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Original Articles
Gender Difference in the Association Between E-Cigarette Use and Depression among US Adults
Baksun Sung
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(1):13-19.   Published online February 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.1.03
  • 5,273 View
  • 109 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The objective of this study was to determine the association between e-cigarette use and depression and examine how this association is different by gender among US adults.

Methods

Data from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends was used, and included 174,351 of 230,875 US adults aged 18 years and older. Data were analyzed using the multivariate logistic regression models.

Results

After adjusting for age, race, education, income, marital status, employment status, smoking status, and physical activity, firstly, “current daily e-cigarette users” (AOR = 2.487, p < 0.001), “current non-daily e-cigarette users” (AOR = 1.623, p < 0.001), and “former e-cigarette users” (AOR = 1.573, p < 0.001) were associated with increased odds of depression compared with “never e-cigarette users.” Secondly, women were associated with increased odds of depression compared with men (AOR = 1.797, p < 0.001). Finally, male “current daily e-cigarette users” (AOR = 1.366, p < 0.01) were associated with increased odds of depression compared with female “never e-cigarette users.”

Conclusion

Thus, even though women tend to be more vulnerable to depression compared with men, e-cigarette use was positively associated with depression among both men and women.

Gender Differences in Harmful Use of Alcohol Among Korean Adults
Eunok Park, Yeon Sook Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(4):205-214.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.4.02
  • 2,780 View
  • 52 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Harmful alcohol consumption is associated with considerable social and economic damage to individuals and society. Because gender and ethnic background influence alcohol intake differently, examining gender specific factors influencing harmful drinking is necessary. This study investigated gender differences in alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and the associated factors among Korean adults.

Methods

We analyzed the data from the 2012–2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from survey participants aged 20–64 years (N = 18,581) were included. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used for alcohol dependence, and pooled weights were used. Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted.

Results

The prevalence of harmful alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score ≥ 16) was 10.7% in the total sample; 18.4% in men and 3.4% in women, which constituted a significant difference. Education, marital status, smoking, perceived stress, and depressive feeling were associated with harmful drinking in both genders. However, household income, occupation, and perceived health status were associated with harmful drinking only in men.

Conclusion

Since there are gender differences in harmful drinking and alcohol dependence, gender tailored prevention and intervention strategies for alcohol dependence are necessary including consideration of smoking, stress, and depressive feeling.

Gender-Specific Relationship Between Executive Function and Self-Rated Health
Mi Sook Jung, Kyoung Suk Lee, Mijung Kim, Hyeri Yun
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):93-101.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.08
  • 4,734 View
  • 34 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Self-rated health is a comprehensive measure of health. As gender difference in self-rated health is found, identifying gender-specific factors related to self-rated health is important. Poor executive functioning negatively affects an individual’s independence and healthy lifestyle, but it is unknown relationships between executive function and self-rated health and gender differences in these relationships. Therefore, gender differences were examined in the relationship between executive function and self-rated health in the community.

Methods

Individuals completed questionnaires about their health status and subjective decline in executive function. Neuropsychological tests were also performed to assess objective executive functioning. Two separate multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted by gender.

Results

Better objective executive function was related to greater self-rated health scores (better self-rated health) in men alone (βs = 0.341), while better subjective executive function was significantly associated with greater self-rated health scores in both men and women (βs = 0.385 and 0.443, respectively).

Conclusion

Gender differences are important when reporting perceived health status, in particular the different effects of subjective and objective executive function on self-rated health across genders. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential value of subjective executive function complaints when evaluating health status.

Do Factors Associated Self-rated Good Health and Their Influences Differ between Males and Females across Different Age Groups in Korean and Australia?
Hyo Young Lee, Stephanie Doris Short
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(1):11-25.   Published online February 28, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.1.03
  • 2,326 View
  • 19 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This was a comparative study between Australia and Korea that investigated whether and to what extent factors related to self-rated good health (SRGH) differ by gender among age groups.

Methods

This study was a secondary analysis of data that were collected in nationally representative, cross-sectional, and population-based surveys. We analyzed Australian and Korean participants > 20 years of age using 2011 data from the Australian National Nutritional Physical Activity Survey (n = 9,276) and the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (n = 5,915). Analyses were based on multiple logistic regression after controlling for covariates.

Results

Factors associated with SRGH and the extent of their influence differed by gender among age groups within each nation. Australian SRGH was associated with more factors than Korean SRGH, except in participants > 65 years old. Many differences among adults aged 20–44 years were observed, particularly with regard to the influence of socioeconomic factors. Living with a spouse only influenced SRGH in men 20–44 years old in both countries, negatively for Korean men and positively for Australian men. In this same age group, SRGH was positively influenced by employment and attainment of a higher education level in Australian men but not among Korean men; among women, income, but not education, affected SRGH in Korea, whereas in Australia, women were more influenced by education than by income. Lack of chronic disease had a strong influence on SRGH in both countries and was influential in all Australians and Koreans except those ≥ 65 years old.

Conclusion

Broad features of society should be considered when discussing health and differences in associated factors and their influences. For focused public health interventions of population groups, it is also necessary to consider gender and age groups within social environments.

Gender-based Violence Among Pregnant Women of Syangja District, Nepal
Samjhana Gurung, Jeevan Acharya
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):101-107.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.11.010
  • 1,565 View
  • 17 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aims to determine prevalence of gender-based violence among pregnant women attending an antenatal care (ANC) clinic.
Methods
Between September 2014 and December 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 pregnant women attending the antenatal ward of the Primary Healthcare Centre (PHC) of Syangja district, Nepal. The data were collected using semistructure questionnaires with face-to-face interviews. SPSS software (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA) was used for analysis the data.
Results
The prevalence rate of gender-based violence was found to be 91.1% (184). Most of the respondents (87%) faced economic violence followed by psychological (53.8%), sexual (41.8%), and physical (4.3%) violence. Women experienced: (1) psychological violence with most complaining of angry looks followed by jealousy or anger while talking with other men, insults using abusive language and neglect; (2) economic violence with most complaining of financial hardship, denial of basic needs and an insistence on knowing where respondents were and restricting them to parents' home or friends/relatives' houses (jealousy); (3) physical violence by slapping, pushing, shaking, or throwing something at her, twisting arm or pulling hair, and punching and kicking; and (4) sexual violence by physically forcing her to have sexual intercourse without consent, and hurting or causing injury to private parts. Most (100%) of the perpetrators were found to be husbands and mothers-in-law (10.7%) who violated them rarely.
Conclusion
The prevalence of gender-based violence (GBV) among pregnant women attending the ANC clinic was greater in the Syangja district of Nepal. Women's empowerment, economic autonomy, sensitization, informal or formal training regarding GBV for men and women, and the need for large-scale population-based surveys are the major recommendations of this study.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives