee, Jungmee Kim, Ji Hwan Bang, Jin Yong Lee
    AIDS Care.2021; 33(7): 938.     CrossRef
  • What do patients consulting in a free sexual health center know about HIV transmission and post-exposure prophylaxis?
    Christelle Duteil, Elise de La Rochebrochard, Prescillia Piron, Christophe Segouin, Pénélope Troude
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards people living with HIV/AIDS in Lebanon
    Lara Youssef, Souheil Hallit, Hala Sacre, Pascale Salameh, Michelle Cherfan, Marwan Akel, Mira Hleyhel, Anthony J. Santella
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(3): e0249025.     CrossRef
  • Effect of a confirmatory testing algorithm on early acute HIV diagnosis in Korea
    Jin-Sook Wang, Hyo-Jung Sim, Su-Jin Park, Gye-Ryeng Park, Chun Kang, Yoon-Seok Chung
    Medicine.2021; 100(17): e25632.     CrossRef
  • Factors affecting stigma communication towards people living with HIV/AIDS
    Hye-Won Kim, Hyejin Yang
    The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing .2021; 27(2): 163.     CrossRef
  • HIV/AIDS: Are our secondary school students in Zaria metropolis receiving adequate communication from their families?
    FahadAbubakar Saulawa, ZaharaddeenShuaibu Babandi, Aminu Lawal, UmarMuhammad Umar, HalimaOmolara Olorukooba, AbdulhakeemAbayomi Olorukooba
    Nigerian Journal of Medicine.2021; 30(4): 426.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge and attitudes on HIV/AIDS and HIV testing among basic school students in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana
    Alfred Brown Kwarteng, Yulia Skokova, Williams Agyemang-Duah
    Journal of Public Health.2020; 28(2): 181.     CrossRef
  • “Who knows more, and why?” Explaining socioeconomic-related inequality in knowledge about HIV in Malawi
    Gowokani Chijere Chirwa
    Scientific African.2020; 7: e00213.     CrossRef
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stigma among general population in Isfahan metropolis in Central Iran
    Fatemeh Ebrahimi, Setayesh Sindarreh, Maryam Nasirian
    Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services.2020; 19(3): 220.     CrossRef
  • The Symbolic Meaning of HIV: Understanding Lecturers’ Ambivalence over Teaching HIV to Dietetic Students
    Mutiara Tirta Prabandari Lintang Kusuma, Tandalayo Kidd, Nancy Muturi, Sandra Butin Procter, Linda Yarrow, Wei-Wen Hsu
    Journal of the International Association of Provid.2020; 19: 232595822093975.     CrossRef
  • A cross-sectional survey to assess the risk factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes towards patients with podoconiosis among rural youth in southern Ethiopia
    Kibur Engdawork, Gail Davey, Desta Ayode, Colleen M McBride, Getnet Tadele
    Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medi.2020; 114(12): 995.     CrossRef
  • Sexual risk behaviours and HIV knowledge and beliefs of Shan migrants from Myanmar living with HIV in Chiang Mai, Thailand
    Amporn Jirattikorn, Arunrat Tangmunkongvorakul, Patou Masika Musumari, Arratee Ayuttacorn, Kriengkrai Srithanaviboonchai, Cathy Banwell, Matthew Kelly
    International Journal of Migration, Health and Soc.2020; 16(4): 543.     CrossRef
  • HPV Vaccination and Korean American College Women: Cultural Factors, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Cervical Cancer Prevention
    Minjin Kim, Haeok Lee, Peter Kiang, Teri Aronowitz, Lisa Kennedy Sheldon, Ling Shi, Sun Kim, Jeroan Allison
    Journal of Community Health.2019; 44(4): 646.     CrossRef
  • Children’s Thinking about HIV/AIDS Causality, Prevention, and Social Interaction
    Carol K. Sigelman
    Journal of Child and Family Studies.2018; 27(10): 3288.     CrossRef
  • Human Papillomavirus: A Qualitative Study of Korean American Female College Students’ Attitudes Toward Vaccination

    Minjin Kim, Haeok Lee, Peter Kiang, Deogwoon Kim
    Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing.2017; 21(5): E239.     CrossRef
  • Identifying Barriers to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing for Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Korea
    Aeree Sohn, Byonghee Cho, Harvey A. Kennedy
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(3): 192.     CrossRef
  • Discrimination and Stigma
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(3): 141.     CrossRef
  • Changing Patterns of HIV Epidemic in 30 Years in East Asia
    S. Pilar Suguimoto, Teeranee Techasrivichien, Patou Masika Musumari, Christina El-saaidi, Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele, Masako Ono-Kihara, Masahiro Kihara
    Current HIV/AIDS Reports.2014; 11(2): 134.     CrossRef
  • What is Next for HIV/AIDS in Korea?
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2013; 4(6): 291.     CrossRef
  • Changes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related Knowledge and Stigmatizing Attitudes among Korean Adolescents from 2006 to 2011
    Aeree Sohn, SungBok Park
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2012; 3(2): 107.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sexual Behaviors in HIV/AIDS and Predictors Affecting Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Korea
    Aeree Sohn, Byonghee Cho
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2012; 3(3): 156.     CrossRef
  • Can Stigma Still Distort the Spectrum of a Disease?
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2012; 3(2): 65.     CrossRef
  • Human Diseases 101: Nature Versus Nurture
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2012; 3(1): 1.     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives