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Original Articles
Limitations of immunization registers at community health centers for measuring immunization coverage: a case study of the Japanese encephalitis mass immunization program in Bali Province, Indonesia
Anak A. S. Sawitri, Putu C. D. Yuliyatni, Made D. Ariawan, Komang A. Kartika Sari, Raka Susanti, I Nyoman Sutarsa
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(3):158-168.   Published online June 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.0241
  • 3,207 View
  • 108 Download
  • 1 Citations
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to compare the coverage of Japanese encephalitis (JE) immunization obtained from a recall survey and immunization registers at community health centers (CHCs) in Bali Province, Indonesia.
Methods
A population-based survey was conducted, and random 2-staged selection of clusters of sub-villages was performed. The sample consisted of households with children aged 9 months to 15 years old. Interviews were carried out with carers to recall JE immunization status. The recall immunization status was considered valid when name, date, and confirmation of immunization were available in an immunization register at a CHC. Descriptive analysis was performed. The completeness of the information within immunization registers at CHCs was assessed.
Results
The coverage of JE immunization obtained from the recall survey was 93.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.8–94.9). It decreased to 74.9% (95% CI, 72.8–77.2) after being validated against immunization registers. The recall coverage of JE immunization was significantly higher than immunization register data suggested. This discrepancy varied from 6.5% to 36.4% across 6 districts; however, none of these districts achieved the recommended target coverage of 95%. The quality of immunization registers varied across CHCs.
Conclusion
The use of an immunization register may result in underestimating the true coverage of vaccination programs, and its utilization for measuring immunization coverage requires further consideration.
Intra-Oral Factors Influencing Halitosis in Young Women
Ho Sun Shon, Kyoung Ok Kim, Jae Kwan Jung, Eun Jong Cha, Su Ok Lee, Kyung Ah Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):340-347.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.08
  • 3,127 View
  • 34 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this research was to determine intra-oral factors that affect halitosis in young women.

Methods

This study was performed between March 2014 to May 2014, and included 35 women in their 20s with good oral health. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the change in halitosis immediately, and 1 hour after scaling.

Results

In both oral gas (OG) and extraoral gas (EG) groups, halitosis was reduced after scaling compared to before scaling. The logistic regression analysis of oral state factors in OG showed that as oral fluid [odds ratio (OR) = 0.792, p = 0.045] and dental plaque (OR = 0.940, p = 0.016) decreased by 1 unit, the OR in the OG group decreased (> 50). In addition, as glucose levels in the oral cavity (OR = 1.245, p = 0.075) and tongue coating index (OR = 2.912, p = 0.064) increased by 1 unit, the OR in the OG group increased (> 50). Furthermore, in the EG group, as oral fluid (OR = 0.66, p = 0.01) and dental plaque (OR = 0.95, p = 0.04) decreased, the OR in the EG group decreased (> 50) significantly.

Conclusion

To control halitosis, it is necessary to increase oral fluid and decrease the amount of tongue plaque. Furthermore, maintaining a healthy oral environment, aided by regular scaling and removal of dental plaque, may significantly control halitosis.

Developing the High-Risk Drinking Scorecard Model in Korea
Jun-Tae Han, Il-Su Park, Suk-Bok Kang, Byeong-Gyu Seo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(5):231-239.   Published online October 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.5.04
  • 13,795 View
  • 96 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to develop a high-risk drinking scorecard using cross-sectional data from the 2014 Korea Community Health Survey.

Methods

Data were collected from records for 149,592 subjects who had participated in the Korea Community Health Survey conducted from 2014. The scorecard model was developed using data mining, a scorecard and points to double the odds approach for weighted multiple logistic regression.

Results

This study found that there were many major influencing factors for high-risk drinkers which included gender, age, educational level, occupation, whether they received health check-ups, depressive symptoms, over-moderate physical activity, mental stress, smoking status, obese status, and regular breakfast. Men in their thirties to fifties had a high risk of being a drinker and the risks in office workers and sales workers were high. Those individuals who were current smokers had a higher risk of drinking. In the scorecard results, the highest score range was observed for gender, age, educational level, and smoking status, suggesting that these were the most important risk factors.

Conclusion

A credit risk scorecard system can be applied to quantify the scoring method, not only to help the medical service provider to understand the meaning, but also to help the general public to understand the danger of high-risk drinking more easily.

Factors Associated with Cesarean Section in Tehran, Iran using Multilevel Logistic Regression Model
Payam Amini, Maryam Mohammadi, Reza Omani-Samani, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Saman Maroufizadeh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(2):86-92.   Published online April 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.2.08
  • 3,023 View
  • 56 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Over the past few decades, the prevalence of cesarean sections (CS) have risen dramatically worldwide, particularly in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CS in Tehran, and to examine the associated risk factors.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 4,308 pregnant women with singleton live-births in Tehran, Iran, between July 6–21, 2015 was performed. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed using demographic and obstetrical variables at the first level, and hospitals as a variable at the second level.

Results

The incidence of CS was 72.0%. Multivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between CS and the mother’s age, socioeconomic status, body mass index, parity, type of pregnancy, preeclampsia, infant height, and baby’s head circumference. The intra-class correlation using the second level variable, the hospital was 0.292, indicating approximately 29.2% of the total variation in the response variable accounted for by the hospital.

Conclusion

The incidence of CS was substantially higher than other countries. Therefore, educational and psychological interventions are necessary to reduce CS rates amongst pregnant Iranian women.

Prevalence and Determinants of Preterm Birth in Tehran, Iran: A Comparison between Logistic Regression and Decision Tree Methods
Payam Amini, Saman Maroufizadeh, Reza Omani Samani, Omid Hamidi, Mahdi Sepidarkish
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):195-200.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.06
  • 2,280 View
  • 25 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal death and the second biggest cause of death in children under five years of age. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PTB and its associated factors using logistic regression and decision tree classification methods.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4,415 pregnant women in Tehran, Iran, from July 6–21, 2015. Data were collected by a researcher-developed questionnaire through interviews with mothers and review of their medical records. To evaluate the accuracy of the logistic regression and decision tree methods, several indices such as sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve were used.

Results

The PTB rate was 5.5% in this study. The logistic regression outperformed the decision tree for the classification of PTB based on risk factors. Logistic regression showed that multiple pregnancies, mothers with preeclampsia, and those who conceived with assisted reproductive technology had an increased risk for PTB (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Identifying and training mothers at risk as well as improving prenatal care may reduce the PTB rate. We also recommend that statisticians utilize the logistic regression model for the classification of risk groups for PTB.

Spatial Distribution Analysis of Scrub Typhus in Korea
Hong Sung Jin, Chaeshin Chu, Dong Yeob Han
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(1):4-15.   Published online February 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.12.007
  • 1,486 View
  • 20 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective: This study analyzes the spatial distribution of scrub typhus in Korea.
Methods
A spatial distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi occurrence using a geographic information system (GIS) is presented, and analyzed by means of spatial clustering and correlations.
Results
The provinces of Gangwon-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do show a low incidence throughout the year. Some districts have almost identical environmental conditions of scrub typhus incidence. The land use change of districts does not directly affect the incidence rate.
Conclusion
GIS analysis shows the spatial characteristics of scrub typhus. This research can be used to construct a spatial-temporal model to understand the epidemic tsutsugamushi.
Articles
Study on the Correlation of Premises Condition Index and the Presence of Larvae of Aedes Species Mosquitoes in Human Dwellings of the Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu, India
Parasuraman Basker, Radhakrishnan Ezhil
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(1):3-7.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.046
  • 1,310 View
  • 12 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Conclusions It is concluded that this study helps in conducting rapid survey to identify the presence of Aedes larvae with a minimum number of staff for both inspection and treatment of Aedes larvae during the epidemic situation. Objectives To predict dwellings for the presence of Aedes larvae rapidly based on Premises Condition Index (PCI) factors, we studied the possible presence of Aedes species mosquitoes larvae among houses in the Chidambaram urban of Cuddalore District in Tamil Nadu, India based on the scores of variables in PCI, namely House, Yard and degree of shadow. Data of these variables were collected in September and October 2006 from 1813 houses in the Chidambaram urban area during the intensive vector control activities employed for the prevention and control of Chikungunya.
Methods
The association between presence of larvae and the variables of PCI was tested by Chi-square and Correlation. The predictability of the presence of Aedes larvae based on PCI factors was computed by logistic regression.
Results
The study shows 301 containers in 132 houses were found positive with Aedes species out of 1813 houses surveyed. It was further observed that the probability of presence of positive premises was four times higher in the premises with 75% shadow compared with premises with a 25% shadow. These findings showed a significant association (p < 0.001) with positive premises.
Brief Report
Registration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines: Korea, 2010
Ji-Yoon Lee, Dae-Yeon Lee, Young-Sil Choi, Kyoung-Jae Lee, Yong-Ou Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(2):141-147.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.07.002
  • 1,366 View
  • 13 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
In an effort to increase the credibility of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines established in Korea, obligatory registration was introduced by the Bioethics and Safety Act 2008, effective as of January 1, 2010.The DNA fingerprint, chromosome stability, expression of pluripotency markers, and contamination of mycoplasma of the submitted lines were analyzed by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). The characterization data and ethical aspects, such as informed consent for donation of surplus embryos, were reviewed by a 10-member advisory review committee for stem cell registry.A total of 55 domestic hESC lines were submitted for registration in 2010; among them 51 were registered. Among these submitted lines, 26 were additionally characterized by KCDC, while 25 lines previously characterized by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology were not additionally analyzed by KCDC.Registration completed an oversight system for embryo research by registering the products of licensed embryo research projects, making embryo research more transparent in Korea. Information about hESC lines is available at the website of the Korea Stem Cell Registry (kscr.nih.go.kr).

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives