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Original Articles
Use, Awareness, Knowledge and Beliefs of Medication During Pregnancy in Malaysia
Ahmad Habeeb Hattab Dala Ali Alani, Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan, Azyyati Mohd Suhaimi, Ali Haider Mohammed
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(6):373-379.   Published online December 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.6.05
  • 3,791 View
  • 151 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives

This study aimed to assess medication use in pregnant women in Malaysia by measuring use, knowledge, awareness, and beliefs about medications.

Methods

This was an observational, cross-sectional study involving a total of 447 pregnant women who attended the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Malaysia. A validated, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect participant data.

Results

Most of pregnant women had taken medication during pregnancy and more than half of them (52.8%) showed a poor level of knowledge about the medication use during pregnancy. Eighty-three percent had a poor level of awareness and 56.5% had negative beliefs. Age and education level were significantly associated with the level of knowledge regarding medication use during pregnancy. Multiparous pregnant women, and pregnant women from rural areas were observed to have a higher level of awareness compared with those who lived in urban areas. Use of medication during pregnancy was determined to be significantly associated with education level, and race.

Conclusion

Although there was prevalent use of medication among pregnant women, many had negative beliefs, and insufficient knowledge and awareness about the risks of taking medication during pregnancy. Several sociodemographic characteristics were significantly associated with the use (race and education level), level of knowledge (age and education level), awareness (parity and place of residence), and beliefs (race, education level, and occupation status) towards medication use during pregnancy.

Immunological Profile and Bacterial Drug Resistance in Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Study
Ornella JT Ngalani, Wiliane JT Marbou, Armelle Tsafack Mbaveng, Victor Kuete
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):319-326.   Published online October 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.5.08
  • 3,537 View
  • 68 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the immunological and bacterial profiles in pregnant women of Bafang-Cameroon.

Methods

Stool and midstream urine were cultured using specific culture media. The disk diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial susceptibility test. T-cell lymphocyte counts (CD3, CD4 and CD8), white blood cell counts, sensitive C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6, were measured by flow cytometry, optical detection, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay solid phase direct sandwich method.

Results

Out of 700 participants, 71.43% were pregnant, and 28.57% were non-pregnant women. The mean age was 29.40 ± 8.27 and 27.41 ± 6.55 years in non-pregnant and pregnant women, respectively. CD4 T-cells were not significantly lower in pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. There were 43.65% and 56.35% bacteria isolates obtained from urine and stool samples, respectively. Bacteria were mostly isolated in patients with a CD4 T-cell count between 461 and 806 cells/μL. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes showed 100% resistance in non-pregnant women, however all isolated bacteria were shown to be multidrug resistant in pregnant women. Salmonella sp. (24.3%) and Escherichia coli (21.51%) showed an increase in multidrug resistant phenotypes in pregnant women.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that routine bacteriological analysis during pregnancy is necessary for their follow-up care.

Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Correlation Between Nicotine in Umbilical Cord Blood and Neonatal Anthropometry
Mery Ramadani, Budi Utomo, Endang L Achadi, Hartono Gunardi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(4):234-239.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.4.06
  • 3,099 View
  • 76 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Nicotine narrows uterine blood vessels reducing the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. This study examined the effects of fetal exposure to secondhand smoke on neonatal anthropometry.

Methods

This cross sectional study recruited 128 pregnant women in the third trimester of single pregnancies who had no chronic illness, were not active or ex-smokers, and who were willing to participate in the study. Pregnant women who were exposed to secondhand smoke had umbilical cord blood nicotine concentrations of ≥ 1 ng/mL. Neonatal anthropometry was assessed according to the newborn birth weight and length. The independent t-test was used to determine the neonatal difference in mean birth weight and length between the women who were exposed to secondhand smoke, and those who were not exposed. A multiple linear regression analysis was employed to assess the effect of secondhand smoke exposure on birth weight and birth length, controlling for potential confounding variables (weight gain during pregnancy, body mass index, parity, maternal age, and maternal hemoglobin).

Results

There were 35 women exposed to secondhand smoke (nicotine ≥ 1 ng/mL). Neonate birth weight and birth length were lower among mothers who were exposed to secondhand smoke. However, only neonate birth weight was significantly reduced by exposure to secondhand smoke (p = 0.005). The mean birth weight of these neonates was 2,916.5 g ± 327.3 g which was 205.6 g less than in unexposed fetuses.

Conclusion

Exposure of mothers to secondhand smoke during pregnancy reduces fetal development and neonatal weight.

Perceived Psychological Traumatic Childbirth in Iranian Mothers: Diagnostic Value of Coping Strategies
Sedigheh Abdollahpour, Seyed Abbas Mousavi, Habibollah Esmaily, Ahmad Khosrav
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):72-77.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.05
  • 19,696 View
  • 36 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of a stress coping scale for predicting perceived psychological traumatic childbirth in mothers.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was performed on 400 new mothers (within 48 hours of childbirth). Psychological traumatic childbirth was evaluated using the 4 diagnostic criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Coping was measured using Moss and Billings’ Stress Coping Strategies Scale.

Results

The overall mean score of stress coping was 29 ± 14.2. There were 193 (43.8%) mothers that had experienced a psychological traumatic childbirth. A stress coping score ≤ 30, with a sensitivity of 90.16 (95% CI = 85.1–94.0), and a specificity of 87.44 (95% CI = 82.1–91.6), was determined as a predictor of psychological traumatic childbirth. So that among mothers with stress coping scores ≤ 30, 87% had experienced a psychological traumatic childbirth.

Conclusion

Investigating the degree of coping with stress can be used as an accurate diagnostic tool for psychological traumatic childbirth. It is recommended that during pregnancy, problem-solving and stress management training programs be used as psychological interventions for mothers with low levels of stress control. This will ensure that they can better cope with traumatic childbirth and post-traumatic stress in the postpartum stage.

Factors Associated with Cesarean Section in Tehran, Iran using Multilevel Logistic Regression Model
Payam Amini, Maryam Mohammadi, Reza Omani-Samani, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Saman Maroufizadeh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(2):86-92.   Published online April 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.2.08
  • 3,221 View
  • 57 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Over the past few decades, the prevalence of cesarean sections (CS) have risen dramatically worldwide, particularly in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CS in Tehran, and to examine the associated risk factors.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 4,308 pregnant women with singleton live-births in Tehran, Iran, between July 6–21, 2015 was performed. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed using demographic and obstetrical variables at the first level, and hospitals as a variable at the second level.

Results

The incidence of CS was 72.0%. Multivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between CS and the mother’s age, socioeconomic status, body mass index, parity, type of pregnancy, preeclampsia, infant height, and baby’s head circumference. The intra-class correlation using the second level variable, the hospital was 0.292, indicating approximately 29.2% of the total variation in the response variable accounted for by the hospital.

Conclusion

The incidence of CS was substantially higher than other countries. Therefore, educational and psychological interventions are necessary to reduce CS rates amongst pregnant Iranian women.

A Case–control Study on the Relationship between Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in Women with Normal Pregnancy and Spontaneous Abortion using Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Mazaher Khodabandehloo, Fariba Farhadifar, Samaneh Rouhi, Amjad Ahmadi, Shaho Menbari, Fariba Fallahi, Reza Mirnejad
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):334-338.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.07.001
  • 1,511 View
  • 20 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Mycoplasma genitalium infections are suggested as causes of a number of pathological outcomes in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of M. genitalium infections among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion.
Methods
In this case–control study we included 109 women with spontaneous abortion with a gestational age of 10–20 weeks (patients), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with a gestational age of 20–37 weeks (controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. Using specific primers and extracted DNA from endocervical swabs, a polymerase chain reaction was conducted for the detection of M. genitalium infection in both groups.
Results
The frequency of M. genitalium infection in patient and control groups was one (0.91%) and three (2.75%), respectively. In both control and patient groups using Fisher test, no association between mycoplasma infection and spontaneous abortion was seen.
Conclusion
M. genitalium may be positive in the genital tract of some pregnant women but was not associated with spontaneous abortion. Further powerful studies with larger sample sizes are needed for the determination of a possible role of M. genitalium in pregnancy outcomes and spontaneous abortion.
Development of Financial Support Program for High Risk Pregnant Women
Ihnsook Jeong, Jiyun Kim, Sook Bin Im
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):141-148.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.02.003
  • 1,563 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to develop a financial support program for high-risk pregnant women based on opinions obtained using a questionnaire survey.
Methods
The program development involved two steps: (1) developing a questionnaire through reviewing previous financial support programs for maternal care and then validating it via professional consultation; and (2) drafting a financial support program. Sixty professionals, 26 high-risk pregnant women, and 100 program implementers completed the questionnaire between August 2014 and October 2014.
Results
Based on the obtained professional consultation and survey investigation, the framework of the financial support program was constructed. The suggested recipients were mothers with early labor pains, mothers who have been hospitalized for > 3 weeks, and mothers who used uterine stimulant Pitocin during hospitalization. All hospitalization, medication, and examination costs needed to be supported considering the income level of the recipient.
Conclusion
A basic policy for financially supporting high-risk pregnant women has been developed. The efficacy and feasibility of the policy needs to be carefully examined in future studies.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives