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Original Articles
Prevalence of Internet Addiction, Poor Sleep Quality, and Depressive Symptoms Among Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Aanchal Anant Awasthi, Neha Taneja, Sonam Maheshwari, Trisha Gupta, Bhavika
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):303-308.   Published online October 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.5.06
  • 5,073 View
  • 139 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This objective of the study was to report the prevalence of internet addiction, sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and stress in undergraduate medical students.

Methods

A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among 221 undergraduate medical students at Government Doon Medical College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. Data pertaining to internet addiction, sleep quality, and depressive symptoms were also collected using validated and reliable questionnaires (Young Internet Addiction Test, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21).

Results

The prevalence of poor sleep quality, severe anxiety, and severe depression was 33.9%, 7.3% and 3.6%, respectively. The place of residence was significantly associated (p = 0.006) with internet addiction. The mean Young Internet Addiction Test score was higher in students residing in hostels compared with students staying with families. Stress was associated with age. The mean stress score was higher in the age group 17–20 compared with the 21–24 age group. Stress and depression were independent predictors of sleep quality.

Conclusion

Quality sleep is the key for good health. Based on limited samples, this study showed that poor sleep quality was associated with stress and depression. Hence, continuous counselling is suggested for supporting students managing their stress and depression.

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity Levels in Korean Adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2015
Kwanjun Park, Sunmi Lim, Yoonhyung Park, Woong Ju, Yoonhee Shin, Hansol Yeom
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):150-159.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.03
  • 3,168 View
  • 32 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The increase in the obesity rate in adult males in Korea is higher than countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and other Asian countries. We examined the trends and prevalence of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease by evaluating the weight status amongst adults from 2007 to 2015.

Methods

The study included 37,402 adults, who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence trends of cardiovascular disease risk factors were estimated for each body mass index group.

Results

From 2007 to 2015, significant increases in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were observed in normal weight adults (0.03 percentage point (%p), 0.06%p, and 0.13%p, respectively). Amongst the overweight and obese adults, a significant increase in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was observed, During this period, the prevalence of smoking decreased amongst obese adults and no significant changes in drinking habits and physical activity were noted across all body mass index groups.

Conclusion

The prevalence of obesity in Korean adults is increasing, and it is necessary to implement interventions to prevent further weight gain and obesity-associated cardiovascular disease.

Seroprevalence of Toxocara in Children from Urban and Rural Areas of Ilam Province, West Iran
Sahar Shokouhi, Jahangir Abdi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(3):101-104.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.3.03
  • 2,680 View
  • 95 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The present study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxocara in children ≤ 10 years old, from rural and urban areas of Ilam.

Methods

Serum samples from 383 children ≤ 10 years old, were selected randomly from rural and urban areas of Ilam province and surveyed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Results

The total rate of infection with Toxocara was 22% (31% with a history of contact with dogs and cats, and 14% without a history of contact). Of those infected, 23% were male and 18% were female, 36% lived a rural life and 20% had an urban life. A significant correlation was found between the incidence of disease, and urban and rural life, as well as exposure to dogs and cats. There was no correlation between prevalence and gender or age.

Conclusion

Given the high prevalence of infection with Toxocara amongst children in Ilam province, preventive work in the community such as education in risk management and periodic treatment with anti-parasitic drugs and elimination of stray dogs and cats is an appropriate measure.

Review Article
Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among Children in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Mahmood Moosazadeh, Ghasem Abedi, Mahdi Afshari, Seif Ali Mahdavi, Fereshteh Farshidi, Elham Kheradmand
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):108-115.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.02
  • 2,719 View
  • 51 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Enterobius vermicularis is a parasitic disease that is common in crowded areas such as schools and kindergartens. Primary investigations of electronic evidence have reported different prevalences of E. vermicularis in Iran. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total prevalence of this infection among Iranian children using a meta-analysis.

Methods

Relevant studies were identified in national and international databases. We selected eligible papers for meta-analysis after investigating titles, abstracts, and full texts; assessing study quality; and applying inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two independent researchers. The results were combined using a random effects model in Stata v. 11 software.

Results

Among 19 eligible articles including 11,676 participants, the prevalences of E. vermicularis among all children, boys, and girls were 1.2%–66.1%, 2.3%–65.5%, and 1.7%–65.5%, respectively. Pooled prevalences (95% confidence interval) of E. vermicularis among all children, boys, and girls were 17.2% (12.6%–21.8%), 17.2% (12.6%–21.8%), and 16.9% (9.03%–24.8%), respectively.

Conclusion

This meta-analysis showed that a great majority of Iranian children are infected with E. vermicularis, possibly due to poor public health.

Original Articles
Distribution of Antibodies Specific to the 19-kDa and 33-kDa Fragments of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 1 in Two Pathogenic Strains Infecting Korean Vivax Malaria Patients
Sylvatrie-Danne Dinzouna-Boutamba, Sanghyun Lee, Ui-Han Son, Su-Min Song, Hye Soo Yun, So-Young Joo, Dongmi Kwak, Man Hee Rhee, Dong-Il Chung, Yeonchul Hong, Youn-Kyoung Goo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):213-219.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.05.006
  • 1,587 View
  • 19 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP1) is the most intensively studied malaria vaccine candidate. Although high antibody response-inducing two C-terminal fragments of PvMSP1 (PvMSP1-19 and PvMSP1-42) are currently being developed as candidate malaria vaccine antigens, their high genetic diversity in various isolates is a major hurdle. The sequence polymorphism of PvMSP1 has been investigated; however, the humoral immune responses induced by different portions of this protein have not been evaluated in Korea.
Methods
Two fragments of PvMSP1 were selected for this study: (1) PvMSP1-19, which is genetically conserved; and (2) PvMSP1-33, which corresponds to a variable portion. For the latter, two representative strains, Sal 1 and Belem, were included. Thus, three recombinant proteins, PvMSP1-19, PvMSP1-33 Sal 1, and PvMSP1-33 Belem, were produced in Escherichia coli and then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using sera from 221 patients with vivax malaria.
Results
Of the 221 samples, 198, 142, and 106 samples were seropositive for PvMSP1-19, PvMSP1-33 Sal 1, and PvMSP1-33 Belem, respectively. Although 100 samples were simultaneously seropositive for antibodies specific to all the recombinant proteins, 39 and six samples were respectively seropositive for antibodies specific to MSP1-33 Sal 1 and MSP1-33 Belem. Antibodies specific to PvMSP1-19 were the most prevalent.
Conclusion
Monitoring seroprevalence is essential for the selection of promising vaccine candidates as most of the antigenic proteins in P. vivax are highly polymorphic.
Study on Seroprevalence and Leptospiral Antibody Distribution among High-risk Planters in Malaysia
J. Mohd Ridzuan, B.D. Aziah, W.M. Zahiruddin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):168-171.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.006
  • 1,462 View
  • 16 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To determine the leptospirosis seroprevalence and to identify the predominant infecting serovars among oil palm plantation workers.
Methods
The cross-sectional study involved 350 asymptomatic oil palm plantation workers in Melaka and Johor. A serological test using the microscopic agglutination test was conducted in the Institute of Medical Research with a cut-off titre for seropositivity of ≥1:100.
Results
The overall seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies was 28.6%. The job category with the highest seroprevalence was the fruit collector with 59.2%. The predominant serovar identified was serovar Sarawak (Lepto 175) (62%).
Conclusion
A high seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies was detected among oil palm plantation workers and specifically among fruit collectors. The predominant infecting serovar among the workers was serovar Sarawak (Lepto 175). The findings suggest that more studies are needed to determine the reasons for the high seroprevalence and the transmission and pathogenicity of the local serovar Sarawak (Lepto 175).
Gender-based Violence Among Pregnant Women of Syangja District, Nepal
Samjhana Gurung, Jeevan Acharya
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):101-107.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.11.010
  • 1,693 View
  • 17 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aims to determine prevalence of gender-based violence among pregnant women attending an antenatal care (ANC) clinic.
Methods
Between September 2014 and December 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 pregnant women attending the antenatal ward of the Primary Healthcare Centre (PHC) of Syangja district, Nepal. The data were collected using semistructure questionnaires with face-to-face interviews. SPSS software (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA) was used for analysis the data.
Results
The prevalence rate of gender-based violence was found to be 91.1% (184). Most of the respondents (87%) faced economic violence followed by psychological (53.8%), sexual (41.8%), and physical (4.3%) violence. Women experienced: (1) psychological violence with most complaining of angry looks followed by jealousy or anger while talking with other men, insults using abusive language and neglect; (2) economic violence with most complaining of financial hardship, denial of basic needs and an insistence on knowing where respondents were and restricting them to parents' home or friends/relatives' houses (jealousy); (3) physical violence by slapping, pushing, shaking, or throwing something at her, twisting arm or pulling hair, and punching and kicking; and (4) sexual violence by physically forcing her to have sexual intercourse without consent, and hurting or causing injury to private parts. Most (100%) of the perpetrators were found to be husbands and mothers-in-law (10.7%) who violated them rarely.
Conclusion
The prevalence of gender-based violence (GBV) among pregnant women attending the ANC clinic was greater in the Syangja district of Nepal. Women's empowerment, economic autonomy, sensitization, informal or formal training regarding GBV for men and women, and the need for large-scale population-based surveys are the major recommendations of this study.
Epidemiological Characterization of Skin Fungal Infections Between the Years 2006 and 2010 in Korea
Sang-Ha Kim, Seung-Hak Cho, Seung-Ki Youn, Je-Seop Park, Jong Tae Choi, Young-Seok Bak, Young-Bin Yu, Young Kwon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(6):341-345.   Published online December 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.10.012
  • 2,322 View
  • 21 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to build and provide a basic database of skin fungal infections for the effective management of skin fungal infections in the future.
Methods
We collected health insurance data between the years 2006 and 2010 from the Health Insurance Corporation (Seoul, Korea) and analyzed the data to determine the prevalence and treatment management of skin fungal infections.
Results
Skin fungal infections were divided into two groups: namely dermatophytosis and other superficial mycoses. Dermatophytosis showed a higher prevalence (16,035,399 cases) than the other superficial mycoses (794,847 cases) within the study period. The prevalence rate decreased consecutively by 0.01% to 0.19% every year. The prevalence according to region showed that Jeolla-do had a high prevalence distribution. The prevalences in men and women were similar (7.01% vs. 6.26%). It is interesting to note that adults from the 50–79-year age group showed a higher prevalence than children and young adults. The average convalescence time (days) of dermatophytosis was longer than that of other superficial mycoses. The total medical expenses were also much higher in dermatophytosis than in the other superficial mycoses.
Conclusion
This study provides useful data for study trends of skin fungal infections.
Prevalence of Head Lice Infestation and Its Associated Factors among Primary School Students in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Mahmood Moosazadeh, Mahdi Afshari, Hormoz Keianian, Asghar Nezammahalleh, Ahmad Ali Enayati
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(6):346-356.   Published online December 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.10.011
  • 1,930 View
  • 20 Download
  • 28 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Head lice infestation is one of the most important health problems, generally involving children aged 5–13 years. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of head lice infestation and its associated factors among primary school children using systematic review and meta-analysis methods.
Methods
Different national and international databases were searched for selecting the relevant studies using appropriate keywords, Medical Subject Heading terms, and references. Relevant studies with acceptable quality for meta-analysis were selected having excluded duplicate and irrelevant articles, quality assessment, and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria. With calculating standard errors according to binomial distribution and also considering the Cochrane's Q test as well as I-squared index for heterogeneity, pediculosis prevalence rate was estimated using Stata SE V.11 software.
Results
Forty studies met the inclusion criteria of this review and entered into the meta-analysis including 200,306 individuals. Using a random effect model, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of head lice infestation among primary school children was estimated as 1.6% (1.2–2.05), 8.8% (7.6–9.9), and 7.4% (6.6–8.2) for boys, girls, and all the students, respectively. The infestation rate was found to be associated with low educational level of parents, long hair, family size, mother's job (housewife), father's job (worker/unemployed), using a common comb, lack of bathrooms in the house, and a low frequency of bathing.
Conclusion
This meta-analysis revealed that the prevalence of head lice infestation among Iranian primary school children is relatively high with more prevalence among girls. We also found that economic, social, cultural, behavioral, and hygienic factors are associated with this infestation.
Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India
Parasuraman Basker, Pichai Kannan, Karumana Gounder Kolandaswamy
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):54-67.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.01.003
  • 1,429 View
  • 19 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis.
Methods
1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73′ N; Longitude: 78° 97′ E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75′ N; Longitude: 79° 92′ E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25′ N; Longitude: 79° 65′ E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA.
Result
There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease.
Conclusion
From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning.
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Clonorchiasis among the Populations Served by Primary Healthcare Posts along Five Major Rivers in South Korea
Kyung Ja June, Shin Hyeong Cho, Won Ja Lee, Chunmi Kim, Kyung-Soon Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(1):21-26.   Published online February 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.12.002
  • 1,573 View
  • 13 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Clonorchiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of clonorchiasis among the populations served by primary healthcare posts along five major rivers in South Korea.
Methods
Forty primary healthcare posts that are located less than 5 km from one of the five rivers were selected from 26 counties. For the purpose of the survey, community health practitioners selected the nearest villages from the riversides in their own catchment area. From January to May 2009, a total of 2788 stool samples were collected and examined using the formalin–ether sedimentation technique. Village inhabitants were also interviewed by means of questionnaires in order to obtain information on potential risk factors.
Results
The prevalence rates of clonorchiasis at various river basins were as follows: Seomjin River, 21.3%; Nakdong River, 13.5%; Geum River, 9.2%; Han River, 7.6%; and Yeongsan River, 4.9%. The total number of people infected with C. sinensis was 329 (11.3%). By gender, 14.3% of males and 7.6% of females were infected. In case of both males and females, the prevalence rate was highest in those in their 40s. Consumption of raw freshwater fish was confirmed as a risk factor based on a logistic regression analysis.
Conclusion
The present findings suggest that clonorchiasis is still highly prevalent among the inhabitants of riverside areas in southern Korea, and, accordingly, it is necessary to implement a systematic control program in the endemic areas.
Estimation of HIV Seroprevalence in Colorectal Hospitals by Questionnaire Survey in Korea, 2002–2007
Mee-Kyung Kee, Do Yeon Hwang, Jong Kyun Lee, Seung Hyun Kim, Chaeshin Chu, Jin-Hee Lee, Sung Soon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(2):104-108.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.08.002
  • 1,740 View
  • 15 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The incidence of anal disease is higher among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection than among the general population. We surveyed the status of seroprevalence in colorectal hospitals in Korea.
Methods
The survey was conducted in colorectal hospitals in Korea from November to December 2008. The questionnaire was comprised of six topics about the status of HIV testing in colorectal hospitals. We gathered the data by website (http://hivqa.nih.go.kr/risk) or fax.
Results
Among 774 colorectal hospitals contacted, 109 (14%) hospitals participated in the survey. Among these, 48 hospitals (44%) performed HIV tests in their own hospitals and 11 (23%) took HIV testing by rapid method. The main reason for recommending an HIV test was surgical operation (54%) followed by endoscope (11%) and health checkup (9%). The annual number of HIV tests increased from 58,647 (at 21 hospitals) in 2002 to 246,709 (at 58 hospitals) in 2007. HIV seroprevalence was >3.0 per 10,000 individuals during 2002–2005, decreased to 2.2 per 10,000 individuals in 2006 and rose to 2.8 per 10,000 individuals in 2007.
Conclusions
HIV seroprevalence of colorectal hospitals was more than twice that of general hospitals in Korea. HIV surveillance systems based on colorectal hospitals for HIV/AIDS transmission prevention by early HIV diagnosis are needed.
Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A and E Viruses Based on the Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey in Korea
Haesun Yun, Hyeok-Jin Lee, Doosung Cheon, Chaeshin Chu, Kyung Won Oh, Young Taek Kim, Youngmee Jee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(1):46-50.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.04.009
  • 1,546 View
  • 12 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Korea during 2005.
Methods
Study subjects were selected from across Korea using a stratified multistage probability sampling design, and HAV and HEV seroprevalence was compared on the basis of sex, age, and residency. A total of 497 rural and urban people aged 10–99 years of age (mean ± SD age = 28.87 ± 17.63 years) were selected by two-stage cluster sampling and tested serologically for anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgG using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
Among this population, the overall seroprevalence of HAV was 63.80% (55.21% aged in their 20s and 95.92% in their 30s, p < 0.01) and that of HEV was 9.40% (5.21% aged in their 20s and 7.14% in their 30s, p < 0.01). Seroprevalence also varied according to area of residence. HEV prevalence in rural areas was higher than that of urban regions based on the anti-HEV antibody, odds ratio 3.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.46–7.10, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between male and female against anti-HAV/HEV antibodies.
Conclusion
Our study suggested that the seropositive rates of HAV and HEV might be related to age and environmental conditions.
Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Infections Along the Five Major Rivers in Republic of Korea, 2007
Hyun-Kyung Kim, Hyeng-Il Cheun, Byung-Suk Cheun, Ki-Yeon Lee, Tong-Soo Kim, Sang-Eun Lee, Won-ja Lee, Shin-Hyeong Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2010;1(1):43-49.   Published online December 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2010.12.010
  • 1,470 View
  • 11 Download
  • 19 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection was investigated among residents of the five major river basins, that is, Hangang, Nakdonggang, Seomjingang, Yeongsangang, and Geumgang River basins in Korea.
Methods
From January to December 2007, a total of 31,268 stool samples were collected from 29 localities and examined by the formalin-ether sedimentation technique.
Results
Intestinal parasite eggs and/or protozoan cysts were detected from 2957 (9.5%) inhabitants. Number of residents harbouring helminth eggs in the faeces was 2542 (8.1%) for C. sinensis, 255 (0.8%) for Heterophyes spp., 36 (0.1%) for Echinostoma spp., 30 (0.1%) for Trichuris trichiura, 8 (0.03%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, 7 (0.02%) for Gymnophalloide seoi, and 50 (0.02%) for Trichostrongylus orientalis. Number of residents harbouring protozoan cysts in the faeces was 133 (1.3%) for Entamoeba spp. and 50 (0.2%) for Giardia lamblia. The positive rates of C. sinensis in Nakdonggang, Seomjingang, Yeongsangang, Geumgang, and Hangang River basins were 12.2%, 9.5%, 3.3%, 3.0%, and 1.0%, respectively. The egg positive rate of C. sinensis was higher in male (10.6%) than in female (6.1%), and the age group of 50s had the highest positive rate (10.4%).
Conclusion
The result of this study revealed little decrease in positive rate of C. sinensis compared with the result of southern endemic areas of Korea in 2006.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives