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Short Communication
Socio-demographic disparities in the eating behaviour of Malaysian children during the COVID-19 lockdown
Sabrina Premila Joseph Louis, Tan Seok Tyug
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(3):196-199.   Published online May 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0053
  • 3,117 View
  • 104 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the eating behaviour of Malaysian children aged 2 to 11 years old during the Movement Control Order (MCO) due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Methods
A total of 204 Malaysian parents of children aged 2 to 11 years old were recruited for this study using a combination of purposive and snowball sampling approaches. Parents were required to fill an online questionnaire hosted on Google Forms, which consisted of socio-demographic characteristics (including child’s gender, age, and ethnicity, as well as parental income during the MCO) and a 35-item list from the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Data analysis was conducted by further stratifying the children's eating behaviour according to socio-demographic characteristics.
Results
No significant differences were observed in the eating behaviour of the children across age and parental income groups during the MCO. Malaysian Indian children had significantly lower mean scores for the food responsiveness (2.50±0.64) and emotional over-eating (2.13±0.72) subscales than Malaysian Chinese children. Girls had a significantly higher mean score for the slowness in eating subscale during the MCO than boys.
Conclusion
Children’s eating behaviour were comparable across socio-demographic characteristics. Nonetheless, the findings of the current study provide an overview of Malaysian children's eating behaviour during the MCO.
Original Articles
Secondhand Smoking Among Children in Rural Households: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh
Rishad Choudhury Robin, Narongsak Noosorn, Sheikh Mohammad Alif
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):201-208.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.09
  • 4,424 View
  • 65 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to determine the factors associated with reducing exposure to secondhand smoke among children in households of rural Bangladesh.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 410 smokers and non-smokers, in 6 villages of Munshigonj district was conducted. Data were collected randomly using a self-administrative questionnaire. Differences between variables were assessed using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test (as appropriate). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate associations. All results were presented as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval. The level of statistical significance was reached when p < 0.05.

Results

A smoker in the household was determined to be a risk factor associated with exposure of other household members to secondhand smoke (p < 0.001). Higher education, strict implementation of household smoke-free rules, a higher influence of social norms and culture, as well as moderate knowledge on exposure to secondhand smoke were considered as preventive factors associated with exposure of others in the home to secondhand smoke.

Conclusion

Exposure to secondhand smoke is an extensive and preventable risk factor for children, and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke will have a largely positive effect in the community. An effective public health intervention model may reduce secondhand smoking.

Nutritional Status of Indonesian Children in Low-Income Households with Fathers that Smoke
Maria Wijaya-Erhardt
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(2):64-71.   Published online April 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.2.04
  • 17,777 View
  • 180 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study compared the nutritional status of children in low-income households in Indonesia whose fathers were either cigarette smokers or non-smokers.

Methods

A cross sectional study of 482 children aged 2–6 years was conducted, stratified by whether the fathers were non-smoking (n = 138) or smoking (n = 340). Mothers and smoking fathers were interviewed about socioeconomic status and cigarette expenditure, respectively. The nutritional status of children was defined by weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height.

Results

Both groups had similar income. Households with a father that smoked, spent 16.6% of their income on cigarettes. Children whose fathers did not smoke had higher height-for-age (−1.99 vs. −2.25 Z-score, p = 0.02) than children whose fathers smoked. Weight-for-age in children with fathers that did not smoke was greater (−1.49 vs. −1.64 Z-score) but not statistically significantly different to those children with fathers that smoked, nor was child weight-for-height (−0.46 vs. −0.45 Z-score). The prevalence of stunted growth was higher in the children with a father that smoked compared with those that had a father did not smoke (62.2 vs. 49.6%, p = 0.07, respectively). There were 28.3% of children underweight in homes where the fathers did not smoke, and 35.6% in households where the father smoked (p = 0.11). Wasting was observed in 4.4% children where fathers did not smoke and 4.7% where fathers did smoke.

Conclusion

With similar income constraints, the degree of height growth faltering was less in children whose fathers did not smoke, compared to those whose fathers did smoke.

Prevalence of Fecal Carriage of CTX-M-15 Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Healthy Children from a Rural Andean Village in Venezuela
María Araque, Indira Labrador
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(1):9-15.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.03
  • 3,095 View
  • 41 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Antimicrobial resistant extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) have been shown to be present in healthy communities. This study examined healthy children from the rural Andean village of Llano del Hato, Mérida, Venezuela, who have had little or no antibiotic exposure to determine the prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC).

Methods

A total of 78 fecal samples were collected in healthy children aged from 1 to 5 years. ESBL-EC were selected in MacConkey agar plates with cefotaxime and further confirmed by the VITEK 2 system. ESBL were phenotypically detected and presence of bla genes and their variants were confirmed by molecular assays. Determination of phylogenetic groups was performed by PCR amplification. Risk factors associated with fecal carriage of ESBL-EC-positive isolates were analyzed using standard statistical methods.

Results

Of the 78 children studied, 27 (34.6%) carried ESBL-EC. All strains harbored the blaCTX-M-15 allele. Of these, 8 were co-producers of blaTEM-1, blaTEM-5, blaSHV-5 or blaSHV-12. Co-resistance to aminoglycosides and/or fluoroquinolones was observed in 9 strains. 51.9% of ESBL-EC isolates were classified within phylogroup A. A significant, positive correlation was found between age (≥2.5 – ≤5 years), food consumption patterns and ESBL-EC fecal carriage.

Conclusion

This is the first study describing the high prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-EC expressing CTX-M-15- among very young, healthy children from a rural Andean village in Venezuela with scarce antibiotic exposure, underlining the importance of this population as a reservoir.

Review Article
Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among Children in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Mahmood Moosazadeh, Ghasem Abedi, Mahdi Afshari, Seif Ali Mahdavi, Fereshteh Farshidi, Elham Kheradmand
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):108-115.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.02
  • 2,536 View
  • 51 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Enterobius vermicularis is a parasitic disease that is common in crowded areas such as schools and kindergartens. Primary investigations of electronic evidence have reported different prevalences of E. vermicularis in Iran. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total prevalence of this infection among Iranian children using a meta-analysis.

Methods

Relevant studies were identified in national and international databases. We selected eligible papers for meta-analysis after investigating titles, abstracts, and full texts; assessing study quality; and applying inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two independent researchers. The results were combined using a random effects model in Stata v. 11 software.

Results

Among 19 eligible articles including 11,676 participants, the prevalences of E. vermicularis among all children, boys, and girls were 1.2%–66.1%, 2.3%–65.5%, and 1.7%–65.5%, respectively. Pooled prevalences (95% confidence interval) of E. vermicularis among all children, boys, and girls were 17.2% (12.6%–21.8%), 17.2% (12.6%–21.8%), and 16.9% (9.03%–24.8%), respectively.

Conclusion

This meta-analysis showed that a great majority of Iranian children are infected with E. vermicularis, possibly due to poor public health.

Original Articles
Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children
Hae Ok Kim, Gyo Nam Kim, Euna Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(2):121-125.   Published online April 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.007
  • 1,466 View
  • 36 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology.
Methods
A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results.
Results
There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.”
Conclusion
The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity.
The Influence of Dietary Patterns on the Nutritional Profile in a Korean Child Cohort Study
Hyeon-Jeong Choi, Hyojee Joung, Hye-Ja Lee, Han Byul Jang, Jae-Heon Kang, Jihyun Song
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(1):59-64.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.04.007
  • 1,393 View
  • 14 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of the present study was to identify the major dietary patterns of seven- and eight-year-old Korean children and to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and obesity, nutrient intake, and diet quality.
Methods
The subjects were 284 seven- and eight-year-old children who participated in the Gwacheon child cohort study. Three dietary patterns emerged from the factor analysis: Korean, modified Western, and Western. Cluster analysis was used to classify the subjects into two dietary groups: Korean and Western diet patterns.
Results
The two different dietary patterns were closely related to dietary quality which in turn was related to health risks. The Western diet group had a lower fiber intake, a higher intake of energy, fat and calcium and a higher dietary diversity score (DDS) than the Korean diet group. The number of days when fruit, milk and dairy products were omitted from the diet was higher for the Korean diet group than for the Western group.
Conclusions
Dietary patterns and related diet quality should be considered when designing nutrition policy and intervention programs for children.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives