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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives

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Review Article
Scrutiny of COVID-19 response strategies among severely affected European nations
Shine Stephen, Alwin Issac, Rakesh Vadakkethil Radhakrishnan, Jaison Jacob, VR Vijay, Sam Jose, SM Azhar, Anoop S. Nair, Nadiya Krishnan, Rakesh Sharma, Manju Dhandapani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(4):203-214.   Published online July 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0068
  • 6,609 View
  • 110 Download
  • 3 Citations
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Although the health care systems in Europe are considered the global benchmark, European nations were severely affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This manuscript aimed to examine the strategies implemented to combat the COVID-19 pandemic by France, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, Germany, and Russia and their outcomes in terms of the number of cases, testing, and deaths. This is the first review of its kind that extensively analyzes the preparedness, mitigation, and response strategies against the COVID-19 pandemic adopted by these nations. This paper further suggests a strategic preparedness model for future pandemics. From the analysis, we found that a decentralized approach, prompt decision-making and timely execution, coordination between local health authorities, and public participation in the implementation of strategies could substantially reduce the case fatality rate. Nations with a high percentage of gross domestic product invested in the health sector, as well as more nurses, physicians, hospital beds, intensive care unit beds, and ventilators, better managed the pandemic. Instead, nations that postponed their pandemic response by delaying tracking, tracing, testing, quarantine, and lockdown were badly affected. The lessons learned from the present pandemic could be used as a guide to prepare for further pandemics.
Original Articles
Factors Influencing Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Passive Inhalation in Student Nurses
Sun-A Park, Do-Hoon Lee, Hee-Su Lim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):78-84.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.06
  • 2,318 View
  • 30 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To examine the factors affecting passive exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in non-smoking student nurses.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was performed in 196 college students who had not smoked cigarettes in the past 12 months. Urinary cotinine levels were examined to identify exposure to SHS, and social factors were identified that influenced exposure to SHS, including requests that smokers extinguish cigarettes. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the factors influencing SHS.

Results

Urinary cotinine measurements showed that 32 students (16.3%) were exposed to SHS. Risk factors that increased exposure to SHS affected 80 students (40.8%) in the previous 7 days. Students who were exposed to SHS were 4.45-times more likely to have increased urinary cotinine levels than those who were not exposed. Students who asked others to extinguish their cigarettes were 0.34 times less likely to test positive than those who did not.

Conclusion

Urinary cotinine was a useful biomarker for identifying exposure to SHS, with respect to the influence of demographic, health-related, and smoking-related factors. In non-smoking nursing students, avoiding exposure to SHS was attributed to self-assertive behavior by requesting smokers to extinguish cigarettes.

A Preliminary Study to Determine Comprehensive Research and Development Plans for Promoting Mental Health Services
Chul Eung Kim, Young-Mi Ko, Sang-Uk Lee, SungKu Choi, Kiwan Han, Se Jin Park, MinKyung Jo, Yu Kyong Park, Hye Young Lee, Subin Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):314-324.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.05
  • 4,079 View
  • 56 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to analyze research and development projects in mental health services in Korea, using priority evaluation of mental health promotion policies to determine direction of the service.

Methods

An online survey was conducted that targeted experts in the mental health service regarding promotion of mental health in Korea in 2016. The survey was based on 32 policy projects that resulted from 12 strategies according to 4 policy objectives.

Results

Analysis of 32 mental health projects were assessed regarding the possibility of technology development success, magnitude of the ripple effect, and necessity of a national response. It was observed that 3 policy projects relevant to suicide, had a high relative priority. This was followed by policies for improvement of health insurance and the medical benefit cost system, and policies for reinforcement of crisis psychological support such as those for disaster victims.

Conclusion

The prioritization of mental health services should place an emphasis on promotion of a healthy mental lifestyle, rehabilitation support for patients with serious mental illness, and reinforcement of social safety networks for suicide prevention.

Development of Financial Support Program for High Risk Pregnant Women
Ihnsook Jeong, Jiyun Kim, Sook Bin Im
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):141-148.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.02.003
  • 1,559 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to develop a financial support program for high-risk pregnant women based on opinions obtained using a questionnaire survey.
Methods
The program development involved two steps: (1) developing a questionnaire through reviewing previous financial support programs for maternal care and then validating it via professional consultation; and (2) drafting a financial support program. Sixty professionals, 26 high-risk pregnant women, and 100 program implementers completed the questionnaire between August 2014 and October 2014.
Results
Based on the obtained professional consultation and survey investigation, the framework of the financial support program was constructed. The suggested recipients were mothers with early labor pains, mothers who have been hospitalized for > 3 weeks, and mothers who used uterine stimulant Pitocin during hospitalization. All hospitalization, medication, and examination costs needed to be supported considering the income level of the recipient.
Conclusion
A basic policy for financially supporting high-risk pregnant women has been developed. The efficacy and feasibility of the policy needs to be carefully examined in future studies.
Impact of Community-Based Approach as Policy Tool: World Health Organization-Designated Safe Communities of Korea and Health Action Zones of the United Kingdom
Changhyun Kang, Jihyung Shin, Bob Matthews
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(1):36-42.   Published online February 28, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.10.005
  • 1,498 View
  • 17 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study is to ascertain and identify the effectiveness of area-based initiatives as a policy tool mediated by societal and individual factors in the five World Health Organization (WHO)-designated Safe Communities of Korea and the Health Action Zones of the United Kingdom (UK).
Methods
The Korean National Hospital discharge in-depth injury survey from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and causes of death statistics by the Statistics Korea were used for all analyses. The trend and changes in injury rate and mortality by external causes were compared among the five WHO-designated Safe Communities in Korea.
Results
The injury incident rates decreased at a greater level in the Safe Communities compared with the national average. Similar results were shown for the changes in unintentional injury incident rates. In comparison of changes in mortality rate by external causes between 2005 and 2011, the rate increase in Safe Communities was higher than the national average except for Jeju, where the mortality rate by external causes decreased.
Conclusion
When the Healthy Action Zones of the UK and the WHO Safe Communities of Korea were examined, the outcomes were interpreted differently among the compared index, regions, and time periods. Therefore, qualitative outcomes, such as bringing the residents' attention to the safety of the communities and promoting participation and coordination of stakeholders, should also be considered as important impacts of the community-based initiatives.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives