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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives

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Original Articles
Nutritional Status of Indonesian Children in Low-Income Households with Fathers that Smoke
Maria Wijaya-Erhardt
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):64-71.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.04
  • 17,748 View
  • 180 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study compared the nutritional status of children in low-income households in Indonesia whose fathers were either cigarette smokers or non-smokers.

Methods

A cross sectional study of 482 children aged 2–6 years was conducted, stratified by whether the fathers were non-smoking (n = 138) or smoking (n = 340). Mothers and smoking fathers were interviewed about socioeconomic status and cigarette expenditure, respectively. The nutritional status of children was defined by weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height.

Results

Both groups had similar income. Households with a father that smoked, spent 16.6% of their income on cigarettes. Children whose fathers did not smoke had higher height-for-age (−1.99 vs. −2.25 Z-score, p = 0.02) than children whose fathers smoked. Weight-for-age in children with fathers that did not smoke was greater (−1.49 vs. −1.64 Z-score) but not statistically significantly different to those children with fathers that smoked, nor was child weight-for-height (−0.46 vs. −0.45 Z-score). The prevalence of stunted growth was higher in the children with a father that smoked compared with those that had a father did not smoke (62.2 vs. 49.6%, p = 0.07, respectively). There were 28.3% of children underweight in homes where the fathers did not smoke, and 35.6% in households where the father smoked (p = 0.11). Wasting was observed in 4.4% children where fathers did not smoke and 4.7% where fathers did smoke.

Conclusion

With similar income constraints, the degree of height growth faltering was less in children whose fathers did not smoke, compared to those whose fathers did smoke.

Relationship Between Catastrophic Health Expenditures and Income Quintile Decline
Jeong-Hee Kang, Chul-Woung Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(2):73-80.   Published online April 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.2.06
  • 2,881 View
  • 93 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aims of this study were to investigate the proportion of households facing catastrophic health expenditures based on household income quintiles, and to analyze the relationship between expenditures and household income quintile decline.

Methods

Study data were obtained from an annually conducted survey of the 2012–2013 Korean health panel. There were 12,909 subjects aged 20–64 years from economically active households, whose income quintile remained unchanged or declined by more than one quintile from 2012 to 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether catastrophic health expenditures in 2012 were related to more than one quintile income decline in 2013.

Results

Households facing catastrophic health expenditures of ≥ 40%, ≥ 30%, and ≥ 10% of a household’s capacity to pay, were 1.58 times (p < 0.003), 1.75 times (p < 0.000), and 1.23 times (p < 0.001) more likely to face a decline in income quintile, respectively.

Conclusion

Over a 1 year period, the proportion of households facing more than one quintile income decline was 16.4%, while 2.1% to 2.5% of households in Korea faced catastrophic health expenditures. Catastrophic health expenditure experienced in 2012 was significantly associated with income quintile decline 1 year later. Therefore, lowering the proportion of households with catastrophic health expenditure may reduce the proportion of households with income quintiles decline.

Articles
Food and Nutrient Intakes According to Income in Korean Men and Women
Inyoung Hur, Myoung-Jin Jang, Kyungwon Oh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(3):192-197.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.044
  • 1,389 View
  • 17 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The present study investigated associations between income and intake of nutrients and food in adults (n = 11,063) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009.
Methods
To examine relationships between individual dietary intake and anthropometric measures and family income, multiple linear regression models were constructed for each outcome variable. All models were adjusted for age, education, energy intake, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity.
Results
For men, intakes of protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and vitamin C were lower in low-income compared to high-income groups. For women, intakes of protein and niacin were lower in low-income groups. Lowest income group ate less dairy products in men and less fruits and fishes or shellfishes in women.
Conclusion
Low-income groups had severe food insecurity and low diet quality compared to high-income groups. The study results will provide direction for public health efforts regarding dietary intakes according to economic status among Korean men and women.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives