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Predictors of health-related quality of life in Koreans with cardiovascular disease
Jung-Hye Lim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(1):62-70.   Published online February 22, 2022
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  • 83 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
This study aimed to identify the predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a stratified multistage probability sampling design. Data from the 2016 to 2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=32,379) were used. Among the participants aged 19 years or older (n=25,995), 1,081 patients with CVD were extracted after excluding those with missing data and those who had cancer. The participants’ HRQoL was measured using the three-level EuroQoL Group’s five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) scale. Data were analyzed using the t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and general linear regression for complex samples. Results: The most potent predictors of HRQoL in Korean adults with CVD were limited activity (β =−0.103, p <0.001), poor perceived health (β =−0.089, p <0.001), depression (β =−0.065, p<0.01), low household income (β=−0.033, p<0.05), unemployment (β=−0.023, p<0.05), and older age (β=−0.002, p<0.01), which explained 37.2% of the variance. Conclusion: Comprehensive interventions that address both physical and mental factors and social systems that provide financial help need to be implemented to improve the HRQoL of Korean adults with CVD.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Factors associated with health-related quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease
    Febio Gutama, Melisa Intan Barliana, Irma Melyani Puspitasari
    Pharmacia.2022; 69(3): 771.     CrossRef
Sex differences in the relationship between depression and cardiovascular disease risk: a nationwide study in Korea
Seol-bin Kim, Ihn Sook Jeong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):105-114.   Published online April 29, 2021
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  • 86 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
This study aimed to identify sex differences in the association between depression and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD).
A secondary analysis was conducted of data from the fifth to seventh waves (2010−2018) of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The participants were adults aged 30−74 years who had no diagnosis of CVD. The CVD risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score algorithm. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify the association between depression and CVD risk using a complex sample design.
The mean CVD risk was higher in males and females with current depression (14.72% vs. 6.35%, respectively) than in males without current depression (11.67% and 4.42%, respectively). Current depression showed a significant association with CVD risk after controlling for only health-related characteristics, but the significance disappeared in both males and females when demographic characteristics were additionally controlled.
The presence of depression was not associated with CVD risk regardless of sex after controlling for confounding factors. Further studies are recommended to investigate the relationship between depression and CVD risk in a larger sample of both males and females with depression.
Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity Levels in Korean Adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2015
Kwanjun Park, Sunmi Lim, Yoonhyung Park, Woong Ju, Yoonhee Shin, Hansol Yeom
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):150-159.   Published online August 31, 2018
  • 4,996 View
  • 33 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

The increase in the obesity rate in adult males in Korea is higher than countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and other Asian countries. We examined the trends and prevalence of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease by evaluating the weight status amongst adults from 2007 to 2015.


The study included 37,402 adults, who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence trends of cardiovascular disease risk factors were estimated for each body mass index group.


From 2007 to 2015, significant increases in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were observed in normal weight adults (0.03 percentage point (%p), 0.06%p, and 0.13%p, respectively). Amongst the overweight and obese adults, a significant increase in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was observed, During this period, the prevalence of smoking decreased amongst obese adults and no significant changes in drinking habits and physical activity were noted across all body mass index groups.


The prevalence of obesity in Korean adults is increasing, and it is necessary to implement interventions to prevent further weight gain and obesity-associated cardiovascular disease.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Journal of Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Thirty-six Year Trends in Mortality from Diseases of Circulatory System in Korea
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    Korean Circulation Journal.2021; 51(4): 320.     CrossRef
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    Yebeen Ysabelle Boo, Otto-Emil Jutila, Meghan A. Cupp, Logan Manikam, Sung-Il Cho
    Aging Clinical and Experimental Research.2021; 33(9): 2573.     CrossRef
  • A Healthy Diet Rich in Calcium and Vitamin C Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Korean Adults from the KNHANES 2013–2017
    Sunmin Park, Kyungjin Kim, Byung-Kook Lee, Jaeouk Ahn
    Nutrients.2021; 13(4): 1312.     CrossRef
  • Classification and Prediction on the Effects of Nutritional Intake on Overweight/Obesity, Dyslipidemia, Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Deep Learning Model: 4–7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Hyerim Kim, Dong Hoon Lim, Yoona Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2021; 18(11): 5597.     CrossRef
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    Shaun Scholes, Linda Ng Fat, Jennifer S. Mindell
    Obesity.2021; 29(8): 1347.     CrossRef
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    Wes Spiller, Keum Ji Jung, Ji-Young Lee, Sun Ha Jee
    Korean Circulation Journal.2020; 50(2): 91.     CrossRef
  • Association of the Healthy Eating Index with Estimated Cardiovascular Age in Adults from the KNHANES 2013–2017
    Sunmin Park, Kyungjin Kim, Byung-Kook Lee, Jaeouk Ahn
    Nutrients.2020; 12(10): 2912.     CrossRef
Accuracy of Self-reported Hypertension, Diabetes, and Hypercholesterolemia: Analysis of a Representative Sample of Korean Older Adults
Heeran Chun, Il-Ho Kim, Kyung-Duk Min
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):108-115.   Published online April 30, 2016
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  • 23 Download
  • 46 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study will assess the accuracy of self-reported hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia among Korean older adults.
Using data from the fourth Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES IV, 2007–2009), we selected 7,270 individuals aged 50 years and older who participated in both a health examination and a health interview survey. Self-reported prevalence of hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypercholesterolemia was compared with measured data (arterial systolic/diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol).
An agreement between self-reported and measured data was only moderate for hypercholesterolemia (κ, 0.48), even though it was high for HTN (κ, 0.72) and DM (κ, 0. 82). Sensitivity was low in hypercholesterolemia (46.7%), but high in HTN and DM (73% and 79.3%, respectively). Multiple analysis shows that predictors for sensitivity differed by disease. People with less education were more likely to exhibit lower sensitivity to HTN and hypercholesterolemia, and people living in rural areas were less sensitive to DM and hypercholesterolemia.
Caution is needed in interpreting the results of community studies using self-reported data on chronic diseases, especially hypercholesterolemia, among adults aged 50 years and older.


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Increased Prevalence of low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) Levels in Korean Adults: Analysis of the Three Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES 1998–2005)
Sun-Ja Choi, Sung-Hee Park, Hyun-Young Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(2):94-103.   Published online June 30, 2011
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  • 12 Download
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases that has shown a remarkable increase, but little is known about the prevalence of low HDL-C in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate changing trends of low HDL-C prevalence, and indicate other risk factors associated with low HDL-C.
We selected subjects aged ≥20 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 1998, 2001, and 2005 (n = 7962, 6436, and 6412). The mean level of HDL-C and the prevalence of low HDL-C was calculated, and cardiovascular risk factors associated with low HDL-C, as well as demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and nutrition factors, were assessed using the KNHANES 2005 data.
Mean HDL-C levels in men and women between KNHANES 1998 and 2005 decreased significantly, from 48.1 to 42.3 and from 51.6 to 47.1 mg/dL, respectively (both p < 0.001). The decrease was slightly less for women compared with men for the same period, and women had higher HDL-C levels at all periods. Covariate-adjusted OR revealed that body mass index, waist circumference, and non-alcohol drinker in both men and women were associated with low HDL-C levels by KNHANES 2005, as were employed and light physical activity in men and low fat intake in women.
The prevalence of low HDL-C increased significantly from KNHANES 1998 to 2001 and 2005 (p < 0.001) in both men and women. body mass index, waist circumference, and non-alcohol drinker were identified as associated with low HDL-C in Korean adults.


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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives