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Brief Report
The laboratory test procedure to confirm rotavirus vaccine infection in severe complex immunodeficiency patients
Su-Jin Chae, Seung-Rye Cho, Wooyoung Choi, Myung-Guk Han, Deog-Yong Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(4):269-273.   Published online August 13, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0079
  • 2,272 View
  • 63 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The rotavirus vaccine is a live vaccine, and there is a possibility of infection by the virus strain used in the vaccine. We investigated the process of determining whether an infection was caused by the vaccine strain in a severe complex immunodeficiency (SCID) patient with rotavirus infection. The patient was vaccinated with RotaTeq prior to being diagnosed with SCID. The testing process was conducted in the following order: confirming rotavirus infection, determining its genotype, and confirming the vaccine strain. Rotavirus infection was confirmed through enzyme immunoassay and VP6 gene detection. G1 and P[8] were identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the genotype, and G3 was further identified using a single primer. By detecting the fingerprint gene (WC3) of RotaTeq, it was confirmed that the detected virus was the vaccine strain. Genotypes G1 and P[8] were identified, and the infection was suspected of having been caused by rotavirus G1P[8]. G1P[8] is the most commonly detected genotype worldwide and is not included in the recombinant strains used in vaccines. Therefore, the infection was confirmed to have been caused by the vaccine strain by analyzing the genetic relationship between VP4 and VP7. Rotavirus infection by the vaccine strain can be identified through genotyping and fingerprint gene detection. However, genetic linkage analysis will also help to identify vaccine strains.
Original Articles
Risk of Water and Food-Borne Communicable Diseases in Travelers Entering Korea
Kyung Sook Jung, Yu Mi Jang, Ji Hye Hwang, Gi Jun Park, Tae Jong Son
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(4):215-220.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.4.03
  • 2,961 View
  • 163 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

It was supposed to analyze status and affecting factors in water and food-borne communicable disease by screening entrants with diarrhea symptom at the point of entry in Korea

Methods

Symptomatic travelers with water and food-borne communicable diseases who entered Korea were diagnosed by a health declaration and detection of causative agents in water and food using laboratory tests. Among those entered in 2017, the affecting factors in the incidence of communicable diseases among those who had diarrhea at the entry into Korea, were analyzed, with frequency and chi-square test.

Results

The number of travel entrants with gastrointestinal communicable diseases increased by 40.19% from 2013 to 2017. The percentage of causative agents of water and food-borne communicable diseases was the highest at 69.2% from July to September. The rate of detection of causative agents of communicable disease pathogens in travelers from Southeast Asia entering Korea was 70.2%, which was higher than people arriving from East Asia and Central Asia (57.5%; p < 0.001).

Conclusion

The positive ratio of causative agents of water and food-borne communicable diseases was high among travelers that had entered Korea from July to September, with a high number among entrants from Southeast Asia. Based on the positive detection of causative agents, the entry period and countries visited were statistically significant affecting factors (p < 0.001).

Foodborne Illness Outbreaks in Gyeonggi Province, Korea, Following Seafood Consumption Potentially Caused by Kudoa septempunctata between 2015 and 2016
Joon Jai Kim, Sukhyun Ryu, Heeyoung Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(2):66-72.   Published online April 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.2.05
  • 3,047 View
  • 65 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Investigations into foodborne illness, potentially caused by Kudoa septempunctata, has been ongoing in Korea since 2015. However, epidemiological analysis reporting and positive K septempunctata detection in feces in Korea has been limited. The aim of this study was to provide epidemiologic data analysis of possible food poisoning caused by K septempunctata in Korea.

Methods

This study reviewed 16 Kudoa outbreak investigation reports, including suspected cases between 2015 and 2016 in Gyeonggi province, Korea. Suspected Kudoa foodborne illness outbreak was defined as “evidence of K septempunctata in at least one sample.” The time and place of outbreak, patient symptoms and Kudoa (+) detection rate in feces was analyzed.

Results

Kudoa foodborne illness outbreaks occurred in most patients in August (22.6%) and in most outbreaks in April (25%). The attack rate was 53.9% and the average attack rate in patients who had consumed olive flounder was 64.7%. The average incubation period was 4.3 hours per outbreak. Diarrhea was the most common symptom which was reported by 91.5% patients. The Kudoa (+) detection rate in feces was 69.2% of cases.

Conclusion

Monthly distribution of Kudoa foodborne illness was different from previous studies. The Kudoa (+) detection rate in feces decreased rapidly between 25.5 and 28.5 hours of the time interval from food intake to epidemiologic survey. To identify effective period of time of investigation, we believe additional study with extended number of cases is necessary.

Profiling of Virulence-associated Factors in Shigella Species Isolated from Acute Pediatric Diarrheal Samples in Tehran, Iran
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Somayeh Yasliani Fard, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mahmood Mahmoudi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):220-226.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.09
  • 2,732 View
  • 31 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The genus Shigella comprises the most infectious and diarrheagenic bacteria causing severe diseases, mostly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to detect nine virulence genes (ipaBCD, VirA, sen, set1A, set1B, ial, ipaH, stx, and sat) in Shigella species (spp.) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) and to determine the relation of Shigella spp. from pediatric diarrheal samples with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea in Tehran, Iran.

Methods

Shigella spp. were isolated and identified using standard microbiological and serological methods. The virulence genes were detected using MPCR.

Results

Seventy-five Shigella spp. (40 S. sonnei, 33 S. flexneri, 1 S. dysenteriae, and 1 S. boydii) were isolated in this study. The prevalence of ial, sen, sat, set1A, and set1B was 74.7%, 45.4%, 28%, 24%, and 24%, respectively. All S. flexneri isolates, while no S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, or S. boydii isolates, contained sat, set1A, and set1B. All isolates were positive for ipaH, ipaBCD, and virA, while one (1.4%) of the isolates contained stx. The highest prevalence of virulence determinants was found in S. flexneri serotype IIa. Nineteen (57.6%) of 33 S. flexneri isolates were positive for ipaBCD, ipaH, virA, ial, and sat. The sen determinants were found to be statistically significantly associated with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea (p = 0.001).

Conclusion

This study revealed a high prevalence of enterotoxin genes in S. flexneri, especially in serotype 2a, and has presented relations between a few clinical features of shigellosis and numerous virulence determinants of clinical isolates of Shigella spp.

Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Diarrheal Patients in Korea in 2014
Nan-Ok Kim, Su-Mi Jung, Hae-Young Na, Gyung Tae Chung, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Won Keun Seong, Sahyun Hong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(4):233-240.   Published online August 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.07.005
  • 1,868 View
  • 18 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The aim of this study was to characterize the pathogens responsible for causing diarrhea according to season, region of isolation, patient age, and sex as well as to provide useful data for the prevention of diarrheal disease.
Methods
Stool specimens from 14,886 patients with diarrhea were collected to identify pathogenic bacteria from January 2014 to December 2014 in Korea. A total of 3,526 pathogenic bacteria were isolated and analyzed according to season, region of isolation, and the age and sex of the patient.
Results
The breakdown of the isolated pathogenic bacteria were as follows: Salmonella spp. 476 (13.5%), pathogenic Escherichia coli 777 (22.0%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus 26 (0.74%), Shigella spp. 13 (0.37%), Campylobacter spp. 215 (6.10%), Clostridium perfringens 508 (14.4%), Staphylococcus aureus 1,144 (32.4%), Bacillus cereus 356 (10.1%), Listeria monocytogenes 1 (0.03%), and Yersinia enterocolitica 10 (0.3%). The isolation rate trend showed the highest ratio in the summer season from June to September for most of the pathogenic bacteria except the Gram-positive bacteria. The isolation rate of most of the pathogenic bacteria by patient age showed highest ratio in the 0–19 year age range. For isolation rate by region, 56.2% were isolated from cities and 43.8% were isolated from provinces.
Conclusion
Hygiene education should be addressed for diarrheal disease-susceptible groups, such as those younger than 10 years, aged 10–19 years, and older than 70 years, and monitoring for the pathogens is still required. In addition, an efficient laboratory surveillance system for infection control should be continued.
High Prevalence of Class 1 to 3 Integrons Among Multidrug-Resistant Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Southwest of Iran
Mohammad Kargar, Zahra Mohammadalipour, Abbas Doosti, Shahrokh Lorzadeh, Alireza Japoni-Nejad
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(4):193-198.   Published online August 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.06.003
  • 2,018 View
  • 21 Download
  • 30 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Horizontal transfer of integrons is one of the important factors that can contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of integrons among MDR Escherichia coli strains isolated from stool specimens and investigate the associations between the existence of integrons and MDR properties in the southwest of Iran.
Methods
There were 164 E. coli strains isolated from January 2012 to June 2012. Fecal specimens identified as E. coli by the conventional methods. Subsequently the antibiotic resistance was assessed using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute criteria. The presence of class 1–3 integrons and embedded gene cassettes was verified using specific primers by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay.
Results
Among a total of 164 studied samples, 69 (42.07%) isolates were multidrug resistant. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were present in 78.26% and 76.81% MDR isolates, respectively. For the first time in Iran, class 3 integron was observed in 26.09% MDR isolates. Significant correlations were identified between: class 1 integron and resistance to amikacin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and co-trimoxazole; class 2 integron and resistance to aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, cefalexin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol; and class 3 integron and resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin.
Conclusion
Our results indicate that integrons are common among MDR isolates and they can be used as a marker for the identification of MDR isolates. Therefore, due to the possibility of a widespread outbreak of MDR isolates, molecular surveillance and sequencing of the integrons in other parts of the country is recommended.
Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Fecal Isolates From Healthy Persons and Patients With Diarrhea
Seung-Hak Cho, Yeong-Sik Lim, Mi-Sun Park, Seong-Han Kim, Yeon-Ho Kang
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(1):41-45.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.05.003
  • 1,642 View
  • 16 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy persons and patients with diarrhea.
Methods
E. coli isolates (n = 428) were obtained from fecal samples of apparently healthy volunteers and hospitalized patients with diarrhea. Susceptibility patterns of isolates to 16 antimicrobial agents were determined by agar disc diffusion.
Results
Most E. coli isolates exhibited less than 10% resistance against imipenem, cefotetan, aztreonam, cefepime, cefoxitin, amikacin and netilamicin, although greater than 65% were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline. No significant difference in resistance rates for all tested antibiotics was found between isolates from the healthy-and diarrheal-patient groups, including for multi-drug resistance (p = 0.22). The highest number of resistant antibiotics was 12 antibiotics. No significant differences in antibiotic resistance were found among the sex and age strata for isolates from healthy individuals. However, antibiotic resistance rates to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, amikacin, and netilamicin were significantly higher in the isolates of men than those of women (p < 0.05) in isolates from patients with diarrhea. Furthermore, isolates from patients with diarrhea older than 40-years of age showed higher resistance to cefepime and aztreonam (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
High resistance to the antibiotics most frequently prescribed for diarrhea was found in isolates from patients with diarrhea and apparently healthy individuals without any significant difference.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives