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Original Articles
Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients in Hamadan, Iran
Fariba Keramat, Mohammad Mehdi Majzobi, Jalal Poorolajal, Zohreh Zarei Ghane, Maryam Adabi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(4):282-288.   Published online August 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.4.09
  • 1,771 View
  • 19 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Brucellosis is a systemic disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients in Hamadan Province in the west of Iran.

Methods

A total of 157 HIV-infected patients were screened through standard serological tests, including Wright’s test, Coombs’ Wright test, and 2-mercaptoethanol Brucella agglutination test (2ME test), blood cultures in Castaneda media, and CD4 counting. Data were analyzed using Stata version 11.

Results

Wright and Coombs’ Wright tests were carried out, and only 5 (3.2%) patients had positive serological results. However, all patients had negative 2ME results, and blood cultures were negative for Brucella spp. Moreover, patients with positive serology and a mean CD4 count of 355.8 ± 203.11 cells/μL had no clinical manifestations of brucellosis, and, and the other patients had a mean CD4 count of 335.55 ± 261.71 cells/μL.

Conclusion

Results of this study showed that HIV infection is not a predisposing factor of acquiring brucellosis.

Trends and Characteristics of HIV Infection among Suspected Tuberculosis Cases in Public Health Centers in Korea: 2001–2013
Meekyung Kee, Kyoung-Ho Lee, Sae-Young Lee, Chun Kang, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(Suppl):S37-S42.   Published online December 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.11.002
  • 1,481 View
  • 16 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The Republic of Korea reports approximately 35,000 new tuberculosis (TB) patients each year, and the number of HIV-infected individuals is steadily increasing. Public health centers (PHCs) conduct TB diagnosis and treatment for risk groups in communities. This study aimed to identify possible trends and characteristics of HIV infection among suspected TB cases in PHCs.
Methods
Study subjects were suspected TB cases in PHCs who agreed to be tested for HIV from 2001 to 2013. Trends in HIV seroprevalence were assessed through a series of annual cross-sectional analyses. We analyzed suspected TB cases, and HIV-infected individuals among suspected TB cases, by gender, age, nationality, and region.
Results
The number of suspected tuberculosis cases who took an HIV test in PHCs was approximately 6,000 each year from 2001 to 2013. Among the suspected TB cases who took an HIV test, the number of those aged 20–39 is gradually decreasing, while the number of those aged 50–69 is increasing. During this period, 32 HIV-infected individuals were identified; the majority were men (94%), aged 30–49 (68%), Korean (94%), and residents in a metropolitan area (53%). HIV seroprevalence decreased from 8.2 per 10,000 persons in 2001 to 1.9 per 10,000 persons in 2013.
Conclusion
This study has identified trends and characteristics of HIV infection among suspected tuberculosis cases in PHCs. This national data provides a basis for public health policy for HIV and tuberculosis infections.
Role of Active and Inactive Cytotoxic Immune Response in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Dynamics
Hernan Dario Toro Zapata, Angelica Graciela Caicedo Casso, Derdei Bichara, Sunmi Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):3-8.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2014.01.001
  • 1,485 View
  • 25 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Mathematical models can be helpful to understand the complex dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus infection within a host. Most of work has studied the interactions of host responses and virus in the presence of active cytotoxic immune cells, which decay to zero when there is no virus. However, recent research highlights that cytotoxic immune cells can be inactive but never be depleted.
Methods
We propose a mathematical model to investigate the human immunodeficiency virus dynamics in the presence of both active and inactive cytotoxic immune cells within a host. We explore the impact of the immune responses on the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus infection under different disease stages.
Results
Standard mathematical and numerical analyses are presented for this new model. Specifically, the basic reproduction number is computed and local and global stability analyses are discussed.
Conclusion
Our results can give helpful insights when designing more effective drug schedules in the presence of active and inactive immune responses.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives