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Barriers, Attitudes, and Dietary Behaviors Regarding Sodium Reduction in the Elderly Korean–Chinese Population in Yanbian, China
Jounghee Lee, Wenying Cui, Meixiang Jin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):185-194.   Published online June 30, 2017
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  • 35 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

This research investigated the barriers, attitudes, and dietary behaviors related to sodium reduction among the elderly Korean–Chinese population in Yanbian, China.


We conducted this pilot study using both descriptive research and a focus group interview at the elderly community center in Yanbian.


In total, 21 elderly Korean–Chinese (average age, 71 years) were examined. The findings showed that the top three barriers to sodium reduction were 1) the difficulties associated with having meals with others, 2) a preference for liquid based-dishes, and 3) the lack of taste in low-sodium dishes. Although the participants strongly believed that a reduced-sodium diet would improve their health, they were poorly aware of the amount of sodium in various foods and dishes. In particular, the focus group interviews with eight participants (mean age, 67 years) revealed that salt-preserved foods (e.g., Korean pickled cabbage called ‘kimchi’ and soybean paste) were frequently consumed as part of their food culture, and that very salty dishes were served at restaurants, both of which lead to a high sodium intake.


This study provides useful preliminary data to help design a nutrition intervention program for sodium reduction that targets the elderly Korean–Chinese population in China.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Assessing Dietary Salt Intake and Pilot-Testing a Home-Based Intervention to Lower Salt Intake Among Filipino College Students
    Angelo Joaquin M. Armas, Jade Alexie E. Aranda, Hyacintha S. Arcos, Ferdinand L. Arellano, Clarissa Bernette L. Arguelles, Angelo Martin M. Arreza, Mark Anthony G. Arriza, Charlene Kristine A. Ascan, Gian Carlo S. Torres
    Journal of Community Health Nursing.2024; 41(1): 57.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of Malay Elderly on Salt Intake and Its Relationship With Blood Pressure
    Hasnah Haron, NurAisyah Farhana Kamal, Hanis Mastura Yahya, Suzana Shahar
    Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Is a Hypertension Diagnosis Associated With Improved Dietary Outcomes Within 2 to 4 Years? A Fixed‐Effects Analysis From the China Health and Nutrition Survey
    Tania C. Aburto, Penny Gordon‐Larsen, Jennifer M. Poti, Annie G. Howard, Linda S. Adair, Christy L. Avery, Barry M. Popkin
    Journal of the American Heart Association.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gaps in awareness and control of hypertension: a cross-sectional study in Chinese urban adults
    Ai Zhao, Shengjie Tan, Ignatius Man-Yau Szeto, Yan Wang, Liping Meng, Ting Li, Wenzhi Zhao, Meichen Wang, Yumei Zhang
    Journal of Human Hypertension.2018; 32(6): 423.     CrossRef
Management of Sodium-reduced Meals at Worksite Cafeterias: Perceptions, Practices, Barriers, and Needs among Food Service Personnel
Jounghee Lee, Sohyun Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):119-126.   Published online April 30, 2016
  • 2,947 View
  • 16 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The sodium content of meals provided at worksite cafeterias is greater than the sodium content of restaurant meals and home meals. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between sodium-reduction practices, barriers, and perceptions among food service personnel.
We implemented a cross-sectional study by collecting data on perceptions, practices, barriers, and needs regarding sodium-reduced meals at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We implemented Chi-square tests and analysis of variance for statistical analysis. For post hoc testing, we used Bonferroni tests; when variances were unequal, we used Dunnett T3 tests.
This study involved 104 individuals employed at the worksite cafeterias, comprised of 35 men and 69 women. Most of the participants had relatively high levels of perception regarding the importance of sodium reduction (very important, 51.0%; moderately important, 27.9%). Sodium reduction practices were higher, but perceived barriers appeared to be lower in participants with high-level perception of sodium-reduced meal provision. The results of the needs assessment revealed that the participants wanted to have more active education programs targeting the general population. The biggest barriers to providing sodium-reduced meals were use of processed foods and limited methods of sodium-reduced cooking in worksite cafeterias.
To make the provision of sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias more successful and sustainable, we suggest implementing more active education programs targeting the general population, developing sodium-reduced cooking methods, and developing sodium-reduced processed foods.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Barriers and facilitators to implementation of healthy food and drink policies in public sector workplaces: a systematic literature review
    Magda Rosin, Sally Mackay, Sarah Gerritsen, Lisa Te Morenga, Gareth Terry, Cliona Ni Mhurchu
    Nutrition Reviews.2024; 82(4): 503.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to dietary salt intake and the acceptability of salt substitute among the Australian culturally and linguistically diverse community: An online survey
    Jie Yu, Lauren Houston, Chris Gianacas, Vivian Lee, Robert A. Fletcher, Angela Xun‐Nan Chen, Clare Arnott
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2024; 26(5): 543.     CrossRef
  • Sodium content changes between 2015 and 2019 in restaurant menu items selected for sodium reduction in Daegu
    Jian Ma, Yeon-Kyung Lee
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2022; 16(4): 537.     CrossRef
  • Barriers, Enablers, and Perceptions on Dietary Salt Reduction in the Out-of-Home Sectors: A Scoping Review
    Viola Michael, Yee Xing You, Suzana Shahar, Zahara Abdul Manaf, Hasnah Haron, Siti Nurbaya Shahrir, Hazreen Abdul Majid, Yook Chin Chia, Mhairi Karen Brown, Feng J. He, Graham A. MacGregor
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2021; 18(15): 8099.     CrossRef
  • The Science of Salt: A focused review on salt‐related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, and gender differences
    Briar McKenzie, Joseph Alvin Santos, Kathy Trieu, Sudhir Raj Thout, Claire Johnson, JoAnne Arcand, Jacqui Webster, Rachael McLean
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2018; 20(5): 850.     CrossRef
  • The Science of Salt: A regularly updated systematic review of the implementation of salt reduction interventions (March–August 2016)
    Joseph Alvin Santos, Kathy Trieu, Thout Sudhir Raj, JoAnne Arcand, Claire Johnson, Jacqui Webster, Rachael McLean
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2017; 19(4): 439.     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives