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Factors Influencing Self-Rated Oral Health in Elderly People Residing in the Community: Results from the Korea Community Health Survey, 2016
Jong-Hoon Moon, Sung-Jin Heo, Jin-Hwa Jung
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):245-250.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.14
  • 3,482 View
  • 71 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing perceived oral health in elderly individuals residing in the community.

Methods

This study used raw data from the Korea community health survey, 2016. Of the 64,223 participants that were elderly (aged ≥ 65 years), 61,280 (95.4%) were included for analysis. Self-rated oral health was the dependent variable and 6 independent variables including age, gender, type of area of residence (metropolitan or provincial), educational level, income, and living status with spouse were assessed. Oral function was studied based on mastication, pronunciation, and use of dentures, and oral health behavior included brushing teeth after breakfast, after lunch, after dinner, and before sleep). The EQ-5D questionnaire measured health-related quality of life (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression).

Results

Among the general characteristics, age, gender, educational level, income, and living status with spouse were the factors that affected self-rated oral health. Mastication, pronunciation, use of dentures, and brushing after lunch, dinner, and before sleep were the factors that influenced self-rated oral function. All domains of the EQ-5D (pain/discomfort, mobility, self-care, usual activities, and anxiety/depression) were factors that affected self-rated oral health.

Conclusion

The results of the current investigation suggest that the development of management and education strategies for oral health promotion in the elderly, should focus on improving oral function and oral health behavior, taking into account the socio-economic and demographic characteristics that have been shown to be associated with poor self-rated oral function.

COVID-19 in Nursing Facilities: Experience in Republic of Korea
Rok Song, Hee-Sook Kim, Seok-Ju Yoo, Kwan Lee, Ji-Hyuk Park, Joon Ho Jang, Gyoung-Sook Ahn, Jun-Nyun Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):164-169.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.04
  • 4,699 View
  • 131 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks in nursing facilities can easily lead to a high rate of infection and fatality. A surge in newly infected cases in the first quarter of 2020 in Gyeongsan-si, in the Republic of Korea, was followed by several outbreaks in nursing facilities in the same area. The aim of this study is to report on the epidemiological investigation and the management to reduce the infection rate in nursing facilities for older adults.

Methods

The municipal government and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed an epidemiological investigation into 5 nursing facilities that reported a high number of COVID-19 infection cases from February to May 2020. COVID-19 infected cases in the facilities were investigated to identify the infection routes, and the fatality rate of the 5 facilities.

Results

The 5 facilities had a combined fatality rate of 12.2% (9 deceased among the 74 infected cases). The median age of the deceased was 87 years old (range: 82–91). The infection was first identified on February 27th, 2020, peaked on March 6th, and was last detected on March 24th, 2020.

Conclusion

Difficulties specific to such facilities included the delay in the recognition of symptoms and limitation in distancing. Tailored strategies such as daily monitoring of symptoms and proactive COVID-19 screening of quarantined residents, contributed to a decline in the infections in the facilities.

Effect of Obesity on Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Middle-Aged Korean Women
Won-Mok Son, Do-Yeon Kim, You-Sin Kim, Min-Seong Ha
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(6):369-372.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.6.02
  • 2,412 View
  • 36 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Our study aims to provide basic scientific data on the importance of obesity management in middle-aged Korean women by analyzing its effects on blood pressure and arterial stiffness. In addition, we examined the correlations of these two parameters.

Methods

The study participants were 40 middle-aged female volunteers, who were classified into obesity group (n = 20) and normal weight group (n = 20). Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to correlate blood pressure and arterial stiffness.

Results

This study evaluated the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV). These results were higher in the obesity group than the normal weight group. Furthermore, blood pressure and arterial stiffness (PWV, augmentation pressure) were static correlated.

Conclusion

Obesity is closely related to blood pressure and arterial stiffness. Therefore, indices for blood pressure and arterial stiffness may play a vital role in predicting and preventing obesity and its sequelae.

Different Effects of Cognitive and Non-exercise Physical Leisure Activities on Cognitive Function by Age in Elderly Korean Individuals
Mi Sook Jung, Hyunli Kim, Yeji Lee, Mijung Kim, Eunyoung Chung
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(5):308-317.   Published online October 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.5.04
  • 2,573 View
  • 35 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

We aimed to examine the effects of various leisure activities on cognitive impairment in young-old (aged 65–74 years) and old-old (aged ≥ 75 years) adults.

Methods

In total, 10,279 elderly Korean individuals from the 2014 Korean National Survey on Older Adults’ cohort were enrolled in our study. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the standardized score of the Mini-Mental State Examination for Dementia Screening, whereas leisure activities were recorded via self-reporting of the extent and type of leisure activity the subjects involved in over the past year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of leisure activities on cognitive impairment, while controlling for potential covariates.

Results

The subjects were more likely to participate in cognitive activities than in non-exercise physical activities. After controlling for selected covariates, involvement in cognitive activities was found to be a significant predictor of cognitive impairment in both the groups, whereas involvement in non-exercise physical activities was not a predictor of cognitive impairment in individuals aged ≥ 75 years. Moreover, depressive symptoms, rural residence, and hearing difficulties were common predictors of cognitive impairment among elderly-Korean-individuals.

Conclusion

Leisure activity involvement may help delay cognitive impairment, which is often concomitant with aging. Hence, an early intervention service may significantly benefit both young-old and old-old individuals.

Age-differentiated Risk Factors of Suicidal Ideation among Young and Middle-aged Korean Adults
Ahra Jo, Minho Jeon, Heeyoung Oh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):201-210.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.07
  • 2,409 View
  • 28 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults, and explore the risk factors that affect suicidal ideation.

Methods

A descriptive study design was used for secondary data analysis. A total sample of 5,214 was drawn from two waves (2012–2013) of the 7th Korea Health Panel (KHP) survey. The KHP data were collected by a well-trained interviewer using the face-to-face method during home visits as well as self-report method. Descriptive statistics of frequency, percentage, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were performed using SPSS 22.0.

Results

The prevalence of suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was 4.4% and 5.6%, respectively. For young adults, suicidal ideation risk was higher among those with low income or heavy drinking habits. In middle-aged adults, low income, poor perceived health status, negative perception of peer-compared health status, and negative social perspective were the major risk factors.

Conclusion

There is considerable risk of suicidal ideation in adulthood. Opportunities for increased income, avoidance of heavy drinking, and the construction of positive subjective health status and social perspective should be considered in suicide prevention interventions for Korean young and middle-aged adults.

Experience of Late–Middle-Aged Women who Reside in Small and Medium-Sized Cities in Becoming Psychologically Mature Women
Euna Park, Haeok Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):159-163.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.04.002
  • 1,694 View
  • 17 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study is to search the inner world of postmenopausal women in late-middle age who are facing senescence and live in small and medium-sized cities.
Methods
The methods of the study were the investigation and classification of answers to questions according to a declarative ethnography analysis. The questions asked to late–middle-aged women living in small and medium-sized cities were “How do you interpret and recognize the changes in the body after menopause?” and “Which methods do you choose and practice to maintain your health in relation to aging during middle age?”.
Results
Four positive topics and two negative topics were drawn from the study. The four positive themes were: ambition; completion of a great mission; life with a sense of affection; and gratitude for maintaining health. The negative themes were: undulating emotion; and filling the emptiness.
Conclusion
The recognition of changes in the body after menopause in late–middle-aged women in small and medium-sized cities can affect their preparation processes towards senescence. It is critical to find the means to manage emergency health cases from early adulthood to middle age, based on the outcomes of the study. The study also emphasizes the importance of the woman's family's alternative strategies and supportive systems, which can fit into the cultural context of the community.
Are There Spatial and Temporal Correlations in the Incidence Distribution of Scrub Typhus in Korea?
Maengseok Noh, Youngjo Lee, Chaeshin Chu, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn, Sun Huh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(1):39-44.   Published online February 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.01.002
  • 2,077 View
  • 21 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
A hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) was applied to estimate the transmission pattern of scrub typhus from 2001 to 2011 in the Republic of Korea, based on spatial and temporal correlation.
Methods
Based on the descriptive statistics of scrub typhus incidence from 2001 to 2011 reported to the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the spatial and temporal correlations were estimated by HGLM. Incidences according to age, sex, and year were also estimated by the best-fit model out of nine HGLMs. A disease map was drawn to view the annual regional spread of the disease.
Results
The total number of scrub typhus cases reported from 2001 to 2011 was 51,136: male, 18,628 (36.4%); female, 32,508 (63.6%). The best-fit model selected was a combination of the spatial model (Markov random-field model) and temporal model (first order autoregressive model) of scrub typhus transmission. The peak incidence was 28.80 per 100,000 persons in early October and the peak incidence was 40.17 per 100,000 persons in those aged 63.3 years old by the best-fit HGLM. The disease map showed the spread of disease from the southern central area to a nationwide area, excepting Gangwon-do (province), Gyeongsangbuk-do (province), and Seoul.
Conclusion
In the transmission of scrub typhus in Korea, there was a correlation to the incidence of adjacent areas, as well as that of the previous year. According to the disease map, we are unlikely to see any decrease in the incidence in the near future, unless ongoing aggressive measures to prevent the exposure to the vector, chigger mites, in rural areas, are put into place.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives