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Original Articles
Epidemiological Characterization of Skin Fungal Infections Between the Years 2006 and 2010 in Korea
Sang-Ha Kim, Seung-Hak Cho, Seung-Ki Youn, Je-Seop Park, Jong Tae Choi, Young-Seok Bak, Young-Bin Yu, Young Kwon Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015;6(6):341-345.   Published online December 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2015.10.012
  • 2,723 View
  • 23 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to build and provide a basic database of skin fungal infections for the effective management of skin fungal infections in the future.
Methods
We collected health insurance data between the years 2006 and 2010 from the Health Insurance Corporation (Seoul, Korea) and analyzed the data to determine the prevalence and treatment management of skin fungal infections.
Results
Skin fungal infections were divided into two groups: namely dermatophytosis and other superficial mycoses. Dermatophytosis showed a higher prevalence (16,035,399 cases) than the other superficial mycoses (794,847 cases) within the study period. The prevalence rate decreased consecutively by 0.01% to 0.19% every year. The prevalence according to region showed that Jeolla-do had a high prevalence distribution. The prevalences in men and women were similar (7.01% vs. 6.26%). It is interesting to note that adults from the 50–79-year age group showed a higher prevalence than children and young adults. The average convalescence time (days) of dermatophytosis was longer than that of other superficial mycoses. The total medical expenses were also much higher in dermatophytosis than in the other superficial mycoses.
Conclusion
This study provides useful data for study trends of skin fungal infections.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence and antifungal drug resistance of dermatophytes in the clinical samples from Pakistan
    Bakhtawar Usman, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Muhammad Anees
    Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Discovery of a novel and selective fungicide that targets fungal cell wall to treat dermatomycoses: 1,3‐bis(3,4‐dichlorophenoxy)propan‐2‐aminium chloride
    Daiane Flores Dalla Lana, Stefânia Neiva Lavorato, Laura Minussi Giuliani, Letícia Cruz, William Lopes, Marilene Henning Vainstein, Igor Camargo Fontana, Aline Rigon Zimmer, Murillo Araújo Freitas, Saulo Fernandes Andrade, Ricardo José Alves, Alexandre Me
    Mycoses.2020; 63(2): 197.     CrossRef
  • Voriconazole-natural latex dressings for treating infected Candida spp. skin ulcers
    Thainá V da Silva, Natan R de Barros, Caroline B Costa-Orlandi, Jean L Tanaka, Lincoln G Moro, Giovana S Pegorin, Kassandra SM Oliveira, Maria JS Mendes-Gianinni, Ana M Fusco-Almeida, Rondinelli D Herculano
    Future Microbiology.2020; 15(15): 1439.     CrossRef
  • The Pathogenesis of Fungal-Related Diseases and Allergies in the African Population: The State of the Evidence and Knowledge Gaps
    Lorraine Tsitsi Pfavayi, Elopy Nimele Sibanda, Francisca Mutapi
    International Archives of Allergy and Immunology.2020; 181(4): 257.     CrossRef
  • Medicinal Importance of Azo and Hippuric Acid Derivatives
    Tehreem Tahir, Muhammad Ashfaq, Humna Asghar, Mirza I. Shahzad, Rukhsana Tabassum, Areeba Ashfaq
    Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry.2019; 19(9): 708.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of antifungal activity of blended cinnamon oil and usnic acid nanoemulsion using candidiasis and dermatophytosis models
    Peeyush kumar, P.W. Ramteke, Avinash C. Pandey, Himanshu Pandey
    Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology.2019; 18: 101062.     CrossRef
  • A novel approach for skin infections: Controlled release topical mats of poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene succinate) blends containing Voriconazole
    Neslihan Üstündağ Okur, Maria Filippousi, Mehmet Evren Okur, Şule Ayla, Emre Şefik Çağlar, Ayşegül Yoltaş, Panoraia I. Siafaka
    Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology.2018; 46: 74.     CrossRef
  • Serious fungal infections in Korea
    K. Huh, Y. E. Ha, D. W. Denning, K. R. Peck
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infect.2017; 36(6): 957.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of Fungal Infections in Patients Admitted via Emergency Department in Korea (2011~2013)
    서영우, 장태창, 박준수
    Korean Journal of Medical Mycology.2016; 21(4): 111.     CrossRef
Emerging Pathogens and Vehicles of Food- and Water-borne Disease Outbreaks in Korea, 2007–2012
Shinje Moon, Il-Woong Sohn, Yeongseon Hong, Hyungmin Lee, Ji-Hyuk Park, Geun-Yong Kwon, Sangwon Lee, Seung-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2014;5(1):34-39.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.12.004
  • 1,955 View
  • 16 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Food- and water-borne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) are an important public health problem worldwide. This study investigated the trends in FBDOs in Korea and established emerging causal pathogens and causal vehicles.
Methods
We analyzed FBDOs in Korea by year, location, causal pathogens, and causal vehicles from 2007 to 2012. Information was collected from the FBDOs database in the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Results
During 2007–2012, a total of 1794 FBDOs and 48,897 patients were reported. After 2007, FBDOs and patient numbers steadily decreased over the next 2 years and then plateaued until 2011. However, in 2012, FBDOs increased slightly accompanied by a large increase in the number of affected patients. Our results highlight the emergence of norovirus and pathogenic Escherichia coli other than enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in schools in 2012. We found that pickled vegetables is an emerging causal vehicle responsible for this problem.
Conclusion
On the basis of this study we recommend intensified inspections of pickled vegetable manufacturers and the strengthening of laboratory surveillance of relevant pathogens.

Citations

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  • Phage biocontrol of zoonotic food-borne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus for seafood safety
    Jung Hyen Lee, Minjin Oh, Byoung Sik Kim
    Food Control.2023; 144: 109334.     CrossRef
  • Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from Hotspot Environments in Bahir Dar City, Northwestern Ethiopia
    Kindu Geta, Mulugeta Kibret
    Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare.2022; Volume 15: 1403.     CrossRef
  • Inhibitory Effects of Crude Fucoidan Extract from Hizikia fusiformis against Norovirus Causing Foodborne Disease
    Hyojin Kim, Mi Sook Chung
    Korean Journal of Food and Cookery Science.2018; 34(5): 519.     CrossRef
  • High level of drug resistance by gram-negative bacteria from selected sewage polluted urban rivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Teshome Belachew, Amete Mihret, Tesfaye Legesse, Yihenew Million, Kassu Desta
    BMC Research Notes.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Inhibitory Effects of Allium chinense and Its Dimethyl Disulfide against Murine Norovirus as a Surrogate for Foodborne Virus
    Mi Sook Chung
    Korean Journal of Food and Cookery Science.2018; 34(2): 222.     CrossRef
  • Inactivation of norovirus surrogates by kimchi fermentation in the presence of black raspberry
    Garam Bae, Jeongwon Kim, Hyojin Kim, Jong Hyeon Seok, Dan Bi Lee, Kyung Hyun Kim, Mi Sook Chung
    Food Control.2018; 91: 390.     CrossRef
  • Metagenomic Sequencing for Surveillance of Food- and Waterborne Viral Diseases
    David F. Nieuwenhuijse, Marion P. G. Koopmans
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis profiles of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from different retail foods
    Lili Wang, Hiromi Nakamura, Eriko Kage-Nakadai, Yukiko Hara-Kudo, Yoshikazu Nishikawa
    International Journal of Food Microbiology.2017; 249: 44.     CrossRef
  • Complete genome sequence ofVibrio parahaemolyticusFORC_023 isolated from raw fish storage water
    Han Young Chung, Eun Jung Na, Kyu-Ho Lee, Sangryeol Ryu, Hyunjin Yoon, Ju-Hoon Lee, Hyeun Bum Kim, Heebal Kim, Sang Ho Choi, Bong-Soo Kim, David Rasko
    Pathogens and Disease.2016; 74(4): ftw032.     CrossRef
  • An outbreak of norovirus infection associated with fermented oyster consumption in South Korea, 2013
    H. G. CHO, S. G. LEE, M. Y. LEE, E. S. HUR, J. S. LEE, P. H. PARK, Y. B. PARK, M. H. YOON, S. Y. PAIK
    Epidemiology and Infection.2016; 144(13): 2759.     CrossRef
  • Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea
    Sung-Geun Lee, Han-Gil Cho, Soon-Young Paik
    BMB Reports .2015; 48(2): 61.     CrossRef
  • Three Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in South Korea Caused by the Consumption of Kimchi Tainted by Norovirus GI.4
    Ji-Hyuk Park, Sunyoung Jung, Jaeseung Shin, Jeong Su Lee, In Sun Joo, Deog-Yong Lee
    Foodborne Pathogens and Disease.2015; 12(3): 221.     CrossRef
  • Environmental monitoring of bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance patterns of the fecal coliforms isolated from Cauvery River, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India
    Sinosh Skariyachan, Arpitha Badarinath Mahajanakatti, Nisha Jayaprakash Grandhi, Akshatha Prasanna, Ballari Sen, Narasimha Sharma, Kiran S Vasist, Rajeswari Narayanappa
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Detection of viable murine norovirus using the plaque assay and propidium-monoazide-combined real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
    Minhwa Lee, Dong Joo Seo, Jina Seo, Hyejin Oh, Su Been Jeon, Sang-Do Ha, Jinjong Myoung, In-Soo Choi, Changsun Choi
    Journal of Virological Methods.2015; 221: 57.     CrossRef
  • Emergence of Norovirus GII.4 variants in acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in South Korea between 2006 and 2013
    Han-Gil Cho, Po-Hyun Park, Sung-Geun Lee, Ju-Eun Kim, Kyung-A Kim, Hyeun-Kyong Lee, Eun-Mi Park, Myong-Ki Park, Sun-Young Jung, Deog-Yong Lee, Mi-hye Yoon, Jong-Bok Lee, Soon-Young Paik
    Journal of Clinical Virology.2015; 72: 11.     CrossRef
Brief Reports
Epidemic Intelligence Service Officers and Field Epidemiology Training Program in Korea
Geun-Yong Kwon, Shinje Moon, Wooseok Kwak, Jin Gwack, Chaeshin Chu, Seung-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(4):215-221.   Published online August 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.07.001
  • 2,095 View
  • 20 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Korea has adopted Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officers through the Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) since 1999 for systematic control of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Graduates of medical schools in Korea are selected and serve as public health doctors (PHDs) for their mandatory military service. The duration of service is 3 years and PHDs comprise general practitioners and specialists. Some PHDs are selected as EIS officers with 3 weeks basic FETP training and work for central and provincial public health authorities to conduct epidemiological investigations. The total number of EIS officers is 31 as of 2012. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) has 12 specialists, whereas specialists and each province has one or two EIS officers to administer local epidemiological investigations in 253 public health centers. The Korean EIS officers have successfully responded and prevented infectious diseases, but there is a unique limitation: the number of PHDs in Korea is decreasing and PHDs are not allowed to stay outside Korea, which makes it difficult to cope with overseas infectious diseases. Furthermore, after 3 years service, they quit and their experiences are not accumulated. KCDC has hired full-time EIS officers since 2012 to overcome this limitation.

Citations

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  • A resposta da Coreia do Sul à pandemia de COVID-19: lições aprendidas e recomendações a gestores
    Thais Regis Aranha Rossi, Catharina Leite Matos Soares, Gerluce Alves Silva, Jairnilson Silva Paim, Lígia Maria Vieira-da-Silva
    Cadernos de Saúde Pública.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Turnover Intention among Field Epidemiologists in South Korea
    Sukhyun Ryu
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2020; 17(3): 949.     CrossRef
  • National Response to COVID-19 in the Republic of Korea and Lessons Learned for Other Countries
    Juhwan Oh, Jong-Koo Lee, Dan Schwarz, Hannah L. Ratcliffe, Jeffrey F. Markuns, Lisa R. Hirschhorn
    Health Systems & Reform.2020; 6(1): e1753464.     CrossRef
  • Steering the Private Sector in COVID-19 Diagnostic Test Kit Development in South Korea
    Sora Lee
    Frontiers in Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Experience of 16 years and its associated challenges in the Field Epidemiology Training Program in Korea
    Moo-Sik Lee, Eun-Young Kim, Sang-Won Lee
    Epidemiology and Health.2017; 39: e2017058.     CrossRef
  • The direction of restructuring of a Korea field epidemiology training program through questionnaire survey among communicable disease response staff in Korea
    Moo Sik Lee, Kwan Lee, Jee-Hyuk Park, Jee-Young Hong, Min-Young Jang, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Sang-Yun Cho, Sun-Ja Choi, JeongIk Hong
    Epidemiology and Health.2017; 39: e2017032.     CrossRef
  • Review for the Korean Health Professionals and International Cooperation Doctors Dispatched to Peru by the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)
    Bongyoung Kim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(2): 133.     CrossRef
  • From Seoul to Lima: Korean Doctors in Peru
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(2): 71.     CrossRef
  • Emerging Pathogens and Vehicles of Food- and Water-borne Disease Outbreaks in Korea, 2007–2012
    Shinje Moon, Il-Woong Sohn, Yeongseon Hong, Hyungmin Lee, Ji-Hyuk Park, Geun-Yong Kwon, Sangwon Lee, Seung-Ki Youn
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2014; 5(1): 34.     CrossRef
Trends in the Incidence of Scrub Typhus: The Fastest Growing Vector-Borne Disease in Korea
Mi Ae Jeong, Seung-Ki Youn, Young-Kwon Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Sun-Ja Kim, Aeree Sohn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(3):166-169.   Published online June 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.04.007
  • 1,830 View
  • 20 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Scrub typhus, also called tsutsugamushi disease, is classified as a Group 3 disease in Korea according to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance Systems. It is an infectious disease transmitted to humans through the bite of mites that are infected with an intracellular parasite called Orientia tsutsugamushi (Family: Rickettsiaceae). This study aims to identify the demographic characteristics of the infected cases according to profession, region, gender, and onset period and provide a basic data for prevention and control of the disease in the infected patients. Between 2001 and 2010, 16,741 men (36.3%) and 29,373 women (63.7%) were reported to have been infected with scrub typhus, with men being 1.6 times less infected than women. When classified according to age, it was found that 4421 persons (9.6%) were under 40 years of age; 6601 (13.1%) in their 40s; 9714 (21.1%) in their 50s; 13,067 (28.3%) in 60s; 10,128 (22.0%) in their 70s; and 2723 (5.9%) aged 80 or more. The elderly (60 years or older) represented more than half of the infected cases. When the infections were classified according to region, it was found that the county residents had the major share of infection, with a total of 1583 infected cases (59.85).

Citations

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  • Scrub typhus seroprevalence from an eastern state of India: findings from the state-wide serosurvey
    Debaprasad Parai, Matrujyoti Pattnaik, Jaya Singh Kshatri, Usha Kiran Rout, Annalisha Peter, Rashmi Ranjan Nanda, Subrat Kumar Sahoo, Asit Mansingh, Hari Ram Choudhary, Girish Chandra Dash, Ira Praharaj, Debdutta Bhattacharya, Sanghamitra Pati
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    Myeong-Jin Lee, Bok Soon Han, Won-Chang Lee, Young Hwan Kwon
    The Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental .2022; 32(2): 65.     CrossRef
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    Chin-Te Lu, Lih-Shinn Wang, Po-Ren Hsueh
    Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy.2021; 19(12): 1519.     CrossRef
  • Seropositivity of Scrub Typhus Inpatients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western Odisha
    Shuvankar Mukherjee, Anshuman Dash, Shreekant Tiwari
    Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Science.2020; 9(04): 178.     CrossRef
  • Clinical and Laboratory Predictors associated with Complicated Scrub Typhus
    Mi-Hee Kim, Si-Hyun Kim, Jung-Hyun Choi, Seong-Heon Wie
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2019; 51(2): 161.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Epidemiology of an Orientia tsutsugamushi Gene Encoding a 56-kDa Type-Specific Antigen in Chiggers, Small Mammals, and Patients from the Southwest Region of Korea
    So Hyang Jung, Dong Ryong Ha, Duck Woong Park, Jeong Min Lee, Sun Hee Kim, Hang Jin Jeong, Jung Wook Park, Dong Min Kim, Byong Chul Gill, Jung Yoon Lee, Choon-Mee Kim, Hyeon Je Song, Mi Hee Seo, Jae Keun Chung, Hye Jung Park, Eun Sun Kim
    The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygi.2018; 98(2): 616.     CrossRef
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    Sung Hoon Kim, Hae Jeong Lee, Ju Suk Lee
    Iranian Journal of Pediatrics.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Paul Trowbridge, Divya P., Prasanna S. Premkumar, George M. Varghese
    Tropical Medicine & International Health.2017; 22(5): 576.     CrossRef
  • Central Nervous System Infection Associated with Orientia tsutsugamushi in South Korea
    Kon Chu, Seon-Jae Ahn, Woo-Jin Lee, Jin-Sun Jun, Jung-Ah Lim, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Han Sang Lee, Sang Kun Lee, Ki-Young Jung, Jangsup Moon, Soon-Tae Lee
    The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygi.2017; 97(4): 1094.     CrossRef
  • Generation of protective immunity against Orientia tsutsugamushi infection by immunization with a zinc oxide nanoparticle combined with ScaA antigen
    Na-Young Ha, Hyun Mu Shin, Prashant Sharma, Hyun Ah Cho, Chan-Ki Min, Hong-il Kim, Nguyen Thi Hai Yen, Jae-Seung Kang, Ik-Sang Kim, Myung-Sik Choi, Young Keun Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho
    Journal of Nanobiotechnology.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Immunization with an Autotransporter Protein of Orientia tsutsugamushi Provides Protective Immunity against Scrub Typhus
    Na-Young Ha, Prashant Sharma, Gwanghun Kim, Yuri Kim, Chan-Ki Min, Myung-Sik Choi, Ik-Sang Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho, David H Walker
    PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.2015; 9(3): e0003585.     CrossRef
  • Current situation of scrub typhus in South Korea from 2001–2013
    Hyeong-Woo Lee, Pyo Yun Cho, Sung-Ung Moon, Byoung-Kuk Na, Yoon-Joong Kang, Youngjoo Sohn, Seung-Ki Youn, Yeongseon Hong, Tong-Soo Kim
    Parasites & Vectors.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jahae Kim, Seong Young Kwon, Sae-Ryung Kang, Sang-Geon Cho, Ho-Chun Song
    Clinical Nuclear Medicine.2015; 40(10): e484.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of Scrub Typhus and the Eschars Patterns in South Korea from 2008 to 2012
    Ji-Hyuk Park, Sun-Ja Kim, Seung-Ki Youn, Kisoo Park, Jin Gwack
    Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases.2014; 67(6): 458.     CrossRef
Epidemiological Characteristics of Imported Shigellosis in Korea, 2010–2011
Hee-Jung Kim, Seung-Ki Youn, Sangwon Lee, Yeon Hwa Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(3):159-165.   Published online June 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.02.002
  • 2,084 View
  • 17 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Shigellosis is a global disease as food poisoning by infection of Shigella spp (S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei). In Korea, approximately 500 cases of shigellosis have reported every year since 2004, and imported shigellosis is increasing gradually from 2006 in particular. According to increase of numbers of overseas travelers, the numbers of patients diseased with imported shigellosis is also increasing. We need continuous surveillance studies network (SSN) for control of imported shigellosis. We studied epidemiological characteristic of imported shigellosis by using database of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) from 2010 to 2011. The imported shigellosis is analyzed on correlation with variable factors such as sex, age, symptom, visited country as well as Shigella spp in the database. Total 399 patients diseased with shigellosis have been reported between 2010 and 2011, The 212 patients (53.1%) among them were disease with imported shigellosis and the 205 patients (96.7%) were diagnosed as definite shigellosis. Shigella sonnei (65.6%) and Shigella flexneri (20.3%) were isolated in order. Clinical symptoms of the shigellosis were diarrhea (96.5%), abdominal pain (54.7%), fever (52.8%), chill (31.6%), and weakness (21.7% etc) in order. Duration of diarrhea was 1 to 5 days, the number of diarrhea was mostly more than 10 times, and type of stool was almost yellow stool. Almost shigellosis was occurred in the travelers visited to Asia (98.1%). Particularly, the occurrence rate of shigellosis was highest in traveler visited to Southeast Asia which is India (21.7%), Cambodia (19.8%), Philippines (17.9%), and Vietnam (9.0%) in order. According to increase of traveler to Southeast Asia, imported Shigellosis also increased. We need to strengthen the public health and hygiene, which is infection prevention rules, eating properly-cook food, washing hands, drinking boiled water, for traveler to Asia. The quarantine and surveillance system to control imported shigellosis is need continually in Korea.

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Original Articles
The First Outbreak of Giardiasis with Drinking Water in Korea
Hyeng-Il Cheun, Cheon-Hyeon Kim, Shin-Hyeong Cho, Da-Won Ma, Bo-La Goo, Mun-Su Na, Seung-Ki Youn, Won-Ja Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(2):89-92.   Published online April 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.03.003
  • 1,960 View
  • 18 Download
  • 22 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To identify the pathogen of the diarrhea outbreak in a village in Jeollabuk province in Korea in April 2010.
Methods
DNA extraction was performed from the 120 L of collected water, which was centrifuged at 10,000 x g for 30 min. PCR reactions were conducted in a total of 25 ul, which included PCR premix (GenDEPOT, Barker, TX, USA), 2 ul (∼100 ng) of extracted DNA, and 10 pmol of each primer.
Results
Nine people out of 25 had a symptom of abdominal pain accompanied by diarrhea after they used stored valley water in a water tank as a provisional water supply source without chlorine sterilization. Among them Giardia lamblia was detected in fecal samples of 7 people using the polymerase chain reaction method. Although G. lamblia was also detected from water provided by the provisional water supply system stored in the water tank and used as drinking water, it was not detected in the water tank itself. This water-borne outbreak is considered to have occurred when the provisional water supply tube was destroyed under a building construction and contaminated by G. lamblia, but its precise cause has not been clarified.
Conclusion
This outbreak resulting from G. lamblia is very meaningful as the first outbreak of an infection by a water-borne parasite in Korea.

Citations

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  • A scoping review of risk factors and transmission routes associated with human giardiasis outbreaks in high-income settings
    Sarah Krumrie, Paul Capewell, Alison Smith-Palmer, Dominic Mellor, Willie Weir, Claire L. Alexander
    Current Research in Parasitology & Vector-Borne Di.2022; 2: 100084.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in small ruminants of Shiraz, southwestern Iran: A zoonotic concern
    Ali Asghari, Farzad Mahdavi, Laya Shamsi, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Qasem Asgari, Saeed Shahabi, Behnam Mohammadi-Ghalehbin, Alireza Sadrebazzaz
    Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectiou.2022; 86: 101819.     CrossRef
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    Deiviane A. Calegar, Beatriz C. Nunes, Kerla J. L. Monteiro, Polyanna A. A. Bacelar, Brenda B. C. Evangelista, Mayron M. Almeida, Jurecir Silva, Jéssica P. Santos, Márcio N. Boia, Lauren H. Jaeger, Filipe A. Carvalho-Costa
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  • Molecular Identification of Parasitic Protozoa Sarcocystis in Water Samples
    Živilė Strazdaitė-Žielienė, Agnė Baranauskaitė, Dalius Butkauskas, Elena Servienė, Petras Prakas
    Veterinary Sciences.2022; 9(8): 412.     CrossRef
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    Blanca Lisseth Guzmán Barragán, Marcelo de Souza Lauretto, Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini, Adelaide Cássia Nardocci, Karen Vanessa Marimón Sibaja
    Water Environment Research.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Laboratory Medicine Online.2022; 12(4): 315.     CrossRef
  • DNA-based detection of Leptospira wolffii, Giardia intestinalis and Toxoplasma gondii in environmental feces of wild animals in Korea
    Priyanka KUMARI, Kyung Yeon EO, Woo-Shin LEE, Junpei KIMURA, Naomichi YAMAMOTO
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science.2021; 83(5): 850.     CrossRef
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Are There Spatial and Temporal Correlations in the Incidence Distribution of Scrub Typhus in Korea?
Maengseok Noh, Youngjo Lee, Chaeshin Chu, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn, Sun Huh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(1):39-44.   Published online February 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.01.002
  • 2,278 View
  • 21 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
A hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) was applied to estimate the transmission pattern of scrub typhus from 2001 to 2011 in the Republic of Korea, based on spatial and temporal correlation.
Methods
Based on the descriptive statistics of scrub typhus incidence from 2001 to 2011 reported to the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the spatial and temporal correlations were estimated by HGLM. Incidences according to age, sex, and year were also estimated by the best-fit model out of nine HGLMs. A disease map was drawn to view the annual regional spread of the disease.
Results
The total number of scrub typhus cases reported from 2001 to 2011 was 51,136: male, 18,628 (36.4%); female, 32,508 (63.6%). The best-fit model selected was a combination of the spatial model (Markov random-field model) and temporal model (first order autoregressive model) of scrub typhus transmission. The peak incidence was 28.80 per 100,000 persons in early October and the peak incidence was 40.17 per 100,000 persons in those aged 63.3 years old by the best-fit HGLM. The disease map showed the spread of disease from the southern central area to a nationwide area, excepting Gangwon-do (province), Gyeongsangbuk-do (province), and Seoul.
Conclusion
In the transmission of scrub typhus in Korea, there was a correlation to the incidence of adjacent areas, as well as that of the previous year. According to the disease map, we are unlikely to see any decrease in the incidence in the near future, unless ongoing aggressive measures to prevent the exposure to the vector, chigger mites, in rural areas, are put into place.

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Epidemiological Characteristics of Serologically Confirmed Q Fever Cases in South Korea, 2006–2011
Wooseok Kwak, Hyuk Chu, Seondo Hwang, Ji-Hyuk Park, Kyu Jam Hwang, Jin Gwack, Young-Sil Choi, Seung-Ki Youn, Mi-Yeoun Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(1):34-38.   Published online February 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.12.006
  • 2,247 View
  • 15 Download
  • 22 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Q fever has been reported worldwide; however, there was almost no official report of Q fever in Korea. In this study, we describe the current status of human Q fever occurrence in Korea.
Methods
Demographic data of Q fever patients were collected from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System from 2006 to 2011. Case investigation reports from regional public health departments were used for additional information, like risk factors and clinical manifestation, of the patients since 2008.
Results
There were 65 serologically confirmed cases during the study period. The annual notification rate of Q fever was 0.22 cases per million persons. The majority of cases were men (87.7%), adults (98.5%), and urban inhabitants (67.7%). Relevant exposures to risk factors were identified in 45.7% of patients. The most common symptoms of acute Q fever were fever (89.3%), myalgia (67.9%) and asthenia (53.6%). Two cases with endocarditis were identified in chronic Q fever.
Conclusion
This study suggests that Q fever has a low endemicity in Korea. However, management and research at national level is required for prevention of a future epidemic.

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Autochthonous Lyme Borreliosis in Humans and Ticks in Korea
Shinje Moon, Jin Gwack, Kyu Jam Hwang, Donghyuk Kwon, Suyeon Kim, Yoontae Noh, Jongyul Roh, E-hyun Shin, Kyungjin Jeong, Wonseok Seok, Seung-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2013;4(1):52-56.   Published online February 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.12.001
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  • 16 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective: This study aimed at finding epidemiological and clinical features of autochthonous Lyme borreliosis in humans through epidemiological investigations and identifying its vectors and pathogens through analysis of ticks.
Method
Epidemiological investigations, including review of the retrospective medical records and patient interviews, were conducted in two cases that occurred in 2012. To identify the vectors and pathogens, ticks were collected between September 23 and October 6, 2012 from the area where the tick bite in the first patient occurred. The ticks were classified, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests and cultures were performed.
Results
The first patient, a 46-year-old female, visited a forest in Gangwon province, which was 900 m above sea level, where the tick bite occurred. Two weeks after the tick bite, erythema migrans (12 × 6 cm2 in size) appeared on the site of tick bite, along with fever, chill, fatigue, myalgia, and arthralgia on shoulders, knees, and hips. The second patient, a 44-year-old male, visited a mountain in Gangwon province, which was 1200 m above sea level, where a tick bite occurred. One month after the tick bite, erythema migrans appeared at the site of the tick bite, along with fatigue, myalgia, and arthralgia on the right shoulder and temporomandibular joint. Indirect fluorescent antibody testing and Western blotting were carried out in these two cases for diagnosis, and positive findings were obtained. As a result, Lyme borreliosis could be confirmed. To estimate the pathogens and vectors, the ticks were collected. A total of 122 ticks were collected and only two species, Haemaphysalis japonica and Haemaphysalis flava, were identified. PCR and culture were performed on ticks. However, Borrelia burgdo rferi sensu lato was not isolated from any collected ticks.
Conclusions
This study is significant to confirm Lyme borreliosis officially at first by the national surveillance system, although identification of the mites and pathogens failed.

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Articleses
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Korea Estimated with a Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model
Maengseok Noh, Youngjo Lee, Seungyoung Oh, Chaeshin Chu, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn, Shin Hyeong Cho, Won Ja Lee, Sun Huh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(4):192-198.   Published online December 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.11.003
  • 2,118 View
  • 19 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The spatial and temporal correlations were estimated to determine Plasmodium vivax malarial transmission pattern in Korea from 2001–2011 with the hierarchical generalized linear model.
Methods
Malaria cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the incidence was estimated according to age, sex, and year by the hierarchical generalized linear model. Spatial and temporal correlation was estimated and the best model was selected from nine models. Results were presented as diseases map according to age and sex.
Results
The incidence according to age was highest in the 20–25-year-old group (244.52 infections/100,000). Mean ages of infected males and females were 31.0 years and 45.3 years with incidences 7.8 infections/100,000 and 7.1 infections/100,000 after estimation. The mean month for infection was mid-July with incidence 10.4 infections/100,000. The best-fit model showed that there was a spatial and temporal correlation in the malarial transmission. Incidence was very low or negligible in areas distant from the demilitarized zone between Republic of Korea and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) if the 20–29-year-old male group was omitted in the diseases map.
Conclusion
Malarial transmission in a region in Korea was influenced by the incidence in adjacent regions in recent years. Since malaria in Korea mainly originates from mosquitoes from North Korea, there will be continuous decrease if there is no further outbreak in North Korea.

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  • Years of Epidemics (2009–2011): Pandemic Influenza and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Epidemic in Korea
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2013; 4(3): 125.     CrossRef
  • A New Statistical Approach to Analyze Plasmodium vivax Malaria Endemic in Korea
    Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2012; 3(4): 191.     CrossRef
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Outbreak and its Incubation Period: Is it Short or Long? [Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2012, Pages 43–47]
Dong-Woo Lee, Jin Gwack, Seung-Ki Youn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(2):118-118.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2012.06.001
  • 1,731 View
  • 31 Download
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Sensitivity Analysis of the Parameters of Korea’s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan
Chaeshin Chu, Junehawk Lee, Dong Hoon Choi, Seung-Ki Youn, Jong-Koo Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2011;2(3):210-215.   Published online December 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.048
  • 1,909 View
  • 17 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Our aim was to evaluate Korea’s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan.
Methods
We conducted a sensitivity analysis on the expected number of outpatients and hospital bed occupancy, with 1,000,000 parameter combinations, in a situation of pandemic influenza, using the mathematical simulation program InfluSim.
Results
Given the available resources in Korea, antiviral treatment and social distancing must be combined to reduce the number of outpatients and hospitalizations sufficiently; any single intervention is not enough. The antiviral stockpile of 4–6% is sufficient for the expected eligible number of cases to be treated. However, the eligible number assumed (30% for severe cases and 26% for extremely severe cases) is very low compared to the corresponding number in European countries, where up to 90% of the population are assumed to be eligible for antiviral treatment.
Conclusions
A combination of antiviral treatment and social distancing can mitigate a pandemic, but will only bring it under control for the most optimistic parameter combinations.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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