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14 "Polymerase chain reaction"
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Original Articles
Clinical epidemiological applicability of real-time polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19
Geehyuk Kim, Jun-Kyu Kang, Jungho Kim, Jiyoung Lee, Jin Gwack
Received April 23, 2022  Accepted June 29, 2022  Published online July 27, 2022  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0135    [Epub ahead of print]
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  • 31 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Real-time polymerase chain reaction is currently used as a confirmatory test for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The test results are interpreted as positive, negative, or inconclusive, and are used only for a qualitative classification of patients. However, the test results can be quantitated using threshold count (Ct) values to determine the amount of virus present in the sample. Therefore, this study investigated the diagnostic usefulness of Ct results through various quantitative analyzes, along with an analysis of clinical and epidemiological characteristics.
Methods
Clinical and epidemiological data from 4,642 COVID-19 patients in April 2021 were analyzed, including the Ct values of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), envelope (E), and nucleocapsid (N) genes. Clinical and epidemiological data (sex, age, underlying diseases, and early symptoms) were collected through a structured questionnaire. A correlation analysis was used to examine the relationships between variables.
Results
All 3 genes showed statistically significant relationships with symptoms and severity levels. The Ct values of the RdRp gene decreased as the severity of the patients increased. Moreover, statistical significance was observed for the presence of underlying diseases and dyspnea.
Conclusion
Ct values were found to be related to patients’ clinical and epidemiological characteristics. In particular, since these factors are closely related to symptoms and severity, Ct values can be used as primary data for predicting patients’ disease prognosis despite the limitations of this method. Conducting follow-up studies to validate this approach might enable using the data from this study to establish policies for preventing COVID-19 infection and spread.
Voluntary testing for COVID-19: perceptions and utilization among the inhabitants of Saudi Arabia
Ehab A. Abo-Ali, Ahmed Mousa, Rania Hussien, Shahad Mousa, Shayma Al-Rubaki, Mennatulla Omar, Badr Al-Haffashi, Abdullah Almilaibary
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):212-220.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0062
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  • 37 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Voluntary testing (VT) plays a crucial role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. The present study investigated the perceptions and utilization of VT services for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the inhabitants of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In total, 3,510 adult participants from all provinces of Saudi Arabia were recruited via a national online survey. Results: Of the 3,510 participants, 88.9% were aware of the testing services available to them and of those, more than half (59.5%) had used the VT services and 96.1% were satisfied with the services. Contact with a positive COVID-19 case was the top reason for accessing VT, while a lack of awareness about the availability of VT services was the top perceived limiting factor. A history of chronic health conditions, anxiety and/or depression, and previous symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 were found to be predictors of the utilization of VT services (odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22−1.96; OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16−1.88; and OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.77−3.95), respectively. Conclusion: The awareness of voluntary COVID-19 testing services was satisfactory among the Saudi Arabian population, but can be improved. Sociodemographic and health history predictors of the utilization of VT services were identified.
Specification of Bacteriophage Isolated Against Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Ahmad Nasser, Reza Azizian, Mohsen Tabasi, Jamil Kheirvari Khezerloo, Fatemah Sadeghpour Heravi, Morovat Taheri Kalani, Norkhoda Sadeghifard, Razieh Amini, Iraj Pakzad, Amin Radmanesh, Farid Azizi Jalilian
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):20-24.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.05
  • 3,823 View
  • 53 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The emergence of resistant bacteria is being increasingly reported around the world, potentially threatening millions of lives. Amongst resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most challenging to treat. This is due to emergent MRSA strains and less effective traditional antibiotic therapies to Staphylococcal infections. The use of bacteriophages (phages) against MRSA is a new, potential alternate therapy. In this study, morphology, genetic and protein structure of lytic phages against MRSA have been analysed.

Methods

Isolation of livestock and sewage bacteriophages were performed using 0.4 μm membrane filters. Plaque assays were used to determine phage quantification by double layer agar method. Pure plaques were then amplified for further characterization. Sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA were run for protein evaluation, and genotyping respectively. Transmission electron microscope was also used to detect the structure and taxonomic classification of phage visually.

Results

Head and tail morphology of bacteriophages against MRSA were identified by transmission electron microscopy and assigned to the Siphoviridae family and the Caudovirales order.

Conclusion

Bacteriophages are the most abundant microorganism on Earth and coexist with the bacterial population. They can destroy bacterial cells successfully and effectively. They cannot enter mammalian cells which saves the eukaryotic cells from lytic phage activity. In conclusion, phage therapy may have many potential applications in microbiology and human medicine with no side effect on eukaryotic cells.

A Novel PCR Assay for Detecting Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis
Saeed Alamian, Majid Esmaelizad, Taghi Zahraei, Afshar Etemadi, Mohsen Mohammadi, Davoud Afshar, Soheila Ghaderi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(1):65-70.   Published online February 28, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.1.09
  • 2,555 View
  • 50 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Brucellosis is a major zoonotic disease that poses a significant public health threat worldwide. The classical bacteriological detection process used to identify Brucella spp. is difficult and time-consuming. This study aimed to develop a novel molecular assay for detecting brucellosis.

Methods

All complete sequences of chromosome 1 with 2.1-Mbp lengths were compared among all available Brucella sequences. A unique repeat sequence (URS) locus on chromosome 1 could differentiate Brucella abortus from Brucella melitensis. A primer set was designed to flank the unique locus. A total of 136 lymph nodes and blood samples were evaluated and classified by the URS-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method in 2013–2014.

Results

Biochemical tests and bacteriophage typing as the golden standard indicated that all Brucella spp. isolates were B. melitensis biovar 1 and B. abortus biovar 3. The PCR results were the same as the bacteriological method for detecting Brucella spp. The sensitivity and specificity of the URS-PCR method make it suitable for detecting B. abortus and B. melitensis.

Conclusion

Quick detection of B. abortus and B. melitensis can provide the most effective strategies for control of these bacteria. The advantage of this method over other presented methods is that both B. abortus and B. melitensis are detectable in a single test tube. Furthermore, this method covered 100% of all B. melitensis and B. abortus biotypes. The development of this URS-PCR method is the first step toward the development of a novel kit for the molecular identification of B. abortus and B. melitensis.

Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca in Clinical Isolates in Tehran Hospitals, Iran by Chromogenic Medium and Molecular Methods
Majid Validi, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Masoumeh Douraghi, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):301-306.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.08.006
  • 1,438 View
  • 25 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Production of carbapenemase, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC), is one of the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella oxytoca. This study aimed to investigate and identify KPC-producing K. oxytoca isolates using molecular and phenotypic methods.
Methods
A total of 75 isolates of K. oxytoca were isolated from various clinical samples, and were verified as K. oxytoca after performing standard microbiological tests and using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using a disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. CHROMagar KPC chromogenic culture media was used to examine and confirm the production of the carbapenemase enzyme in K. oxytoca isolates; in addition, PCR was used to evaluate the presence of blaKPC gene in K. oxytoca strains.
Results
Of a total of 75 K. oxytoca isolates, one multidrug resistant strain was isolated from the urine of a hospitalized woman. This strain was examined to assess its ability to produce carbapenemase enzyme; it produced a colony with a blue metallic color on the CHROMagar KPC chromogenic culture media. In addition, the blaKPC gene was confirmed by PCR. After sequencing, it was confirmed and deposited in GenBank.
Conclusion
To date, many cases of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae, in particular K. pneumoniae, have been reported in different countries; there are also some reports on the identification of KPC-producing K. oxytoca. Therefore, to prevent the outbreak of nosocomial infections, the early detection, control, and prevention of the spread of these strains are of great importance.
Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone-Resistance (qnr) Genes in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli Collected from Several Hospitals of Qazvin and Zanjan Provinces, Iran
Maryam Rezazadeh, Hamid Baghchesaraei, Amir Peymani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):307-312.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.08.003
  • 1,583 View
  • 19 Download
  • 21 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Escherichia coli is regarded as the most important etiological agent of urinary tract infections. Fluoroquinolones are routinely used in the treatment of these infections; however, in recent years, a growing rate of resistance to these drugs has been reported globally. The aims of this study were to detect plasmid-mediated qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes among the quinolone-nonsusceptible E. coli isolates and to investigate their clonal relatedness in Qazvin and Zanjan Provinces, Iran.
Methods
A total of 200 clinical isolates of E. coli were collected from hospitalized patients. The bacterial isolates were identified through standard laboratory protocols and further confirmed using API 20E test strips. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the standard disk diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were used for detecting qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes and the clonal relatedness of qnr-positive isolates was evaluated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) method.
Results
In total, 136 (68%) isolates were nonsusceptible to quinolone compounds, among which 45 (33.1%) and 71 (52.2%) isolates showed high- and low-level quinolone resistance, respectively. Of the 136 isolates, four (2.9%) isolates were positive for the qnrS1 gene. The results from ERIC-PCR revealed that two (50%) cases of qnr-positive isolates were related genetically.
Conclusion
Our study results were indicative of the presence of low frequency of qnr genes among the clinical isolates of E. coli in Qazvin and Zanjan Provinces, which emphasizes the need for establishing tactful policies associated with infection-control measures in our hospital settings.
One-Step Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction for Ebola and Marburg Viruses
Sun-Whan Park, Ye-Ji Lee, Won-Ja Lee, Youngmee Jee, WooYoung Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):205-209.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.004
  • 1,545 View
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  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Ebola and Marburg viruses (EBOVs and MARVs, respectively) are causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. In 2014, there was a major Ebola outbreak in various countries in West Africa, including Guinea, Liberia, Republic of Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. EBOV and MARV are clinically difficult to diagnose and distinguish from other African epidemic diseases. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop a method for rapid identification of the virus to prevent the spread of infection.
Methods
We established a conventional one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for these pathogens based on the Superscript Reverse Transcriptase-Platinum Taq polymerase enzyme mixture. All assays were thoroughly optimized using in vitro-transcribed RNA.
Results
We designed seven primer sets of nucleocapsid protein (NP) genes based on sequences from seven filoviruses, including five EBOVs and two MARVs. To evaluate the sensitivity of the RT-PCR assay for each filovirus, 10-fold serial dilutions of synthetic viral RNA transcripts of EBOV or MARV NP genes were used to assess detection limits of viral RNA copies. The potential for these primers to cross react with other filoviruses was also examined. The results showed that the primers were specific for individual genotype detection in the examined filoviruses.
Conclusion
The assay established in this study may facilitate rapid, reliable laboratory diagnosis in suspected cases of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers.
Comparison of Three Different Methods for Detection of IL28 rs12979860 Polymorphisms as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus
Abolfazl Fateh, Mohammadreza Aghasadeghi, Seyed D. Siadat, Farzam Vaziri, Farzin Sadeghi, Roohollah Fateh, Hossein Keyvani, Alireza H. Tasbiti, Shamsi Yari, Angila Ataei-Pirkooh, Seyed H. Monavari
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(2):83-89.   Published online April 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.11.004
  • 1,808 View
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  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to evaluate the specificity, sensitivity, cost, and turn-around time of three methods of gene polymorphism analysis and to study the relationship between IL28B rs12979860 and SVR rate to pegIFN-α/RVB therapy among patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Methods
A total of 100 samples from chronic hepatitis C patients were analyzed in parallel using the three methods: direct sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR.
Results
The different profiles for IL28B rs12979860 alleles (CC, CT, and TT) obtained with PCR-RFLP, ARMS-PCR, and direct sequencing were consistent among the three methods. Prevalence of rs12979860 genotypes CC, CT and TT in HCV genotype 1a was 10(19.6%), 35(68.6%), and six (11.8%), respectively, and in HCV genotype 31, it was 13(26.5%), 31(63.3%), and five (10.2%), respectively. No significant difference was seen between rs12979860 genotype and HCV genotype (p = 0.710).
Conclusion
Screening by ARMS – PCR SNOP detection represents the most efficient and reliable method to determine HCV polymorphisms in routine clinical practice.
Study on the Behavior of Dengue Viruses during Outbreaks with Reference to Entomological and Laboratory Surveillance in the Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, and Tirunelveli Districts of Tamil Nadu, India
Parasuraman Basker, Karumana Gounder Kolandaswamy
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(3):143-158.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.05.001
  • 1,524 View
  • 23 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study was carried out in order to understand the behavior of dengue viruses through the entomological and laboratory surveillance of outbreaks. The aim of the study was to provide additional research to support current knowledge of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus and ultimately to use this information to forecast dengue as well as to justify intervention measures.
Methods
Data on the presence of Aedes larvae in human dwellings during the entomological surveillance in Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, and Tirunelveli dengue outbreaks were taken to compute indices, namely the House Index (HI), Container index (CI), and the Breteau Index (BI). Standard procedures were followed for nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1) and immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the confirmation of dengue. Serovar confirmation was made in the Kottayam field station of the Vector Control Research Center, Puducherry.
Results
Larval indices HI < 2–3% and BI < 20 contributed to halting the outbreak. Incubation of the dengue viruses in humans was detected at 15 days, NS1 was identified as a tool for the early diagnosis of dengue cases and its presence indicated the need to implement all available interventions. It was also discovered that it is helpful to search for hidden habitats of Aedes when dengue cases have not been reduced even after the sustainable management of the larval indices, HI < 5% and BI < 20. Based on the observed incidences of stopping dengue outbreaks, it was learnt that neighborhood areas of the outbreak villages, around 400 m, should have permissible larval indices < 5% HI and BI < 20. Heterogeneous serovars that led to dengue hemorrhagic fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) were identified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and reconfirmed in the field as DEN-1 and DEN-3 viruses and were circulating in Tirunelveli during the outbreak.
Conclusion
The behaviors of dengue viruses experienced in experimental, clinical, epidemiological, entomological, and laboratory surveillance did not deviate from observations in the field during dengue outbreaks in the Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu, India.
Evaluation and Comparison of Molecular and Conventional Diagnostic Tests for Detecting Tuberculosis in Korea, 2013
Sang-Hee Park, Chang-Ki Kim, Hye-Ran Jeong, Hyunjin Son, Seong-Han Kim, Mi-Sun Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(Suppl):S3-S7.   Published online December 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.10.006
  • 1,483 View
  • 16 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
A fast and accurate diagnosis is necessary to control and eliminate tuberculosis (TB). In Korea, TB continues to be a serious public health problem. In this study, diagnostic tests on clinical samples from patients suspected to have TB were performed and the sensitivity and specificity of the various techniques were compared. The main objective of the study was to compare various diagnostic tests and evaluate their sensitivity and specificity for detecting tuberculosis.
Methods
From January 2013 to December 2013, 170,240 clinical samples from patients suspected to have TB were tested with smear microscopy, acid-fast bacilli culture, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The test results were compared and data were analyzed.
Results
A total of 8216 cultures tested positive for TB (positive detection rate, 4.8%). The contamination rate in the culture was 0.6% and the isolation rate of nontuberculous mycobacteria was 1.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of smear microscopy were 56.8% and 99.6%, respectively. The concordance rate between the solid and liquid cultures was 92.8%. Mycobacterium isolates were not detected in 0.4% of the cases in the liquid culture, whereas no Mycobacterium isolates were detected in 6.8% of the cases in the solid culture. The sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR for the solid culture were 97.2% and 72.4%, respectively, whereas the corresponding data for the liquid culture were 93.5% and 97.2%.
Conclusion
The study results can be used to improve existing TB diagnosis procedure as well as for comparing the effectiveness of the assay tests used for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.
Brief Report
Acute Human Cytomegalovirus Infection with Bleeding in Iran
Behzad Pourhossein, Farhad Yaghmaei, Saber Esmaeili, Omid Banafshi, Shahla Afrasiabian, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Mark Schleiss, Ehsan Mostafavi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(6):383-386.   Published online December 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.10.003
  • 1,431 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In December 2011, a 42-year-old male farmer was admitted to a hospital in Sanandaj (Western Iran) with fever and anemia in order to check whether he suffered from some infectious diseases. During the first 3 days after admission, the patient gradually developed progressive oliguria, fever, abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant, leukocytosis with toxic granulation, petechiae and ecchymosis, oral bleeding, and vomiting. The sonographic findings revealed splenomegaly and an increase in the thickness of the gall bladder wall. In order to manage the patient and taking into consideration the most probable differential diagnoses, diagnostic tests were performed on two blood samples collected from him, and real-time polymerase chain reaction for human cytomegalovirus was positive.
Original Article
Molecular Investigation of Quinolone Resistance of Quinolone Resistance-Determining Region in Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Isolated from Iran Using Polymerase Chain Reaction–Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method
Mohammad Kargar, Fataneh Moein Jahromi, Abbas Doosti, Somayeh Handali
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(5):245-250.   Published online October 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.08.010
  • 1,625 View
  • 21 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to the recently available antibiotic treatment has been a growing problem. The aim of the study was to determine the quinolone-resistant strains and detect the presence of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA, parE, and parC genes.
Methods
In this study, for the first time in Iran, the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used to investigate the presence of mutations at quinolone resistance-determining regions of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase on 82 S. pneumoniae strains, among them 45 clinical samples were from patients and 37 from healthy carriers (control group).
Results
In clinical samples, 34 (75.56%) strains contained mutations in the parC gene, 31 (68.89%) carried mutations in the gyrA gene, and 14 (31.11%) had parE gene mutations. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) criteria on three different generations of quinolone family, with nalidixic acid (82.22%) showing the highest resistance and levofloxacin (42.22%) the least resistance.
Conclusion

Results
indicated that there is a significant correlation between quinolone resistance development and mutations in the parE gene as well as in the parC and gyrA genes.
Review Article
Travel-Associated Chikungunya Cases in South Korea during 2009–2010
Go Woon Cha, Jung Eun Cho, Eun Ju Lee, Young Ran Ju, Myung Guk Han, Chan Park, Young Eui Jeong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(3):170-175.   Published online June 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.04.008
  • 1,598 View
  • 11 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Chikungunya (CHIK) has been classified as a communicable disease group IV in South Korea since late 2010. Based on this, we investigated the extent of imported cases of CHIK in dengue-suspected individuals returning from dengue-endemic regions.
Methods
A total of 486 dengue-suspected serum samples were screened for CHIK by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Further RT-PCR-positive samples were used for the viral culture, and CHIK was subsequently confirmed by sequence analysis of the culture samples.
Results
Five out of 107 dengue-positive samples were found to be positive for CHIK and 15 out of 379 dengue-negative samples were found to be positive for CHIK by immunoglobulin M ELISA. Further, a CHIK virus was isolated from one of the two RT-PCR-positive sera by cell culture and confirmed by sequence analysis.
Conclusion
The present study documents the first evidence of travel-associated CHIK infection in South Korea. Considering the intense international traffic between countries, our finding emphasizes the urgent need for active patient and vector surveillance for timely response to reduce the introduction of CHIK in Korea.
Original Article
Identification of Dengue Type 1 Virus (DENV-1) in Koreans Traveling Abroad
Young Eui Jeong, Yeon Hee Kim, Jung Eun Cho, Myung Guk Han, Young Ran Ju
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(1):34-40.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.04.002
  • 1,534 View
  • 14 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To date, no indigenous dengue virus (DENV) transmissions have been reported in Korea. However, imported dengue infections have been diagnosed in travelers returning from endemic areas. This study presents the first virological evidence of travel-associated DENV importation into South Korea.
Methods
From January 2004 to June 2006, a total of 278 serum samples from 245 patients with suspected dengue fever were tested using the Panbio Dengue Duo IgM/IgG Rapid Strip Test. We selected 11 of the early symptomatic-phase sera that were negative for IgM and retrospectively studied them by virus isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
Results
All 11 serum samples were found to be DENV positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and viruses were successfully isolated from seven of the 11 serum samples. All the isolates were identified as DENV serotype-1.
Conclusion
We successfully isolated seven DENV serotype-1 strains for the first time in South Korea from imported infections. Considering that the vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus, already exists in South Korea, we propose that a vector surveillance program for dengue is urgently needed.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives