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Menstrual hygiene management and its determinants among adolescent girls in low-income urban areas of Delhi, India: a community-based study
Suneela Garg, Nidhi Bhatnagar, Mongjam Meghachandra Singh, Saurav Basu, Amod Borle, Yamini Marimuthu, Falak Azmi, Yomri Dabi, Indu Bala
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(4):273-281.   Published online August 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0127
  • 625 View
  • 37 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in developing countries is linked to human rights, social justice, and the education and empowerment of young girls. The objective of this study was to assess menstrual hygiene practices and their determinants among adolescent girls, including school dropouts, and the effects of pad distribution programs in urban resettlement areas of Delhi, India.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2019 to February 2020 in urban resettlement colonies and 2 villages of Delhi among 1,130 adolescent girls aged 10 to 19 years, who were interviewed face to face.
Results
In total, 954 participants (84.4%) used only disposable sanitary pads, 150 (13.3%) used both sanitary pads and cloths, and 26 (2.3%) used only cloths (n=1,130). Most school-going girls utilized the scheme for pad distribution, but only two-thirds of the girls who were out of school utilized the scheme. In the adjusted analysis, girls with lower educational status, those who had dropped out of school, and those from the Muslim religious community were more likely to use cloths for MHM.
Conclusion
More than 4 out of 5 adolescent girls in Delhi in low-income neighborhoods preferred sanitary pads for MHM. The government free pad scheme reached near-universal utilization among school-going girls (97%), but the subsidized pad scheme for girls who did not attend school was insufficiently utilized (75%).

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Menstrual hygiene practices among adolescent women in rural India: a cross-sectional study
    Aditya Singh, Mahashweta Chakrabarty, Shivani Singh, Rakesh Chandra, Sourav Chowdhury, Anshika Singh
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in children and adolescents in Delhi, India, from January to October 2021: a repeated cross-sectional analysis
Pragya Sharma, Saurav Basu, Suruchi Mishra, Mongjam Meghachandra Singh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):184-190.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0014
  • 2,922 View
  • 59 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to assess changes in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroprevalence among children and adolescents in Delhi, India from January 2021 to October 2021. Methods: This was a repeated cross-sectional analysis of participants aged 5 to 17 years from 2 SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveys conducted in Delhi, India during January 2021 and September to October 2021. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were detected by using the VITROS assay (90% sensitivity, 100% specificity). Results: The seroprevalence among 5- to 17-year-old school-age children and adolescents increased from 52.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3%−54.3%) in January 2021 to 81.8% (95% CI, 80.9%−82.6%) in September to October 2021. The assay-adjusted seroprevalence was 90.8% (95% CI, 89.8%−91.7%). Seropositivity positively correlated with participants’ age (p<0.001), but not sex (p=0.388). A signal to cut-off ratio ≥4.00, correlating with the presence of neutralization antibodies, was observed in 4,814 (57.9%) participants. Conclusion: The high percentage of seroconversion among children and adolescents indicates the presence of natural infection-induced immunity from past exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, the lack of hybrid immunity and the concomitant likelihood of lower levels of neutralization antibodies than in adults due to the absence of vaccination warrants careful monitoring and surveillance of infection risk and disease severity from newer and emergent variants.
Seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and predictors of seropositivity among employees of a teaching hospital in New Delhi, India
Pragya Sharma, Rohit Chawla, Ritika Bakshi, Sonal Saxena, Saurav Basu, Pradeep Kumar Bharti, Meera Dhuria, S. K. Singh, Panna Lal
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):88-95.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.06
  • 3,647 View
  • 83 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at a high risk of contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to the increased likelihood of clinical exposure during patient management. The study objective was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and its predictors among hospital employees.
Methods
The cross-sectional study was conducted at a teaching hospital from August 2020 to September 2020 among 1,401 employees, including 1,217 HCWs, in New Delhi, India. The serum samples were examined for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 using the COVID Kavach-Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibody Detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Data were collected electronically using the EpiCollect mobile platform. A p<0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.
Results
A total of 169 participants (12.1%) had detectable IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The highest seropositivity rate was observed in the administrative staff (20.1%), while it was lowest among medical doctors (5.5%, p<0.001). Male sex and ever having lived in a containment zone were independently associated with past infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Conclusion
The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health workers may be lower than in the general population in New Delhi. However, non-pharmaceutical interventions were not associated with a reduction in the risk of acquisition of SARS-CoV-2.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in India, March 2020 to August 2021: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Nuzrath Jahan, Adarsha Brahma, Muthusamy Santhosh Kumar, Bhavani Shankara Bagepally, Manickam Ponnaiah, Tarun Bhatnagar, Manoj V Murhekar
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases.2022; 116: 59.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors for COVID-19 Infection Among Healthcare Workers. A First Report From a Living Systematic Review and meta-Analysis
    Tafadzwa Dzinamarira, Sphamandla Josias Nkambule, Mbuzeleni Hlongwa, Malizgani Mhango, Patrick Gad Iradukunda, Itai Chitungo, Mathias Dzobo, Munyaradzi Paul Mapingure, Innocent Chingombe, Moreblessing Mashora, Roda Madziva, Helena Herrera, Pelagia Makanda
    Safety and Health at Work.2022; 13(3): 263.     CrossRef
  • Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and Risk Assessment Among Healthcare Workers at a Dedicated Tertiary Care COVID-19 Hospital in Delhi, India: A Cohort Study
    Pragya Sharma, Rohit Chawla, Saurav Basu, Sonal Saxena, Warisha Mariam, Pradeep Kumar Bharti, Shivani Rao, Neha Tanwar, Anisur Rahman, Mohammad Ahmad
    Cureus.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives