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Original Article
Are There Spatial and Temporal Correlations in the Incidence Distribution of Scrub Typhus in Korea?
Maengseok Noh, Youngjo Lee, Chaeshin Chu, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn, Sun Huh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(1):39-44.   Published online February 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.01.002
  • 2,297 View
  • 21 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
A hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) was applied to estimate the transmission pattern of scrub typhus from 2001 to 2011 in the Republic of Korea, based on spatial and temporal correlation.
Methods
Based on the descriptive statistics of scrub typhus incidence from 2001 to 2011 reported to the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the spatial and temporal correlations were estimated by HGLM. Incidences according to age, sex, and year were also estimated by the best-fit model out of nine HGLMs. A disease map was drawn to view the annual regional spread of the disease.
Results
The total number of scrub typhus cases reported from 2001 to 2011 was 51,136: male, 18,628 (36.4%); female, 32,508 (63.6%). The best-fit model selected was a combination of the spatial model (Markov random-field model) and temporal model (first order autoregressive model) of scrub typhus transmission. The peak incidence was 28.80 per 100,000 persons in early October and the peak incidence was 40.17 per 100,000 persons in those aged 63.3 years old by the best-fit HGLM. The disease map showed the spread of disease from the southern central area to a nationwide area, excepting Gangwon-do (province), Gyeongsangbuk-do (province), and Seoul.
Conclusion
In the transmission of scrub typhus in Korea, there was a correlation to the incidence of adjacent areas, as well as that of the previous year. According to the disease map, we are unlikely to see any decrease in the incidence in the near future, unless ongoing aggressive measures to prevent the exposure to the vector, chigger mites, in rural areas, are put into place.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal patterns of scrub typhus in Yunnan Province from 2006 to 2017
    Pei-Ying Peng, Lei Xu, Gu-Xian Wang, Wen-Yuan He, Ting-Liang Yan, Xian-Guo Guo
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical and Laboratory Predictors associated with Complicated Scrub Typhus
    Mi-Hee Kim, Si-Hyun Kim, Jung-Hyun Choi, Seong-Heon Wie
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2019; 51(2): 161.     CrossRef
  • Awareness and Work-Related Factors Associated with Scrub Typhus: A Case-Control Study from South Korea
    Dong-Seob Kim, Dilaram Acharya, Kwan Lee, Seok-Ju Yoo, Ji-Hyuk Park, Hyun-Sul Lim
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2018; 15(6): 1143.     CrossRef
  • Estimating the burden of scrub typhus: A systematic review
    Ana Bonell, Yoel Lubell, Paul N. Newton, John A. Crump, Daniel H. Paris, Janet Foley
    PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.2017; 11(9): e0005838.     CrossRef
  • Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Scrub Typhus Transmission in Mainland China, 2006-2014
    Yi-Cheng Wu, Quan Qian, Ricardo J. Soares Magalhaes, Zhi-Hai Han, Wen-Biao Hu, Ubydul Haque, Thomas A. Weppelmann, Yong Wang, Yun-Xi Liu, Xin-Lou Li, Hai-Long Sun, Yan-Song Sun, Archie C. A. Clements, Shen-Long Li, Wen-Yi Zhang, Mathieu Picardeau
    PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.2016; 10(8): e0004875.     CrossRef
  • Larval Chigger Mites Collected from Small Mammals in 3 Provinces, Korea
    In-Yong Lee, Hyeon-Je Song, Yeon-Joo Choi, Sun-Hye Shin, Min-Kyung Choi, So-Hyun Kwon, E-Hyun Shin, Chan Park, Heung-Chul Kim, Terry A. Klein, Kyung-Hee Park, Won-Jong Jang
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology.2014; 52(2): 225.     CrossRef
Articles
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Korea Estimated with a Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model
Maengseok Noh, Youngjo Lee, Seungyoung Oh, Chaeshin Chu, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn, Shin Hyeong Cho, Won Ja Lee, Sun Huh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(4):192-198.   Published online December 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.11.003
  • 2,135 View
  • 19 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The spatial and temporal correlations were estimated to determine Plasmodium vivax malarial transmission pattern in Korea from 2001–2011 with the hierarchical generalized linear model.
Methods
Malaria cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the incidence was estimated according to age, sex, and year by the hierarchical generalized linear model. Spatial and temporal correlation was estimated and the best model was selected from nine models. Results were presented as diseases map according to age and sex.
Results
The incidence according to age was highest in the 20–25-year-old group (244.52 infections/100,000). Mean ages of infected males and females were 31.0 years and 45.3 years with incidences 7.8 infections/100,000 and 7.1 infections/100,000 after estimation. The mean month for infection was mid-July with incidence 10.4 infections/100,000. The best-fit model showed that there was a spatial and temporal correlation in the malarial transmission. Incidence was very low or negligible in areas distant from the demilitarized zone between Republic of Korea and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) if the 20–29-year-old male group was omitted in the diseases map.
Conclusion
Malarial transmission in a region in Korea was influenced by the incidence in adjacent regions in recent years. Since malaria in Korea mainly originates from mosquitoes from North Korea, there will be continuous decrease if there is no further outbreak in North Korea.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Source separation in municipal solid waste management: Practical means to its success in Asian cities
    Premakumara Jagath Dickella Gamaralalage, Sadhan Kumar Ghosh, Kazunobu Onogawa
    Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sus.2022; 40(3): 360.     CrossRef
  • Spatial connectivity in mosquito-borne disease models: a systematic review of methods and assumptions
    Sophie A. Lee, Christopher I. Jarvis, W. John Edmunds, Theodoros Economou, Rachel Lowe
    Journal of The Royal Society Interface.2021; 18(178): 20210096.     CrossRef
  • Effects of climate change on Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission dynamics: A mathematical modeling approach
    Jung Eun Kim, Yongin Choi, Chang Hyeong Lee
    Applied Mathematics and Computation.2019; 347: 616.     CrossRef
  • Spatially Filtered Multilevel Analysis on Spatial Determinants for Malaria Occurrence in Korea
    Sehyeong Kim, Youngho Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2019; 16(7): 1250.     CrossRef
  • Is it necessary to take anthelmintics every year in Korea?
    Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2018; 61(3): 198.     CrossRef
  • Research on Factors Influencing Municipal Household Solid Waste Separate Collection: Bayesian Belief Networks
    Zhujie Chu, Wenna Wang, Bairong Wang, Jun Zhuang
    Sustainability.2016; 8(2): 152.     CrossRef
  • Chemotherapeutic drugs for common parasitic diseases in Korea
    Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2013; 56(6): 513.     CrossRef
  • Are There Spatial and Temporal Correlations in the Incidence Distribution of Scrub Typhus in Korea?
    Maengseok Noh, Youngjo Lee, Chaeshin Chu, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn, Sun Huh
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2013; 4(1): 39.     CrossRef
  • Years of Epidemics (2009–2011): Pandemic Influenza and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic in Korea
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2013; 4(3): 125.     CrossRef
  • A New Statistical Approach to Analyze Plasmodium vivax Malaria Endemic in Korea
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2012; 3(4): 191.     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives