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Original Article
Transmission parameters of coronavirus disease 2019 in South Asian countries
Mridul Sannyal, Abul Mukid Mohammad Mukaddes
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):191-202.   Published online June 23, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0234
  • 1,646 View
  • 39 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to estimate the transmission parameters, effective reproduction number, epidemic peak, and future exposure of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Asian countries. Methods: A susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered-death (SEIRD) model programmed with MATLAB was developed for this purpose. Data were collected (till June 28, 2021) from the official webpage of World Health Organization, along with the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University. The model was simulated to measure the primary transmission parameters. The reproduction number was measured using the next-generating matrix method. Results: The primary transmission rate followed an exponential Gaussian process regression. India showed the highest transmission rate (0.037) and Bhutan the lowest (0.023). The simulated epidemic peaks matched the reported peaks, thereby validating the SEIRD model. The simulation was carried out up to December 31, 2020 using the reported data till June 9, 2020. Conclusion: The information gathered in this research will be helpful for authorities to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 in the subsequent wave or in the future.
Review Article
Review of the early reports of the epidemiological characteristics of the B.1.1.7 variant of SARS-CoV-2 and its spread worldwide
Yeonju Kim, Eun-Jin Kim, Sang-Won Lee, Donghyok Kwon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(3):139-148.   Published online June 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0037
  • 4,484 View
  • 140 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The variant B.1.1.7 of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the RNA virus causing the pandemic more than a year worldwide, was reported from United Kingdom (UK) in late December 2020. It was reported that mortality increases by 65% and transmissibility increases by 70%, which may result in an increase of reproduction number to 1.13−1.55 from 0.75−0.85. To analyze the global increasing trend of the variant B.1.1.7, we extracted results of B.1.1.7 from GISAID on May 11 and May 12, 2021, and conducted a doseresponse regression. It took 47 days to reach 20% and 121 days to reach 50% among the sequence submitted from UK. In Korea, cases of B.1.1.7 have increased since the first report of three cases on December 28, 2020. Positive rate of B.1.1.7 in Korea was 21.6% in the week from May 9 to May 15, 2021. Detection rate of the variants is expected to increase further and new variants of SARS-CoV-2 are emerging, so a close monitoring and control would be maintained for months.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Mutations in SARS-CoV-2: Insights on structure, variants, vaccines, and biomedical interventions
    Ahmed I. Abulsoud, Hussein M. El-Husseiny, Ahmed A. El-Husseiny, Hesham A. El-Mahdy, Ahmed Ismail, Samy Y. Elkhawaga, Emad Gamil Khidr, Doaa Fathi, Eman A. Mady, Agnieszka Najda, Mohammad Algahtani, Abdulrahman Theyab, Khalaf F. Alsharif, Ashraf Albrakati
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2023; 157: 113977.     CrossRef
  • Incidence Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 Variants in the Ulsan Area, Korea, Using PowerChek SARS-CoV-2 S-gene Mutation Detection Kit: A Pilot Study
    Sang Hyuk Park, Hyun-Ki Kim, Hang Kang, Jung Heon Kim, Jaeseung Lee, Ji-Hun Lim, Seon-Ho Lee, Joseph Jeong
    Annals of Laboratory Medicine.2022; 42(3): 363.     CrossRef
  • Biological Properties of SARS-CoV-2 Variants: Epidemiological Impact and Clinical Consequences
    Reem Hoteit, Hadi M. Yassine
    Vaccines.2022; 10(6): 919.     CrossRef
  • Virtual recruitment and participant engagement for substance use research during a pandemic
    Carolin C. Hoeflich, Anna Wang, Ayodeji Otufowora, Linda B. Cottler, Catherine W. Striley
    Current Opinion in Psychiatry.2022; 35(4): 252.     CrossRef
  • Display of receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein variants on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface
    Hongguan Xing, Liyan Zhu, Pingping Wang, Guoping Zhao, Zhihua Zhou, Yi Yang, Hong Zou, Xing Yan
    Frontiers in Immunology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Mutations in SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in variants of concern impair the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 detection by rapid antigen tests
    Ibrahim T. Hagag, Krzysztof Pyrc, Saskia Weber, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, Martin H. Groschup, Markus Keller
    Frontiers in Virology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Disease Severity and Clinical Outcomes of the SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern
    Lixin Lin, Ying Liu, Xiujuan Tang, Daihai He
    Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Alarm Thresholds for Pertussis Outbreaks in Iran: National Data Analysis
Yousef Alimohamadi, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Manoochehr Karami, Mehdi Yaseri, Mojtaba Lotfizad, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):309-318.   Published online October 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.5.07
  • 3,814 View
  • 54 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of the current study was to determine the upper threshold number of cases for which pertussis infection would reach an outbreak level nationally in Iran.

Methods

Data on suspected cases of pertussis from the 25th February 2012 to the 23rd March 2018 from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Iran was used. The national upper threshold level was estimated using the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) method and the Poisson regression method.

Results

In total, 2,577 (33.6%) and 1,714 (22.3%) cases were reported in the Spring and Summer respectively. There were 1,417 (18.5%) and 1,971 (25.6%) cases reported in the Autumn and Winter, respectively. The overall upper threshold using the EWMA and the Poisson regression methods, was estimated as a daily occurrence of 8 (7.55) and 7.50 (4.48–11.06) suspected cases per 10,000,000 people, respectively. The daily seasonal thresholds estimated by the EWMA and the Poisson regression methods were 10, 7, 6, 8 cases and 10, 7, 7, 9 cases for the Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter, respectively.

Conclusion

The overall and seasonal estimated thresholds by the 2 methods were similar. Therefore, the estimated thresholds of 6–10 cases in a day, per 10,000,000 people could be used to detect pertussis outbreaks and epidemics by health policymakers.

Citations

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  • Immunogenicity and Safety of a Newly Developed Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid (Td) in Healthy Korean Adolescents: a Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Active-Controlled Phase 3 Trial
    Ui Yoon Choi, Ki Hwan Kim, Jin Lee, Byung Wook Eun, Hwang Min Kim, Kyung-Yil Lee, Dong Ho Kim, Sang Hyuk Ma, Jina Lee, Jong-Hyun Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Development and Utilization of a Rapid and Accurate Epidemic Investigation Support System for COVID-19
Young Joon Park, Sang Yun Cho, Jin Lee, Ikjin Lee, Won-Ho Park, Seungmyeong Jeong, Seongyun Kim, Seokjun Lee, Jaeho Kim, Ok Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(3):118-127.   Published online May 20, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.3.06
  • 9,865 View
  • 282 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

In this pandemic situation caused by a novel coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19), an electronic support system that can rapidly and accurately perform epidemic investigations, is needed. It would systematically secure and analyze patients’ data (who have been confirmed to have the infection), location information, and credit card usage.

Methods

The “Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Act” in South Korea, established a legal basis for the securement, handling procedure, and disclosure of information required for epidemic investigations. The Epidemic Investigation Support System (EISS) was developed as an application platform on the Smart City data platform.

Results

The EISS performed the function of inter-institutional communication which reduced the processing period of patients’ data in comparison to other methods. This system automatically marked confirmed cases’ tracking data on a map and hot-spot analysis which lead to the prediction of areas where people may be vulnerable to infection.

Conclusion

The EISS was designed and implemented for use during an epidemic investigation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease, by specifically tracking confirmed cases of infection.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A scalable framework for smart COVID surveillance in the workplace using Deep Neural Networks and cloud computing
    Ajay Singh, Vaibhav Jindal, Rajinder Sandhu, Victor Chang
    Expert Systems.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 Cluster Linked to Aerosol Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via Floor Drains
    Taewon Han, Heedo Park, Yungje Jeong, Jungmin Lee, Eungyeong Shon, Man-Seong Park, Minki Sung
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases.2022; 225(9): 1554.     CrossRef
  • Public health in times of crisis: An overlooked variable in city management theories?
    Celso Machado, Daielly Melina Nassif Mantovani Ribeiro, Adriana Backx Noronha Viana
    Sustainable Cities and Society.2021; 66: 102671.     CrossRef
  • Re-estimation of basic reproduction number of COVID-19 based on the epidemic curve by symptom onset date
    K. Hong, S. J. Yum, J. H. Kim, B. C. Chun
    Epidemiology and Infection.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Benefits of Mobile Contact Tracing on COVID-19: Tracing Capacity Perspectives
    Uichin Lee, Auk Kim
    Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Two-Way Contact Network Modeling for Identifying the Route of COVID-19 Community Transmission
    Sung Jin Lee, Sang Eun Lee, Ji-On Kim, Gi Bum Kim
    Informatics.2021; 8(2): 22.     CrossRef
  • State of the Art in Adoption of Contact Tracing Apps and Recommendations Regarding Privacy Protection and Public Health: Systematic Review
    Katarzyna Kolasa, Francesca Mazzi, Ewa Leszczuk-Czubkowska, Zsombor Zrubka, Márta Péntek
    JMIR mHealth and uHealth.2021; 9(6): e23250.     CrossRef
  • Riding the waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea
    Joseph Christian Obnial, Maria Beatriz Baron, Hannah Andrea Sagsagat, Erika Ong, Ma. Alexandra Nicola Valenzuela, Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno III
    Journal of Primary Health Care.2021; 13(2): 116.     CrossRef
  • Contributions of Smart City Solutions and Technologies to Resilience against the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Literature Review
    Ayyoob Sharifi, Amir Reza Khavarian-Garmsir, Rama Krishna Reddy Kummitha
    Sustainability.2021; 13(14): 8018.     CrossRef
  • Harnessing the Power of Smart and Connected Health to Tackle COVID-19: IoT, AI, Robotics, and Blockchain for a Better World
    Farshad Firouzi, Bahar Farahani, Mahmoud Daneshmand, Kathy Grise, Jaeseung Song, Roberto Saracco, Lucy Lu Wang, Kyle Lo, Plamen Angelov, Eduardo Soares, Po-Shen Loh, Zeynab Talebpour, Reza Moradi, Mohsen Goodarzi, Haleh Ashraf, Mohammad Talebpour, Alireza
    IEEE Internet of Things Journal.2021; 8(16): 12826.     CrossRef
  • CASE-CF: Context Aware Smart Epidemic Control Framework
    Harsuminder Kaur Gill, Vivek Kumar Sehgal, Anil Kumar Verma
    New Generation Computing.2021; 39(3-4): 541.     CrossRef
  • Resolving the tension between full utilization of contact tracing app services and user stress as an effort to control the COVID-19 pandemic
    Jaehun Joo, Matthew Minsuk Shin
    Service Business.2020; 14(4): 461.     CrossRef
  • National Disaster Management System: COVID-19 Case in Korea
    Junic Kim, Kelly Ashihara
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2020; 17(18): 6691.     CrossRef
  • Evidence of Long-Distance Droplet Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by Direct Air Flow in a Restaurant in Korea
    Keun-Sang Kwon, Jung-Im Park, Young Joon Park, Don-Myung Jung, Ki-Wahn Ryu, Ju-Hyung Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Brief Reports
Epidemics of Norovirus GII.4 Variant in Outbreak Cases in Korea, 2004–2012
Sunyoung Jung, Hyun Ju Jeong, Bo-Mi Hwang, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Gyung Tae Chung, Hyesook Jeong, Yeon-Ho Kang, Deog-Yong Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(5):318-321.   Published online October 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.10.002
  • 2,128 View
  • 19 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Norovirus GII.4 is recognized as a worldwide cause of nonbacterial outbreaks. In particular, the GII.4 variant occurs every 2–3 years according to antigenic variation. The aim of our study was to identify GII.4 variants in outbreaks in Korea during 2004–2012. Partial VP1 sequence of norovirus GII.4-related outbreaks during 2004–2012 was analyzed. The partial VP1 sequence was detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, seminested polymerase chain reaction, and nucleotide sequence of 312-314 base pairs for phylogenetic comparison. Nine variants emerged in outbreaks, with the Sydney variant showing predominance recently. This predominance may persist for at least 3 years, although new variants may appear in Korea.

Citations

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  • Genotypic and Epidemiological Trends of Acute Gastroenteritis Associated with Noroviruses in China from 2006 to 2016
    Shu-Wen Qin, Ta-Chien Chan, Jian Cai, Na Zhao, Zi-Ping Miao, Yi-Juan Chen, She-Lan Liu
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2017; 14(11): 1341.     CrossRef
Epidemic Intelligence Service Officers and Field Epidemiology Training Program in Korea
Geun-Yong Kwon, Shinje Moon, Wooseok Kwak, Jin Gwack, Chaeshin Chu, Seung-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):215-221.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.07.001
  • 2,283 View
  • 20 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Korea has adopted Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officers through the Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) since 1999 for systematic control of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Graduates of medical schools in Korea are selected and serve as public health doctors (PHDs) for their mandatory military service. The duration of service is 3 years and PHDs comprise general practitioners and specialists. Some PHDs are selected as EIS officers with 3 weeks basic FETP training and work for central and provincial public health authorities to conduct epidemiological investigations. The total number of EIS officers is 31 as of 2012. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) has 12 specialists, whereas specialists and each province has one or two EIS officers to administer local epidemiological investigations in 253 public health centers. The Korean EIS officers have successfully responded and prevented infectious diseases, but there is a unique limitation: the number of PHDs in Korea is decreasing and PHDs are not allowed to stay outside Korea, which makes it difficult to cope with overseas infectious diseases. Furthermore, after 3 years service, they quit and their experiences are not accumulated. KCDC has hired full-time EIS officers since 2012 to overcome this limitation.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A resposta da Coreia do Sul à pandemia de COVID-19: lições aprendidas e recomendações a gestores
    Thais Regis Aranha Rossi, Catharina Leite Matos Soares, Gerluce Alves Silva, Jairnilson Silva Paim, Lígia Maria Vieira-da-Silva
    Cadernos de Saúde Pública.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Turnover Intention among Field Epidemiologists in South Korea
    Sukhyun Ryu
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2020; 17(3): 949.     CrossRef
  • National Response to COVID-19 in the Republic of Korea and Lessons Learned for Other Countries
    Juhwan Oh, Jong-Koo Lee, Dan Schwarz, Hannah L. Ratcliffe, Jeffrey F. Markuns, Lisa R. Hirschhorn
    Health Systems & Reform.2020; 6(1): e1753464.     CrossRef
  • Steering the Private Sector in COVID-19 Diagnostic Test Kit Development in South Korea
    Sora Lee
    Frontiers in Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Experience of 16 years and its associated challenges in the Field Epidemiology Training Program in Korea
    Moo-Sik Lee, Eun-Young Kim, Sang-Won Lee
    Epidemiology and Health.2017; 39: e2017058.     CrossRef
  • The direction of restructuring of a Korea field epidemiology training program through questionnaire survey among communicable disease response staff in Korea
    Moo Sik Lee, Kwan Lee, Jee-Hyuk Park, Jee-Young Hong, Min-Young Jang, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Sang-Yun Cho, Sun-Ja Choi, JeongIk Hong
    Epidemiology and Health.2017; 39: e2017032.     CrossRef
  • Review for the Korean Health Professionals and International Cooperation Doctors Dispatched to Peru by the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)
    Bongyoung Kim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(2): 133.     CrossRef
  • From Seoul to Lima: Korean Doctors in Peru
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(2): 71.     CrossRef
  • Emerging Pathogens and Vehicles of Food- and Water-borne Disease Outbreaks in Korea, 2007–2012
    Shinje Moon, Il-Woong Sohn, Yeongseon Hong, Hyungmin Lee, Ji-Hyuk Park, Geun-Yong Kwon, Sangwon Lee, Seung-Ki Youn
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2014; 5(1): 34.     CrossRef
Original Article
A Note on Obesity as Epidemic in Korea
Mun Seok Kim, Chaeshin Chu, Yongkuk Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(2):135-140.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.08.004
  • 2,019 View
  • 13 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective To analyze the incidence of obesity in adults aged 19–59 years in Korea and predict its trend in the future.
Methods
We considered a two-compartmental deterministic mathematical model Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS), a system of difference equations, to predict the evolution of obesity in the population and to propose strategies to reduce its incidence.
Results
The prevention strategy on normal-weight individuals produced a greater improvement than that produced by treatment strategies.
Conclusions
Mathematical model sensitivity analysis suggests that obesity prevention strategies are more effective than obesity treatment strategies in controlling the increase of adult obesity in Korea.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Quality Attributes of Fat-free Sausage Made of Chicken Breast and Liquid Egg White
    Hyun Jung Lee, Cheorun Jo, Ki Chang Nam, Kyung Haeng Lee
    The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition.2016; 29(4): 449.     CrossRef
  • Optimal Intervention Strategies for the Spread of Obesity
    Chunyoung Oh, Masud M A
    Journal of Applied Mathematics.2015; 2015: 1.     CrossRef
  • Summing Up Again
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2014; 5(4): 177.     CrossRef
  • Optimal Implementation of Intervention to Control the Self-harm Epidemic
    Byul Nim Kim, M.A. Masud, Yongkuk Kim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2014; 5(6): 315.     CrossRef
  • A NOTE ON THE OBESITY AS AN EPIDEMIC
    Chunyoung Oh
    Honam Mathematical Journal.2014; 36(1): 131.     CrossRef
  • Journal Publishing: Never Ending Saga
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2014; 5(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Roll the Dice
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2014; 5(5): 243.     CrossRef
  • Years of Epidemics (2009–2011): Pandemic Influenza and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic in Korea
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2013; 4(3): 125.     CrossRef
  • A Tale of Two Fields: Mathematical and Statistical Modeling of Infectious Diseases
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2011; 2(2): 73.     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives