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Impact of Mixed Cognitive Intervention Training on Early Onset Dementia
Bo-Ra Jeon, Deok-Ju Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(1):29-36.   Published online February 23, 2021
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  • 178 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of mixed cognitive intervention training using spaced retrieval training, and errorless learning in participants with early onset dementia. This was based on reality orientation therapy for cognitive function, depression, and occupational performance of patients.


Two early onset vascular dementia patients (> 65 years) with mild or moderate impairment were enrolled in a pre-test - post-test single-subject research design study. Prior to the study, the caregivers were interviewed about meaningful times, people, places, and areas of interest for the participant. A list of individual training words were selected based upon this information, and the participant was instructed to recall them after a 45-second, 90-second, 6-minute, and 12-minute delay. Baseline (3 sessions), intervention (20 sessions), and a second baseline period (3 sessions) were conducted. Activities of daily living were measured, and cognition was measured using the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Alzheimer’s Disease Korean version, whilst depression was measured using the Korean Form Geriatric Depression Scale, and task performance and satisfaction measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure.


After intervention, both participants showed improvements in activities of daily living (ADL), word list memory/recognition, trail making A, occupational performance, and satisfaction improvement, which was clinically significant in 1 participant who also had a reduced score in the scale of depression classifying him as not depressed.


Spaced retrieval training and errorless learning based on reality orientation therapy is an effective intervention in patients with early onset dementia and mild or moderate impairment.

Serum Homocysteine and Folate Levels are Associated With Late-life Dementia in a Korean Population
Ju Hee Song, Moon Ho Park, Changsu Han, Sangmee A. Jo, Kyungsook Ahn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2010;1(1):17-22.   Published online December 31, 2010
  • 2,210 View
  • 14 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
We aimed to determine whether serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and its biological determinants, folate and vitamin B12, are related to cognitive decline in elderly people.
The concentrations of total Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 were measured in serum samples from 424 cognitively normal controls, 382 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 56 dementia patients from Ansan Geriatric cohort. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery was used to evaluate cognitive functions.
The dementia patients had higher serum Hcy (dementia, 17.6 ± 6.9 μmol/L; control, 12.9 ± 5.0 μmol/L; p < 0.001) and lower serum folate (dementia, 7.9 ± 4.8 ng/mL; control, 10.0 ± 7.1 ng/mL; p = 0.034) levels compared with controls. There was an inverse relationship between Hcy levels and serum folate or vitamin B12 concentrations. The cognitive status as measured by the (CERAD) score was inversely related to Hcy levels. The adjusted odds ratio of dementia was 5.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.91–14.10; p = 0.001) for moderate (30 ≥ Hcy > 15) hyperhomocysteinemia compared with normal Hcy levels (≤15 μmol/L). In addition, there was weak association between low serum folate (<3.0 ng/mL) and the risk for dementia (crude odds ratio = 3.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.07–12.69; p = 0.039).
Elevated serum Hcy and decreased serum folate concentrations are associated with the risk of dementia in Korean elders.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • B vitamins and prevention of cognitive decline and incident dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Zhibin Wang, Wei Zhu, Yi Xing, Jianping Jia, Yi Tang
    Nutrition Reviews.2022; 80(4): 931.     CrossRef
  • Biochemical and Hematological Correlates of Elevated Homocysteine in National Surveys and a Longitudinal Study of Urban Adults
    May A. Beydoun, Hind A. Beydoun, Peter H. MacIver, Sharmin Hossain, Jose A. Canas, Michele K. Evans, Alan B. Zonderman
    Nutrients.2020; 12(4): 950.     CrossRef
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia is key for increased susceptibility to PND in aged mice
    Guangchao Zhao, Jiao Deng, Yuan Shen, Peng Zhang, Hailong Dong, Zhongcong Xie, Lize Xiong
    Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology.2019; 6(8): 1435.     CrossRef
  • The effects and potential mechanisms of folic acid on cognitive function: a comprehensive review
    Athena Enderami, Mehran Zarghami, Hadi Darvishi-Khezri
    Neurological Sciences.2018; 39(10): 1667.     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives