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Original Articles
Household secondary attack rates and risk factors during periods of SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variant predominance in the Republic of Korea
Jin Lee, Mijeong Ko, Seontae Kim, Dosang Lim, Gemma Park, Sang-Eun Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(4):263-271.   Published online August 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0133
  • 2,058 View
  • 136 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The household secondary attack rate (SAR) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an important indicator for community transmission. This study aimed to characterize transmission by comparing household SARs and identifying risk factors during the periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance in Republic of Korea.
Methods
We defined the period of Delta variant predominance (Delta period) as July 25, 2021 to January 15, 2022, and the period of Omicron variant predominance (Omicron period) as February 7 to September 3, 2022. The number of index cases included was 214,229 for the Delta period and 5,521,393 for the Omicron period. To identify the household SARs and risk factors for each period, logistic regression was performed to determine the adjusted odds ratio (aOR).
Results
The SAR was 35.2% for the Delta period and 43.1% for the Omicron period. The aOR of infection was higher in 2 groups, those aged 0 to 18 years and ≥75 years, compared to those aged 19 to 49 years. Unvaccinated individuals (vs. vaccinated individuals) and individuals experiencing initial infection (vs. individuals experiencing a second or third infection) had an increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Conclusion
This study analyzed the household SARs and risk factors. We hope that the results can help develop age-specific immunization plans and responses to reduce the SAR in preparation for emerging infectious diseases or potential new variants of SARS-CoV-2.
Risk factors for transmission in a COVID-19 cluster infection in a high school in the Republic of Korea
Jin-Hwan Jeon, Su Jin Kang, Se-Jin Jeong, Hyeon-Cheol Jang, Young-Joon Park, Sang-Eun Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(4):252-262.   Published online July 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0125
  • 3,591 View
  • 196 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to examine the scale, characteristics, risk factors, and modes of transmission in a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak at a high school in Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Methods
An epidemiological survey was conducted of 1,118 confirmed cases and close contacts from a COVID-19 outbreak at an educational facility starting on May 31, 2021. In-depth interviews, online questionnaires, flow evaluations, and CCTV analyses were used to devise infection prevention measures. Behavioral and spatial risk factors were identified, and statistical significance was tested.
Results
Among 3rd-year students, there were 33 confirmed COVID-19 cases (9.6%). Students who used a study room in the annex building showed a statistically significant 4.3-fold elevation in their relative risk for infection compared to those who did not use the study room. Moreover, CCTV facial recognition analysis confirmed that 17.8% of 3rd-year students did not wear masks and had the lowest percentage of mask-wearers by grade. The air epidemiological survey conducted in the study room in the annex, which met the 3 criteria for a closed space, confirmed that there was only 10% natural ventilation due to the poor ventilation system.
Conclusion
To prevent and manage the spread of COVID-19 in educational facilities, advance measures that consider the size, operation, and resources of each school are crucial. In addition, various survey methodologies should be used in future studies to quickly analyze a wider range of data that can inform an evidence-based quarantine response.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Detection of a cluster of Omicron's BA.4 sublineage in Northern Senegal and identification of the first XAS recombinant variant in Senegal
    Martin Faye, Modeste Name Faye, Babacar Ndiaye, Moussa Moïse Diagne, Safietou Sankhe, Ndeye Marième Top, Amadou Diallo, Cheikh Loucoubar, Ndongo Dia, Amadou Alpha Sall, Ousmane Faye
    Virus Research.2024; 339: 199259.     CrossRef
Risk factors associated with death due to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in hospitalized Korean patients (2018–2022)
Jia Kim, Hyo-jeong Hong, Ji-hye Hwang, Na-Ri Shin, Kyungwon Hwang
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(3):151-163.   Published online June 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0048
  • 1,796 View
  • 183 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) has no vaccine or treatment and an extremely high fatality rate. We aimed to analyze and evaluate the risk factors for death associated with SFTS.
Methods
Among reports from 2018 to 2022, we compared and analyzed 1,034 inpatients aged 18 years or older with laboratory-confirmed SFTS who underwent complete epidemiological investigations.
Results
Most of the inpatients with SFTS were aged 50 years or older (average age, 67.6 years). The median time from symptom onset to death was 9 days, and the average case fatality rate was 18.5%. Risk factors for death included age of 70 years or older (odds ratio [OR], 4.82); agriculture-related occupation (OR, 2.01); underlying disease (OR, 7.20); delayed diagnosis (OR, 1.28 per day); decreased level of consciousness (OR, 5.53); fever/chills (OR, 20.52); prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (OR, 4.19); and elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (OR, 2.91), blood urea nitrogen (OR, 2.62), and creatine (OR, 3.21).
Conclusion
The risk factors for death in patients with SFTS were old age; agriculture-related occupation; underlying disease; delayed clinical suspicion; fever/chills; decreased level of consciousness; and elevated activated partial thromboplastin time, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatine levels.
Risk factors for deaths associated with COVID-19 according to the cause of death classification in Republic of Korea
Na-Young Kim, Seong-Sun Kim, Hyun Ju Lee, Dong Hwi Kim, Boyeong Ryu, Eunjeong Shin, Donghyok Kwon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(2):89-99.   Published online April 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0312
  • 1,603 View
  • 97 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to classify coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related deaths according to whether COVID-19 was listed as the cause of death, and to investigate the differences in demographic characteristics and risk factors for COVID-19 death classifications.
Methods
A total of 5,625 deaths in South Korea among patients with confirmed COVID-19 from January 20, 2020 to December 31, 2021 were selected. Excluding false reports and unnatural deaths, 5,597 deaths were analyzed. Based on death report data, deaths were classified according to whether the cause of death was listed as COVID-19 (CD) or not (NCD). The epidemiological characteristics and causes of deaths were investigated using descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to analyze the risk factors.
Results
The case fatality ratio was 0.89% and increased with age. Additionally, 96.4% of the subjects had an underlying disease, and 53.4% died in winter. The proportion of NCDs was 9.3%, of whom 19.1% died at home and 39.0% were confirmed to have COVID-19 after death. Malignant neoplasms (102/416 vs. 637/4,442; OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.36−2.16; p<0.001) were significantly associated with NCD.
Conclusion
This is the first study to analyze risk factors by cause of death using COVID-19 death report data in South Korea. These results are expected to be used as evidence for establishing a death monitoring system that can collect timely information in a new infectious disease pandemic.
Analysis of risk factors affecting suicidal ideation in South Korea by life cycle stage
Ji-Young Hwang, Il-Su Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(5):314-323.   Published online October 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0208
  • 4,931 View
  • 131 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study analyzed risk factors for suicidal ideation in South Koreans from a life cycle perspective.
Methods
A secondary analysis was conducted of data collected in 2015 as part of the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The participants comprised 5,935 individuals aged 12 years or older. The statistical analysis reflected the complex sampling design of the KNHANES, and the Rao-Scott chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed.
Results
The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 5.7% in adolescents, 3.7% in young adults, 5.4% in middle-aged adults, and 7.0% in older adults. Depression and stress were risk factors in every stage of the life cycle. In those aged 12 to 19 years, activity restrictions were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Education and subjective health status were risk factors in adults aged 20 to 39 years, and education, activity restrictions, and quality of life were the major risk factors in those aged 40 to 64 years. For adults 65 years of age or older, the risk of suicidal ideation was higher among those with inappropriate sleep time.
Conclusion
The risk factors for suicidal ideation were found to be different across stages of the life cycle. This suggests a need for individualized suicide prevention plans and specific government policies that reflect the characteristics of each life cycle stage.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between long working hours and the development of suicidal ideation among female workers: An 8-year population-based study using the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women & Family (2012–2020)
    Seong-Uk Baek, Yu-Min Lee, Jin-Ha Yoon
    Psychiatry Research.2024; 333: 115731.     CrossRef
  • Alcohol Consumption and Quality of Life in Middle-aged Men
    Jeong-Sook Lee
    International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and A.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation by Gender and Age Group in Korean Adults
    Eun Young Kim, Yong Whi Jeong, Jihye Lim, Dae Ryong Kang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between Sleep Duration and Symptoms of Depression Aged between 18 and 49: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES Ⅶ) from 2016 to 2018
    Sung-Yong Choi, Ji-Eun Han, Jiae Choi, Minjung Park, Soo-Hyun Sung, Angela Dong-Min Sung
    Healthcare.2022; 10(11): 2324.     CrossRef
Review Article
COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Laboratory Findings, Comorbidities, and Clinical Outcomes Comparing Medical Staff versus the General Population
Mina Ebrahimi, Amal Saki Malehi, Fakher Rahim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):269-279.   Published online October 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.5.02
  • 8,589 View
  • 130 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material

This review compared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) laboratory findings, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes in patients from the general population versus medical staff to aid diagnosis of COVID-19 in a more timely, efficient, and accurate way. Electronic databases were searched up to 23rd March, 2020. The initial search yielded 6,527 studies. Following screening, 24 studies were included [18 studies (11,564 cases) of confirmed COVID-19 cases in the general public, and 6 studies (394 cases) in medical staff] in this review. Significant differences were observed in white blood cell counts (p < 0.001), lymphocyte counts (p < 0.001), platelet counts (p = 0.04), procalcitonin levels (p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase levels (p < 0.001), and creatinine levels (p = 0.03) when comparing infected medical staff with the general public. The mortality rate was higher in the general population than in medical staff (8% versus 2%). This review showed that during the early stages of COVID-19, laboratory findings alone may not be significant predictors of infection and may just accompany increasing C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. In the symptomatic stage, the lymphocyte and platelet counts tended to decrease. Elevated D-dimer fibrin degradation product was associated with poor prognosis.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • microRNA-185 Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Infection through the Modulation of the Host’s Lipid Microenvironment
    Nadine Ahmed, Magen E. Francis, Noreen Ahmed, Alyson A. Kelvin, John Paul Pezacki
    Viruses.2023; 15(9): 1921.     CrossRef
  • Protective action of natural and induced immunization against the occurrence of delta or alpha variants of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a test-negative case-control study
    Giovanni Corrao, Matteo Franchi, Federico Rea, Danilo Cereda, Antonio Barone, Catia Rosanna Borriello, Petra Giulia Della Valle, Michele Ercolanoni, Ida Fortino, Jose Jara, Olivia Leoni, Francesco Mazziotta, Elisabetta Pierini, Giuseppe Preziosi, Marcello
    BMC Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Balancing Benefits and Harms of COVID-19 Vaccines: Lessons from the Ongoing Mass Vaccination Campaign in Lombardy, Italy
    Giovanni Corrao, Federico Rea, Matteo Franchi, Danilo Cereda, Antonio Barone, Catia Rosanna Borriello, Giulia Petra Della Valle, Michele Ercolanoni, Jose Jara, Giuseppe Preziosi, Manuel Maffeo, Francesco Mazziotta, Elisabetta Pierini, Francesco Lecis, Pie
    Vaccines.2022; 10(4): 623.     CrossRef
  • Vulnerability Predictors of Post-Vaccine SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Disease—Empirical Evidence from a Large Population-Based Italian Platform
    Giovanni Corrao, Matteo Franchi, Danilo Cereda, Francesco Bortolan, Olivia Leoni, Catia Rosanna Borriello, Petra Giulia Della Valle, Marcello Tirani, Giovanni Pavesi, Antonio Barone, Michele Ercolanoni, Jose Jara, Massimo Galli, Guido Bertolaso
    Vaccines.2022; 10(6): 845.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with severe or fatal clinical manifestations of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection after receiving the third dose of vaccine
    Giovanni Corrao, Matteo Franchi, Danilo Cereda, Francesco Bortolan, Olivia Leoni, Jose Jara, Giuseppina Valenti, Giovanni Pavesi
    Journal of Internal Medicine.2022; 292(5): 829.     CrossRef
  • Role of multiresolution vulnerability indices in COVID-19 spread in India: a Bayesian model-based analysis
    Rupam Bhattacharyya, Anik Burman, Kalpana Singh, Sayantan Banerjee, Subha Maity, Arnab Auddy, Sarit Kumar Rout, Supriya Lahoti, Rajmohan Panda, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(11): e056292.     CrossRef
  • A novel multi-omics-based highly accurate prediction of symptoms, comorbid conditions, and possible long-term complications of COVID-19
    Debmalya Barh, Sandeep Tiwari, Bruno Silva Andrade, Marianna E. Weener, Aristóteles Góes-Neto, Vasco Azevedo, Preetam Ghosh, Kenneth Blum, Nirmal Kumar Ganguly
    Molecular Omics.2021; 17(2): 317.     CrossRef
  • Clinical and laboratory factors associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid‐19): A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Le Huu Nhat Minh, Ali Ahmed‐Fouad Abozaid, Nam Xuan Ha, Loc Le Quang, Abdelrahman Gamil Gad, Ranjit Tiwari, Tran Nhat‐Le, Dinh Kim Quyen, Balqees AL‐Manaseer, Nguyen Dang Kien, Nguyen Lam Vuong, Ahmad Helmy Zayan, Le Huu Hanh Nhi, Kadek Agus Surya Dila, J
    Reviews in Medical Virology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiologic and Clinic Characteristics of the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Hospitalized Patients from Galați County
    Mihaela-Camelia Vasile, Anca-Adriana Arbune, Gabriela Lupasteanu, Constantin-Marinel Vlase, George-Cosmin Popovici, Manuela Arbune
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(18): 4210.     CrossRef
  • Human Amniotic Fluid for the Treatment of Hospitalized, Symptomatic, and Laboratory-verified SARS-CoV-2 Patients
    Mojgan Barati, Fakher Rahim
    The Open Biology Journal.2021; 9(1): 36.     CrossRef
  • Stratification of the risk of developing severe or lethal Covid-19 using a new score from a large Italian population: a population-based cohort study
    Giovanni Corrao, Federico Rea, Flavia Carle, Salvatore Scondotto, Alessandra Allotta, Vito Lepore, Antonio D'Ettorre, Cinzia Tanzarella, Patrizia Vittori, Sabrina Abena, Marica Iommi, Liana Spazzafumo, Michele Ercolanoni, Roberto Blaco, Simona Carbone, Cr
    BMJ Open.2021; 11(11): e053281.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Risk Factors in Early Life for Preschool Children in Korea that are Associated with Being Overweight or Obese
Jin Suk Ra, Hyun Jung Yun
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(1):15-26.   Published online February 28, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.04
  • 6,663 View
  • 139 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The present study addressed the risk factors in early life for Korean preschool children that are associated with being overweight or obese.

Methods

A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to conduct this study, which included 507 mothers with preschool children aged 3–5 years, who attended daycare centers. Data were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire completed by the mothers. Of the 650 questionnaires that were distributed, 507 (78%) were completed and sent back. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors in early life, which may contribute to being overweight or obese in preschool children.

Results

Fifty-eight (11.4%) preschool children were overweight and 41 (8.1%) were obese. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for covariates, revealed a significant association with the introduction of solid foods before 4 months of age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 9.49, p = 0.029] and a nonresponsive feeding style (aOR = 2.80, p = 0.043) with being overweight or obese in preschool children.

Conclusion

The findings of this study highlighted the need for parenting education programs on feeding practices to increase their understanding of hunger and satiety cues in infants, and appropriate timing for the introduction of solid foods.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Systematic review and meta‐analysis of breastfeeding and later overweight or obesity expands on previous study for World Health Organization
    Bernardo Lessa Horta, Nigel Rollins, Mariane S. Dias, Valquiria Garcez, Rafael Pérez‐Escamilla
    Acta Paediatrica.2023; 112(1): 34.     CrossRef
Enteroparasitism and Risk Factors Associated with Clinical Manifestations in Children and Adults of Jalisco State in Western Mexico
María de la Luz Galván-Ramírez, Ana Luisa Madriz-Elisondo, Cynthia Guadalupe Temores Ramírez, Jorge de Jesús Romero Rameño, Dania Araceli de la O Carrasco, Marco Antonio Cardona López
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):39-48.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.08
  • 8,482 View
  • 125 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasites in the population of San Juan Cosala, Jalisco, Mexico.

Methods

A total of 277 samples from 104 participants were analysed using direct smear, flotation, formaldehyde/ethyl acetate, and modified Kinyoun’s acid-fast stain methods. The Graham method was applied only for samples from children under 12 years of age for the diagnosis of Enterobius vermicularis.

Results

The prevalence of parasite infections in the study population was 77.9% including: Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii/E. bangladeshi (37.5%), Giardia intestinalis (11.5%); commensals: Endolimax nana (44.2%), Entamoeba coli (27.9%), Chilomastix mesnili (6.7%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii, (2.9%); emerging intestinal protozoans: Blastocystis spp. (49%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.7%) and Cyclospora cayetanensis (2.9%); and helminths: Enterobius vermicularis (18.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.8%). The results also showed that 58.64% of the studied population presented polyparasitism. A significant association was found between protozoan infections and housewives, and houses that were not built with concrete ceilings, brick walls and cement floors (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Polyparasitism was observed in over half the study population. The most prevalent parasite was Blastocystis spp, whilst the prevalence of helminths was less than that of protozoans. The risk factors for infection to intestinal parasites were being a housewife and not having solid brick, cement and concrete materials for house construction.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Intestinal parasite infections associated with sociodemographic and seasonal factors in the Western Amazon
    Gustavo Henrique Sinhorin, Ana Carolina Gomes Carneiro, Beatrice Emeli Silva Farias, Patrícia de Almeida, Antônio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Leonardo Augusto Kohara Melchior, Andreia Fernandes Brilhante
    Parasitology Research.2023; 122(2): 419.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among children in Iran: A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis
    Elnaz Moussavi, Mohammad Houssaini, Nader Salari, Mahvan Hemmati, Ahmad Abdullahi, Ali Asghar Khaleghi, Shamarina Shohaimi, Masoud Mohammadi
    Parasite Epidemiology and Control.2023; 22: e00315.     CrossRef
  • Improved household flooring is associated with lower odds of enteric and parasitic infections in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Hugo Legge, Rachel L. Pullan, Benn Sartorius, Srinivasa Rao Mutheneni
    PLOS Global Public Health.2023; 3(12): e0002631.     CrossRef
  • Enterobiasis among Yemeni children: a cross-sectional study
    Abdulelah H. Al-Adhroey, Yahya A. Al-Ansi, Mohammed A. Al-Kholani, Abdulrahman H. Amer, Marwan M. Al-Khyat, Fadia H. Al Hubaishi, Radhwan H. Aziz, Ebrahim S. Al-Khateeb, Souad A. Al-Gabri, Tawfik M. Al-Gabri
    Journal of Parasitic Diseases.2022; 46(3): 722.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of human cryptosporidiosis in the Americas: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Higor Wilson Jann, Mauro Jorge Cabral-Castro, João Victor Barreto Costa, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros Alencar, José Mauro Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago Peralta
    Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São P.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Frecuencia de parasitosis intestinal en escuelas primarias en Veracruz, México
    Vanessa Oceguera-Segovia, Gabriel Obed Martínez-Rodríguez, Janet Michelle Villafuerte-Ordaz, Xóchitl Magnolia Alanís-Reyes, Angel Alberto Puig-Lagunes
    Revista Mexicana de Pediatría.2022; 89(4): 146.     CrossRef
  • Intestinal protozoa and helminths in ulcerative colitis and the influence of anti-parasitic therapy on the course of the disease
    Abdurakhim Toychiev, Behzod Navruzov, Dinora Pazylova, Nikolay Davis, Najiya Badalova, Svetlana Osipova
    Acta Tropica.2021; 213: 105755.     CrossRef
  • Contamination of fresh produce sold on the Italian market with Cyclospora cayetanensis and Echinococcus multilocularis
    Alessandra Barlaam, Tamirat T. Temesgen, Kristoffer R. Tysnes, Laura Rinaldi, Nicola Ferrari, Anna R. Sannella, Giovanni Normanno, Simone M. Cacciò, Lucy J. Robertson, Annunziata Giangaspero
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  • The role of environmental factors in the realization of the epidemic process on ascariasis
    Anton A. Martsev
    Hygiene and sanitation.2021; 100(3): 218.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Pediatric Patients: Example of Ordu Province
    Emine YURDAKUL ERTÜRK, Ülkü KARAMAN, Yeliz KAŞKO ARICI, Cemil ÇOLAK, Gamze YOLALAN, Şermin TOP
    Online Türk Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi.2021; 6(3): 391.     CrossRef
  • Molecular genotyping of Blastocystis spp. in wild mammals from Mexico
    Fernando Martinez-Hernandez, Jose Alejandro Martinez-Ibarra, Eduardo Lopez-Escamilla, Claudia Villanueva-Garcia, Claudia Irais Muñoz-Garcia, Emilio Rendon-Franco, Pablo Maravilla, Guiehdani Villalobos
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  • The association between the lack of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities with intestinal Entamoeba spp infection risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Hamid Atabati, Hamid Kassiri, Ehsan Shamloo, Mitra Akbari, Ali Atamaleki, Fatemeh Sahlabadi, Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh, Ali Rostami, Yadolah Fakhri, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Chia Kwung Fan
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  • Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cyclosporiasis: An Update
    Sonia Almeria, Hediye N. Cinar, Jitender P. Dubey
    Microorganisms.2019; 7(9): 317.     CrossRef
Intra-Oral Factors Influencing Halitosis in Young Women
Ho Sun Shon, Kyoung Ok Kim, Jae Kwan Jung, Eun Jong Cha, Su Ok Lee, Kyung Ah Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):340-347.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.08
  • 5,385 View
  • 41 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this research was to determine intra-oral factors that affect halitosis in young women.

Methods

This study was performed between March 2014 to May 2014, and included 35 women in their 20s with good oral health. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the change in halitosis immediately, and 1 hour after scaling.

Results

In both oral gas (OG) and extraoral gas (EG) groups, halitosis was reduced after scaling compared to before scaling. The logistic regression analysis of oral state factors in OG showed that as oral fluid [odds ratio (OR) = 0.792, p = 0.045] and dental plaque (OR = 0.940, p = 0.016) decreased by 1 unit, the OR in the OG group decreased (> 50). In addition, as glucose levels in the oral cavity (OR = 1.245, p = 0.075) and tongue coating index (OR = 2.912, p = 0.064) increased by 1 unit, the OR in the OG group increased (> 50). Furthermore, in the EG group, as oral fluid (OR = 0.66, p = 0.01) and dental plaque (OR = 0.95, p = 0.04) decreased, the OR in the EG group decreased (> 50) significantly.

Conclusion

To control halitosis, it is necessary to increase oral fluid and decrease the amount of tongue plaque. Furthermore, maintaining a healthy oral environment, aided by regular scaling and removal of dental plaque, may significantly control halitosis.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence and associated factors of self‐reported halitosis among institutionalized adolescents: Cross‐sectional study
    Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes Muniz, Laura Barreto Moreno, Taciane Menezes da Silviera, Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing, Paulo Roberto Grafitti Colussi
    International Journal of Dental Hygiene.2023; 21(2): 409.     CrossRef
  • Validation of the Romanian Version of the Halitosis Associated Life-Quality Test (HALT) in a Cross-Sectional Study among Young Adults
    Raluca Briceag, Aureliana Caraiane, Gheorghe Raftu, Melania Lavinia Bratu, Roxana Buzatu, Liana Dehelean, Mariana Bondrescu, Felix Bratosin, Bogdan Andrei Bumbu
    Healthcare.2023; 11(19): 2660.     CrossRef
  • Role of Probiotics in Halitosis of Oral Origin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Studies
    Nansi López-Valverde, Antonio López-Valverde, Bruno Macedo de Sousa, Cinthia Rodríguez, Ana Suárez, Juan Manuel Aragoneses
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Microbiota in intra-oral halitosis – characteristics, effects of antibacterial mouth rinse treatment
    D. S. Vikina, I. N. Antonova, V. V. Tec, T. E. Lazareva
    Parodontologiya.2020; 25(1): 4.     CrossRef
Association between Beta-lactam Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Factors in AmpC Producing Clinical Strains of P. aeruginosa
Sanaz Dehbashi, Hamed Tahmasebi, Mohammad Reza Arabestani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):325-333.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.06
  • 22,984 View
  • 137 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of IMP and OXA genes in clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) that are carriers of the ampC gene.

Methods

In this study, 105 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected. Antibiotic resistance patterns were determined using the disk diffusion method. The strains carrying AmpC enzymes were characterized by a combination disk method. Multiplex-PCR was used to identify resistance and virulence genes, chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between variables.

Results

Among 105 isolates of P. aeruginosa, the highest antibiotic resistance was to cefotaxime and aztreonam, and the least resistance was to colictin and ceftazidime. There were 49 isolates (46.66%) that showed an AmpC phenotype. In addition, the frequencies of the resistance genes were; OXA48 gene 85.2%, OXA199, 139 3.8%, OXA23 3.8%, OXA2 66.6%, OXA10 3.8%, OXA51 85.2% and OXA58 3.8%. The IMP27 gene was detected in 9 isolates (8.57%) and the IMP3.34 was detected in 11 isolates (10.47%). Other genes detected included; lasR (17.1%), lasB (18%) and lasA (26.6%). There was a significant relationship between virulence factors and the OX and IMP genes (p ≤ 0.05).

Conclusion

The relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence factors observed in this study could play an important role in outbreaks associated with P. aeruginosa infections.

Citations

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Relationships between Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance among Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections and Commensal Isolates in Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Mehri Habibi, Saeid Bouzari
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(5):217-224.   Published online October 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.5.02
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the major cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Here, we determined whether sensitivity to antibiotics was related to the prevalence of iron scavenging genes, or to biofilm and hemolysis formation.

Methods

A total of 110 UPEC and 30 E coli isolates were collected from the urine of UTI patients and feces of healthy individuals without UTI, respectively. The presence of iron receptor genes and phenotypic properties were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and phenotypic methods, respectively. Susceptibility to routine antibiotics was evaluated using the disc diffusion method.

Results

The prevalence of iron scavenging genes ranged from 21.8% (ireA) to 84.5% (chuA) in the UPEC. Resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime was significantly correlated with the presence of fyuA and iutA iron genes. Biofilm production was significantly associated with the prevalence of fyuA and hma iron genes. A higher degree of antibiotic resistance was exhibited by isolates that produced biofilms than by their non-biofilm producing counterparts.

Conclusion

Our study clearly indicates that biofilm production is associated with antibiotic resistance, and that iron receptors and hemolysin production also contribute to reduced antibiotic sensitivity. These results further our understanding of the role that these virulence factors play during UPEC pathogenesis, which in turn may be valuable for the development of novel treatment strategies against UTIs.

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Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity Levels in Korean Adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2015
Kwanjun Park, Sunmi Lim, Yoonhyung Park, Woong Ju, Yoonhee Shin, Hansol Yeom
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):150-159.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.03
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The increase in the obesity rate in adult males in Korea is higher than countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and other Asian countries. We examined the trends and prevalence of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease by evaluating the weight status amongst adults from 2007 to 2015.

Methods

The study included 37,402 adults, who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence trends of cardiovascular disease risk factors were estimated for each body mass index group.

Results

From 2007 to 2015, significant increases in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were observed in normal weight adults (0.03 percentage point (%p), 0.06%p, and 0.13%p, respectively). Amongst the overweight and obese adults, a significant increase in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was observed, During this period, the prevalence of smoking decreased amongst obese adults and no significant changes in drinking habits and physical activity were noted across all body mass index groups.

Conclusion

The prevalence of obesity in Korean adults is increasing, and it is necessary to implement interventions to prevent further weight gain and obesity-associated cardiovascular disease.

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Meeting Report
The 2nd Meeting of National Control Laboratories for Vaccines and Biologicals in the Western Pacific
Hokyung Oh, Jinho Shin, Chung Keel Lee, Masaki Ochiai, Kiyoko Nojima, Chang Kweng Lim, Sanj Raut, Irene Lisovsky, Stella Williams, Ki Young Yoo, Dong-Yeop Shin, Manabu Ato, Qiang Ye, Kiwon Han, Chulhyun Lee, Naery Lee, Ji Young Hong, Kikyung Jung, Pham Van Hung, Jayoung Jeong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(3):133-139.   Published online June 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.3.10
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AbstractAbstract PDF

The Second Meeting of the National Control Laboratories for Vaccines and Biologicals in the Western Pacific, was jointly organized by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in the Republic of Korea, and by the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific.

In the National Lot Release Systems session countries including Canada, China, Japan, Malaysia, Vietnam, and the Republic of Korea, all shared information on their current Lot Release Systems, including current practices and developments in risk-based official lot release of vaccines.

In the session on Quality Control of Blood Products, experts from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control shared quality control and research results for; blood coagulation factor VIII products, and the measurement of procoagulant activity in immunoglobulin products. Representatives from Japan proposed a regional collaborative study to test aggregated immunoglobulin free from complement activity. A cell-based Japanese encephalitis vaccine potency assay was proposed by representatives from Korea and they also called for voluntary participation of other National Control Laboratories in a collaborative study, on the first Korean Gloydius anti-venom standard. Participants agreed in general to continue communicating, and coordinate presentation of the study results.

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Original Articles
Age-differentiated Risk Factors of Suicidal Ideation among Young and Middle-aged Korean Adults
Ahra Jo, Minho Jeon, Heeyoung Oh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):201-210.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.07
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults, and explore the risk factors that affect suicidal ideation.

Methods

A descriptive study design was used for secondary data analysis. A total sample of 5,214 was drawn from two waves (2012–2013) of the 7th Korea Health Panel (KHP) survey. The KHP data were collected by a well-trained interviewer using the face-to-face method during home visits as well as self-report method. Descriptive statistics of frequency, percentage, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were performed using SPSS 22.0.

Results

The prevalence of suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was 4.4% and 5.6%, respectively. For young adults, suicidal ideation risk was higher among those with low income or heavy drinking habits. In middle-aged adults, low income, poor perceived health status, negative perception of peer-compared health status, and negative social perspective were the major risk factors.

Conclusion

There is considerable risk of suicidal ideation in adulthood. Opportunities for increased income, avoidance of heavy drinking, and the construction of positive subjective health status and social perspective should be considered in suicide prevention interventions for Korean young and middle-aged adults.

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Low Levels of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis among Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Isolates and Their Relationship to Risk Factors: Surveillance in Tehran, Iran; 2006 to 2014
Alireza Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Shamsi Yari, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Abolfazl Fateh, Ahmadreza Bahrmand
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):116-123.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.03
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is more expensive and difficult to treat than multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and outcomes for patients are much worse; therefore, it is important that clinicians understand the magnitude and distribution of XDR-TB. We conducted a retrospective study to compare the estimated incidence of and risk factors for M/XDR-TB with those of susceptible TB controls.

Methods

Sputum culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) were performed in patients with known or suspected TB. Strains that were identified as MDR were subjected to DST for second-line drugs using the proportion method.

Results

Among 1,442 TB patients (mean age, 46.48 ± 21.24 years) who were culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1,126 (78.1%) yielded isolates that were resistant to at least one first-line drug; there were 33 isolates (2.3%) of MDR-TB, of which three (0.2%) were classified as XDR-TB. Ofloxacin resistance was found in 10 (0.7%) isolates. Women were 15% more likely than men to yield M/XDR-TB isolates, but this difference was not significant. In a multivariate analysis comparing susceptible TB with X/MDR-TB, only one variable—the number of previous treatment regimens—was associated with MDR (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.14–21.2).

Conclusion

The burden of M/XDR-TB cases is not sizeable in Iran. Nonetheless, strategies must be implemented to identify and cure patients with pre-XDR-TB before they develop XDR-TB. Our results provide a greater understanding of the evolution and spread of M/XDR-TB in an environment where drug-resistant TB has a low incidence.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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