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Special Article
The COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center: a cornerstone for strengthening safety evidence for COVID-19 vaccination in the Republic of Korea
Na-Young Jeong, Hyesook Park, Sanghoon Oh, Seung Eun Jung, Dong-Hyun Kim, Hyoung-Shik Shin, Hee Chul Han, Jong-Koo Lee, Jun Hee Woo, Jaehun Jung, Joongyub Lee, Ju-Young Shin, Sun-Young Jung, Byung-Joo Park, Nam-Kyong Choi
Received November 16, 2023  Accepted February 22, 2024  Published online April 4, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0343    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 254 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Committee (CoVaSC) was established in November 2021 to address the growing need for independent, in-depth scientific evidence on adverse events (AEs) following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. This initiative was requested by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency and led by the National Academy of Medicine of Korea. In September 2022, the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center was established, strengthening CoVaSC’s initiatives. The center has conducted various studies on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. During CoVaSC’s second research year, from September 29, 2022 to July 19, 2023, the center was restructured into 4 departments: Epidemiological Research, Clinical Research, Communication & Education, and International Cooperation & Policy Research. Its main activities include (1) managing CoVaSC and the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center, (2) surveying domestic and international trends in AE causality investigation, (3) assessing AEs following COVID-19 vaccination, (4) fostering international collaboration and policy research, and (5) organizing regular fora and training sessions for the public and clinicians. Causality assessments have been conducted for 27 diseases, and independent research has been conducted after organizing ad hoc committees comprising both epidemiologists and clinical experts on each AE of interest. The research process included protocol development, data analysis, interpretation of results, and causality assessment. These research outcomes have been shared transparently with the public and healthcare experts through various fora. The COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center plans to continue strengthening and expanding its research activities to provide reliable, high-quality safety information to the public.
Review Article
Psychiatric adverse events associated with the COVID-19 vaccines approved in the Republic of Korea: a systematic review
Seungeun Ryoo, Miyoung Choi, Nam-Kyong Choi, Hyoung-Shik Shin, Jun Hee Woo, Byung-Joo Park, Sanghoon Oh
Received October 31, 2023  Accepted January 16, 2024  Published online March 28, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0325    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 309 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This systematic review evaluated psychiatric adverse events (AEs) following vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We included studies that reported or investigated psychiatric AEs in individuals who had received an approved COVID-19 vaccine in the Republic of Korea. Systematic electronic searches of Ovid-Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, and KoreaMed databases were conducted on March 22, 2023. Risk of bias was assessed using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-randomized Studies 2.0. The study protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42023449422). Of the 301 articles initially selected, 7 were included in the final analysis. All studies reported on sleep disturbances, and 2 highlighted anxiety-related AEs. Sleep disorders like insomnia and narcolepsy were the most prevalent AEs, while depression was not reported. Our review suggests that these AEs may have been influenced by biological mechanisms as well as the broader psychosocial context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although this study had limitations, such as a primary focus on the BNT162b2 vaccine and an observational study design, it offered a systematic, multi-vaccine analysis that fills a critical gap in the existing literature. This review underscores the need for continued surveillance of psychiatric AEs and guides future research to investigate underlying mechanisms, identify risk factors, and inform clinical management.
Original Articles
COVID-19 infection among people with disabilities in 2021 prior to the Omicron-dominant period in the Republic of Korea: a cross-sectional study
Seul-Ki Kang, Bryan Inho Kim
Received July 11, 2023  Accepted January 16, 2024  Published online March 28, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0194    [Epub ahead of print]
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  • 5 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study investigated the characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among individuals with disabilities on a nationwide scale in the Republic of Korea, as limited research has examined this population.
Methods
Between January 1 and November 30, 2021, a total of 5,687 confirmed COVID-19 cases among individuals with disabilities were reported through the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency’s COVID-19 web reporting system. Follow-up continued until December 24, and demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics were analyzed.
Results
Individuals with disabilities represented approximately 1.5% of confirmed cases, with a mean age of 58.1 years. Most resided in or near metropolitan areas (86.6%) and were male (60.6%). Frequent sources of infection included home (33.4%) and contact with confirmed cases (40.7%). Many individuals (75.9%) had underlying conditions, and 7.7% of cases were severe. People with disabilities showed significantly elevated risk of severe infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–1.81) and mortality (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.43–1.91). Vaccination against COVID-19 was associated with significantly lower risk of severe infection (aORs for the first, second, and third doses: 0.6 [95% CI, 0.42–0.85], 0.28 [95% CI, 0.22–0.35], and 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05–0.51], respectively) and death (adjusted hazard ratios for the first and second doses: 0.57 [95% CI, 0.35–0.93] and 0.3 [95% CI, 0.23–0.40], respectively).
Conclusion
Individuals with disabilities showed higher risk of severe infection and mortality from COVID-19. Consequently, it is critical to strenghthenCOVID-19 vaccination initiatives and provide socioeconomic assistance for this vulnerable population.
Evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in different high-risk facility types during a period of Delta variant dominance in the Republic of Korea: a cross-sectional study
Min Jei Lee, Myung-Jae Hwang, Dong Seob Kim, Seon Kyeong Park, Jihyun Choi, Ji Joo Lee, Jong Mu Kim, Young-Man Kim, Young-Joon Park, Jin Gwack, Sang-Eun Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):418-426.   Published online October 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0188
  • 1,250 View
  • 43 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We evaluated the effectiveness of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination in high-risk facilities in the Republic of Korea during the period when the highly transmissible Delta variant was prevalent. Additionally, we aimed to explore any disparities in vaccine effectiveness (VE) across various types of institutions, specifically distinguishing between non-medical and medical establishments. Methods: We examined 8 outbreak clusters covering 243 cases and 895 contacts from 8 high-risk facilities divided into 2 groups: group A (4 non-medical institutions) and group B (4 medical institutions). These clusters were observed from July 27, 2021 to October 16, 2021 for the attack rate (AR) and VE with respect to disease severity. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) for disease severity and death. Results: AR was notably lower in group B (medical institutions). Furthermore, VE analysis revealed that group A exhibited higher effectivity for disease severity and death than group B. The OR for disease severity was 0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03–2.16) for group A and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.12–0.64) for group B, with the OR for death at 0.12 (95% CI, 0.01–1.32) in group A and 0.34 (95% CI, 0.14–0.87) in group B. Conclusion: Although VE may vary across institutions, our findings underscore the importance of implementing vaccinations in high-risk facilities. Customized vaccination programs, tailored response plans, and competent management personnel are essential for effectively addressing and mitigating public health challenges.
Brief Report
JYNNEOS vaccine safety monitoring in the Republic of Korea, 2022: a cross-sectional study
Jaeeun Lee, Seunghyun Lewis Kwon, Jinhee Park, Hyuna Bae, Hyerim Lee, Geun-Yong Kwon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(5):433-438.   Published online October 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0182
  • 856 View
  • 37 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
With the recent global mpox outbreak, the JYNNEOS vaccine (Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic) was developed as a third-generation smallpox vaccine and initially favored for mpox immunization. Vaccine-associated side effects contribute to vaccine hesitancy. Consequently, tracking adverse events post-immunization is crucial for safety management. This study used data from the national active vaccine safety surveillance conducted in Korea from August 25 to November 24, 2022 to detect potential safety signals and adverse events. Methods: Data on health conditions following vaccination were gathered from web-based surveys and reported via active surveillance through the Immunization Registry Information System. This follow-up system functioned via a text message link, surveying adverse events and health conditions beginning on the second day post-vaccination. Information about specific adverse events, including both local and systemic reactions, was collected. Results: The study included 86 healthcare workers who had received at least 1 dose of the JYNNEOS vaccine. Among the respondents, 79.1% reported experiencing at least 1 adverse event, with the majority being local reactions at the injection site. The incidence of adverse events was higher following the first dose (67.9%) than after the second dose (34.4%). The most frequently reported adverse event for both doses was mild pain at the injection site. Conclusion: The study provides crucial information on the safety of the JYNNEOS vaccine, demonstrating that most adverse events were manageable and predominantly localized to the injection site. Nonetheless, additional research is needed on the safety of various vaccine administration techniques and the vaccine’s effects on broader demographics.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Adverse Reactions After Intradermal Vaccination With JYNNEOS for Mpox in Korea
    So Yun Lim, Yu Mi Jung, Yeonjae Kim, Gayeon Kim, Jaehyun Jeon, BumSik Chin, Min-Kyung Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Prevalence and patterns of adverse events following childhood immunization and the responses of mothers in Ile-Ife, South West Nigeria: a facility-based cross-sectional survey
Olorunfemi Akinbode Ogundele, Funmito Omolola Fehintola, Mubarak Salami, Rahmat Usidebhofoh, Mary Aderemi Abaekere
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(4):291-299.   Published online July 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0071
  • 2,187 View
  • 132 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to examine the prevalence and pattern of adverse events following childhood immunization and the responses of mothers in Ile-Ife, South West Nigeria.
Methods
This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 mothers of children aged 0 to 24 months attending any of the 3 leading immunization clinics in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The respondents were selected using the multi-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS ver. 26.0. The chi-square test was used to test associations, while binary logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of mothers’ responses to adverse events following immunization (AEFIs). A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results
The mean age of the respondents was 29.99±5.74 years. About 38% of the children had experienced an AEFI. Most mothers believed that the pentavalent vaccine was the most common cause of AEFIs (67.5%). Fever (88.0%) and pain and swelling (76.0%) were the most common AEFIs. More than half of the mothers (53.7%) administered home treatment following an AEFI. Younger mothers (odds ratio [OR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–5.01), mothers who delivered their children at a healthcare facility (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.08–9.69), and mothers who were knowledgeable about reporting AEFIs (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.04–7.70) were most likely to respond appropriately to AEFIs.
Conclusion
The proportion of mothers who responded poorly to AEFIs experienced by their children was significant. Therefore, strategies should be implemented to improve mothers’ knowledge about AEFIs to improve their responses.
Brief Report
Temporal association between the age-specific incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Republic of Korea: a nationwide time-series correlation study
Hyunju Lee, Donghyok Kwon, Seoncheol Park, Seung Ri Park, Darda Chung, Jongmok Ha
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(3):224-231.   Published online June 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0050
  • 2,023 View
  • 88 Download
  • 2 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) changed significantly during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Emerging reports suggest that viral vector-based vaccines may be associated with an elevated risk of GBS.
Methods
In this nationwide time-series correlation study, we examined the age-specific incidence of GBS from January 2011 to August 2022, as well as data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccinations and infections from February 2021 to August 2022. We compared the forecasted estimates of age-specific GBS incidence, using the pre-SARS-CoV-2 period as a benchmark, with the actual incidence observed during the post-vaccination period of the pandemic. Furthermore, we assessed the temporal association between GBS, SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations, and COVID-19 for different age groups.
Results
In the age group of 60 and older, the rate ratio was significantly elevated during June-August and November 2021. A significant, strong positive association was observed between viral vector-based vaccines and GBS incidence trends in this age group (r=0.52, p=0.022). For the 30 to 59 years age group, the rate ratio was notably high in September 2021. A statistically significant, strong positive association was found between mRNA-based vaccines and GBS incidence in this age group (r=0.61, p=0.006).
Conclusion
Viral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were found to be temporally associated with an increased risk of GBS, particularly in older adults. To minimize age-specific and biological mechanism-specific adverse events, future vaccination campaigns should adopt a more personalized approach, such as recommending homologous mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for older adults to reduce the heightened risk of GBS.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • mRNA-LNP COVID-19 Vaccine Lipids Induce Complement Activation and Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines: Mechanisms, Effects of Complement Inhibitors, and Relevance to Adverse Reactions
    Tamás Bakos, Tamás Mészáros, Gergely Tibor Kozma, Petra Berényi, Réka Facskó, Henriette Farkas, László Dézsi, Carlo Heirman, Stefaan de Koker, Raymond Schiffelers, Kathryn Anne Glatter, Tamás Radovits, Gábor Szénási, János Szebeni
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(7): 3595.     CrossRef
  • Guillain–Barre syndrome following COVID-19 vaccination: a study of 70 case reports
    Biki Kumar Sah, Zahra Fatima, Rajan Kumar Sah, Bushra Syed, Tulika Garg, Selia Chowdhury, Bikona Ghosh, Binita Kunwar, Anagha Shree, Vivek Kumar Sah, Anisha Raut
    Annals of Medicine & Surgery.2024; 86(4): 2067.     CrossRef
Original Article
The incidence and clinical characteristics of myocarditis and pericarditis following mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination in Republic of Korea adolescents from July 2021 to September 2022
Ju-Young Sim, Seung-Yun Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(2):76-88.   Published online April 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0032
  • 3,867 View
  • 230 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Age-specific information regarding myocarditis/pericarditis in adolescents following mRNA-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in Asia remains insufficient. This study investigated the incidence and clinical characteristics of myocarditis/pericarditis in Republic of Korea adolescents after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination.
Methods
This retrospective descriptive study utilized patient data from the Korea Immunization Management System. Incidence rates were calculated according to age and sex. Clinical characteristics (symptoms/signs, laboratory values, and imaging results) were compared between mild and severe cases.
Results
Between July 19, 2021 and September 30, 2022, 3,728,224 individuals aged 12 to 19 years received 6,484,165 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines, and 173 cases met the case definition for myocarditis/pericarditis: 151 mild (87.3%) and 22 severe (12.7%). The incidence was 3.8-fold higher in males than in females. Troponin I/ troponin T was elevated in 96% of myocarditis cases, demonstrating higher sensitivity than creatine kinase-myocardial band (67.6%) or C-reactive protein (75.2%). ST-segment or Twave on electrography abnormalities were found in 60.3% (85/141). Paroxysmal/sustained atrial/ventricular arrhythmias were more common in severe than in mild cases (45.5% vs. 16.8%, p=0.008). Edema on T2-weighted magnetic imaging occurred in 21.6% (8/37) and 62.5% (5/8) of mild and severe cases, respectively (p=0.03). Abnormal pericardial fluid collection or pericardial inflammation was found in 75.4% of pericarditis cases (49/65).
Conclusion
Myocarditis/pericarditis occurred in rare cases following mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination. Most cases were mild, but the incidence was higher in adolescent males and after the second dose. As bivalent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 mRNA vaccination started in Republic of Korea in October 2022, the post-vaccination incidence of myocarditis/pericarditis should be closely monitored, considering clinical characteristics.

Citations

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  • Responses to Common Misconceptions Relating to COVID-19 Variant-Adapted mRNA Vaccines
    George Kassianos, Pauline MacDonald, Ivan Aloysius, Shanti Pather
    Vaccines.2024; 12(1): 57.     CrossRef
  • To become a more stronger and safer country
    Jong-Koo Lee
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2023; 14(2): 67.     CrossRef
Special Article
A framework for nationwide COVID-19 vaccine safety research in the Republic of Korea: the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Committee
Na-Young Jeong, Hyesook Park, Sanghoon Oh, Seung Eun Jung, Dong-Hyun Kim, Hyoung-Shik Shin, Hee Chul Han, Jong-Koo Lee, Jun Hee Woo, Byung-Joo Park, Nam-Kyong Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(1):5-14.   Published online February 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0026
  • 2,979 View
  • 150 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
With the introduction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA) commissioned the National Academy of Medicine of Korea to gather experts to independently assess post-vaccination adverse events. Accordingly, the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Committee (CoVaSC) was launched in November 2021 to perform safety studies and establish evidence for policy guidance. The CoVaSC established 3 committees for epidemiology, clinical research, and communication. The CoVaSC mainly utilizes pseudonymized data linking KDCA’s COVID-19 vaccination data and the National Health Insurance Service’s claims data. The CoVaSC’s 5-step research process involves defining the target diseases and organizing ad-hoc committees, developing research protocols, performing analyses, assessing causal relationships, and announcing research findings and utilizing them to guide compensation policies. As of 2022, the CoVaSC completed this research process for 15 adverse events. The CoVaSC launched the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center in September 2022 and has been reorganized into 4 divisions to promote research including international collaborative studies, long-/short-term follow-up studies, and education programs. Through these enhancements, the CoVaSC will continue to swiftly provide scientific evidence for COVID-19 vaccine research and compensation and may serve as a model for preparing for future epidemics of new diseases.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Risk of encephalitis and meningitis after COVID-19 vaccination in South Korea: a self-controlled case series analysis
    Ju Hwan Kim, Dongwon Yoon, Hwa Yeon Ko, Kyungyeon Jung, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Won Chul Shin, Jung-Ick Byun, Ju-Young Shin
    BMC Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • To become a more stronger and safer country
    Jong-Koo Lee
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2023; 14(2): 67.     CrossRef
  • Risk of lymphadenopathy from SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Korea: a self-controlled case series analysis
    Mi-Sook Kim, Bongyoung Kim, Jeong Pil Choi, Nam-Kyong Choi, Jung Yeon Heo, Jun Yong Choi, Joongyub Lee, Sang Il Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023090.     CrossRef
Brief Reports
Adverse events of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in Korean children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years
Seontae Kim, Yeseul Heo, Soon-Young Seo, Do Sang Lim, Enhi Cho, Yeon-Kyeng Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(5):382-390.   Published online October 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0233
  • 2,353 View
  • 110 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to identify potential safety signals and adverse events following the primary Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination series among children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years in the Republic of Korea. Methods: Adverse events reported through the COVID-19 vaccination management system (CVMS, a web-based passive vaccine safety surveillance system) and adverse events and health conditions collected from a text message-based survey were analyzed. Results: A total of 14,786 adverse events among 5 to 17-year-old children and adolescents were reported in the CVMS; 14,334 (96.9%) were non-serious and 452 (3.1%) were serious, including 125 suspected cases of acute cardiovascular injury and 101 suspected cases of anaphylaxis. The overall reporting rate was lower in 5 to 11-year-old children (64.5 per 100,000 doses) than in 12 to 17-year-old adolescents (300.5 per 100,000 doses). The text message survey identified that local and systemic adverse events after either dose were reported less frequently in 5 to 11-year-old children than in 12 to 17-year-old adolescents (p<0.001). The most commonly reported adverse events were pain at the injection site, myalgia, headache, and fatigue/tiredness. Conclusion: The overall results are consistent with the results of controlled trials; serious adverse events were extremely rare among 5 to 17-year-old children and adolescents following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination. Adverse events were less frequent in children aged 5 to 11 years than in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years.

Citations

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  • Safety monitoring of COVID-19 vaccines: February 26, 2021, To June 4, 2022, Republic of Korea
    Yeon-Kyeng Lee, Yunhyung Kwon, Yesul Heo, Eun Kyoung Kim, Seung Yun Kim, Hoon Cho, Seontae Kim, Mijeong Ko, Dosang Lim, Soon-Young Seo, Enhi Cho
    Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics.2023; 66(10): 415.     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine in preventing morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 in children aged 5 to 11 years: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Sumayyah Ebrahim, Ntombifuthi Blose, Natasha Gloeck, Ameer Hohlfeld, Yusentha Balakrishna, Rudzani Muloiwa, Andy Gray, Andy Parrish, Karen Cohen, Ruth Lancaster, Tamara Kredo, Julia Robinson
    PLOS Global Public Health.2023; 3(12): e0002676.     CrossRef
Presumed population immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in South Korea, April 2022
Eun Jung Jang, Young June Choe, Seung Ah Choe, Yoo-Yeon Kim, Ryu Kyung Kim, Jia Kim, Do Sang Lim, Ju Hee Lee, Seonju Yi, Sangwon Lee, Young-Joon Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(5):377-381.   Published online October 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0209
  • 2,327 View
  • 70 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We estimated the overall and age-specific percentages of the Korean population with presumed immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) as of April 2022 using the national registry.
Methods
We used the national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and vaccination registry from South Korea, as described to define individuals with a previous history of COVID-19 infection, vaccination, or both, as persons with presumed immunity.
Results
Of a total of 53,304,627 observed persons, 24.4% had vaccination and infection, 58.1% had vaccination and no infection, 7.6% had infection and no vaccination, and 9.9% had no immunity. The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged at a time when the presumed population immunity ranged from 80% to 85%; however, nearly half of the children were presumed to have no immunity.
Conclusion
We report a gap in population immunity, with lower presumed protection in children than in adults. The approach presented in this work can provide valuable informed tools to assist vaccine policy-making at a national level.

Citations

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  • Realistic Estimation of COVID-19 Infection by Seroprevalence Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies: An Experience From Korea Metropolitan Area From January to May 2022
    In Hwa Jeong, Jong-Hun Kim, Min-Jung Kwon, Jayoung Kim, Hee Jin Huh, Byoungguk Kim, Junewoo Lee, Jeong-hyun Nam, Eun-Suk Kang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Infants and Toddlers, Seoul, South Korea
    JiWoo Sim, Euncheol Son, Young June Choe
    Pediatric Infection & Vaccine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Predicting adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures among South Korean adults aged 40 to 69 Years using the expanded health empowerment model
    Su-Jung Nam, Tae-Young Pak
    SSM - Population Health.2023; 22: 101411.     CrossRef
  • Acute COVID-19 in unvaccinated children without a history of previous infection during the delta and omicron periods
    Jee Min Kim, Ji Yoon Han, Seung Beom Han
    Postgraduate Medicine.2023; 135(7): 727.     CrossRef
Review Article
India’s efforts to achieve 1.5 billion COVID-19 vaccinations: a narrative review
Kapil Singh, Ashwani Verma, Monisha Lakshminarayan
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(5):316-327.   Published online October 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0104
  • 3,428 View
  • 89 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The initial case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India was reported on January 30, 2020, and subsequently, the number of COVID-19-infected patients surged during the first wave of April 2020 and the second wave in the same month of 2021. The government of India imposed a strict nationwide lockdown in April 2020 and extended it until May 2020. The second wave of COVID-19 in India overwhelmed the country’s health facilities and exhausted its medical and paramedical workforce. This narrative review was conducted with the aim of summarizing the evidence drawn from policy documents of governmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as capturing India's COVID-19 vaccination efforts. The findings from this review cover the Indian government's vaccination initiatives, which ranged from steps taken to combat vaccine hesitancy to vaccination roadmaps, deployment plans, the use of digital health technology, vaccination monitoring, adverse effects, and innovative strategies such as Har Ghar Dastak and Jan Bhagidari Andolan (people’s participation). These efforts collectively culminated in the successful administration of more than 1.8 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines in India. This review also provides insights into other countries’ responses to COVID-19 and guidance for future pandemics.

Citations

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  • Digital health technology used in emergency large-scale vaccination campaigns in low- and middle-income countries: a narrative review for improved pandemic preparedness
    Paula Mc Kenna, Lindsay A. Broadfield, Annik Willems, Serge Masyn, Theresa Pattery, Ruxandra Draghia-Akli
    Expert Review of Vaccines.2023; 22(1): 243.     CrossRef
  • Media Reporting Relating to COVID-19 Vaccination as a Driver of Vaccine Hesitancy Prior to the Second Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic in India: A Content Analysis of Newspaper and Digital Media Reports
    Saurav Basu, Himanshi Sharma
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • An assessment of the strategy and status of COVID-19 vaccination in India
    Sneh Lata Gupta, Surbhi Goswami, Ananya Anand, Namrata Naman, Priya Kumari, Priyanka Sharma, Rishi K. Jaiswal
    Immunologic Research.2023; 71(4): 565.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Choice-framework for Covid vaccines in India using a multi-criteria decision analysis approach
    Tarun K. George, Nayana P. Nair, Awnish Kumar Singh, A. Dilesh Kumar, Arup Deb Roy, Varshini Neethi Mohan, Gagandeep Kang
    Vaccine.2023; 41(25): 3755.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 Booster Dose Coverage and Hesitancy among Older Adults in an Urban Slum and Resettlement Colony in Delhi, India
    Nandini Sharma, Saurav Basu, Heena Lalwani, Shivani Rao, Mansi Malik, Sandeep Garg, Rahul Shrivastava, Mongjam Meghachandra Singh
    Vaccines.2023; 11(7): 1177.     CrossRef
  • Review of the unmet medical need for vaccination in adults with immunocompromising conditions: An Indian perspective
    Ashok Vaid, Neha Rastogi, T. Mark Doherty, Peter San Martin, Yashpal Chugh
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Translating the COVID-19 experience in widening the HPV vaccination campaign for cervical cancer in India
    Aruni Ghose, Anisha Agarwal, Bhawna Sirohi, Shona Nag, Linus Chuang, Swarupa Mitra
    Gynecologic Oncology Reports.2023; 48: 101247.     CrossRef
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    IP International Journal of Medical Microbiology a.2023; 9(2): 110.     CrossRef
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    Naveena Mary Cherian, Dravya Anna Durai, Muhammed Jaisel, Divyansh Sharma, Juny Sebastian, Chetak Kadabasal Basavaraja, Merrin Mathew
    Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of ayurvedic formulation, NAOQ19 along with standard care in the treatment of mild-moderate COVID-19 patients: A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentric trial
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    Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine.2023; 14(6): 100778.     CrossRef
  • Balancing Routine and Pandemic: The Synergy of India’s Universal Immunization Program and COVID-19 Vaccination Program
    Pawan Kumar, Ashish Birendra Chakraborty, Suhas Dhandore, Pritu Dhalaria, Ajeet Kumar Singh, Disha Agarwal, Kapil Singh, Pretty Priyadarshini, Paras Jain, Vidushi Bahl, Gunjan Taneja
    Vaccines.2023; 11(12): 1776.     CrossRef
  • Unveiling vaccine safety: a narrative review of pharmacovigilance in India's COVID-19 vaccination
    Megha Hegde, Saurav Raj, Dhananjay Tikadar, Sanatkumar B Nyamagoud
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Brief Report
Safety monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old in the Republic of Korea
Seontae Kim, Insob Hwang, Mijeong Ko, Yunhyung Kwon, Yeon-Kyeng Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):230-237.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0122
  • 4,104 View
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  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to disseminate information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine safety among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in the Republic of Korea. Methods: Two databases were used to assess COVID-19 vaccine safety in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who completed the primary Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination series. Adverse events reported to the web-based COVID-19 vaccination management system (CVMS) and collected in the text message-based system were analyzed. Results: From March 5, 2021 to February 13, 2022, 12,216 adverse events among 12- to 17-yearolds were reported to the CVMS, of which 97.1% were non-serious adverse events and 2.9% were serious adverse events, including 85 suspected cases of anaphylaxis, 74 suspected cases of myocarditis and/or pericarditis, and 2 deaths. From December 13, 2021 to January 26, 2022, 10,389 adolescents responded to a text message survey, and local/systemic adverse events were more common after dose 2 than after dose 1. The most commonly reported events following either vaccine dose were pain at the injection site, headache, fatigue/tiredness, and myalgia. Conclusion: The overall results are consistent with previous findings; the great majority of adverse events were non-serious, and serious adverse events were rare among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safety of COVID-19 vaccines among children and adolescents aged 2–18 years: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis
    Peng Gao, Liang-Yu Kang, Jue Liu, Min Liu
    World Journal of Pediatrics.2023; 19(11): 1041.     CrossRef
  • Incidence of myopericarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination: A meta-analysis with focus on adolescents aged 12–17 years
    Bao-Qiang Guo, Hong-Bin Li, Li-Qiang Yang
    Vaccine.2023; 41(28): 4067.     CrossRef
  • Safety monitoring of COVID-19 vaccines: February 26, 2021, To June 4, 2022, Republic of Korea
    Yeon-Kyeng Lee, Yunhyung Kwon, Yesul Heo, Eun Kyoung Kim, Seung Yun Kim, Hoon Cho, Seontae Kim, Mijeong Ko, Dosang Lim, Soon-Young Seo, Enhi Cho
    Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics.2023; 66(10): 415.     CrossRef
  • Risk of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Messenger RNA Vaccination-Associated Myocarditis and Pericarditis – A Systematic Review of Population-Based Data
    Yen-Ching Lin, Chia-Hsuin Chang, Wei-Ju Su, Chin-Hui Yang, Jann-Tay Wang
    Risk Management and Healthcare Policy.2023; Volume 16: 2085.     CrossRef
  • Suspected Myocarditis after mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination among South Korean Adolescents
    Mi Jin Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Hyun Ok Jun, Kyung Min Kim, Min Sub Jeung, Jun Sung Park
    Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 Vaccination in Korea: Past, Present, and the Way Forward
    Eliel Nham, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review Article
Immune-related therapeutics: an update on antiviral drugs and vaccines to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic
Iqra Mir, Sania Aamir, Syed Rizwan Hussain Shah, Muhammad Shahid, Iram Amin, Samia Afzal, Amjad Nawaz, Muhammad Umer Khan, Muhammad Idrees
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(2):84-100.   Published online April 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0024
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rapidly spread globally. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19, is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with a reported fatality rate ranging from 1% to 7%, and people with immune-compromised conditions, children, and older adults are particularly vulnerable. Respiratory failure and cytokine storm-induced multiple organ failure are the major causes of death. This article highlights the innate and adaptive immune mechanisms of host cells activated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and possible therapeutic approaches against COVID-19. Some potential drugs proven to be effective for other viral diseases are under clinical trials now for use against COVID-19. Examples include inhibitors of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), viral protein synthesis (ivermectin, lopinavir/ ritonavir), and fusion of the viral membrane with host cells (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, and umifenovir). This article also presents the intellectual groundwork for the ongoing development of vaccines in preclinical and clinical trials, explaining potential candidates (live attenuated-whole virus vaccines, inactivated vaccines, subunit vaccines, DNAbased vaccines, protein-based vaccines, nanoparticle-based vaccines, virus-like particles and mRNA-based vaccines). Designing and developing an effective vaccine (both prophylactic and therapeutic) would be a long-term solution and the most effective way to eliminate the COVID-19 pandemic.
Original Article
COVID-19 outbreak response at a nursing hospital in South Korea in the post-vaccination era, including an estimation of the effectiveness of the first shot of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx1-S)
Chanhee Kim, Geon Kang, Sun Gu Kang, Heeyoung Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(2):114-122.   Published online April 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0262
  • 4,138 View
  • 91 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We descriptively reviewed a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak at a nursing hospital in Gyeonggi Province (South Korea) and assessed the effectiveness of the first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine in a real-world population. Methods: The general process of the epidemiological investigation included a public health intervention. The relative risk (RR) of vaccinated and unvaccinated groups was calculated and compared to confirm the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) infection, and vaccine effectiveness was evaluated based on the calculated RR. Results: The population at risk was confined to ward E among 8 wards of Hospital X, where the outbreak occurred. This population comprised 55 people, including 39 patients, 12 nurses, and 4 caregivers, and 19 cases were identified. The RR between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups was 0.04, resulting in a vaccine effectiveness of 95.3%. The vaccination rate of the nonpatients in ward E was the lowest in the entire hospital, whereas the overall vaccination rate of the combined patient and non-patient groups in ward E was the third lowest. Conclusion: The first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine (ChAdOx1-S) was effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. To prevent COVID-19 outbreaks in medical facilities, it is important to prioritize the vaccination of healthcare providers.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • COVID-19 Vaccination in Korea: Past, Present, and the Way Forward
    Eliel Nham, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives