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Genomic Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2: Distribution of Clades in the Republic of Korea in 2020
Ae Kyung Park, Il-Hwan Kim, Junyoung Kim, Jeong-Min Kim, Heui Man Kim, Chae young Lee, Myung-Guk Han, Gi-Eun Rhie, Donghyok Kwon, Jeong-Gu Nam, Young-Joon Park, Jin Gwack, Nam-Joo Lee, SangHee Woo, Jin Sun No, Jaehee Lee, Jeemin Ha, JeeEun Rhee, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Eun-Jin Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(1):37-43.   Published online February 23, 2021
  • 9,564 View
  • 228 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Since a novel beta-coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in December 2019, there has been a rapid global spread of the virus. Genomic surveillance was conducted on samples isolated from infected individuals to monitor the spread of genetic variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Korea. The Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency performed whole genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in Korea for 1 year (January 2020 to January 2021). A total of 2,488 SARS-CoV-2 cases were sequenced (including 648 cases from abroad). Initially, the prevalent clades of SARS-CoV-2 were the S and V clades, however, by March 2020, GH clade was the most dominant. Only international travelers were identified as having G or GR clades, and since the first variant 501Y.V1 was identified (from a traveler from the United Kingdom on December 22nd, 2020), a total of 27 variants of 501Y.V1, 501Y.V2, and 484K.V2 have been classified (as of January 25th, 2021). The results in this study indicated that quarantining of travelers entering Korea successfully prevented dissemination of the SARS-CoV-2 variants in Korea.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Increased viral load in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron variant in the Republic of Korea
    Jeong-Min Kim, Dongju Kim, Nam-Joo Lee, Sang Hee Woo, Jaehee Lee, Hyeokjin Lee, Ae Kyung Park, Jeong-Ah Kim, Chae Young Lee, Il-Hwan Kim, Cheon Kwon Yoo, Eun-Jin Kim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2023; 14(4): 272.     CrossRef
  • Rapid Emergence of the Omicron Variant of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Korea
    Ae Kyung Park, Il-Hwan Kim, Chae Young Lee, Jeong-Ah Kim, Hyeokjin Lee, Heui Man Kim, Nam-Joo Lee, SangHee Woo, Jaehee Lee, JeeEun Rhee, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Eun-Jin Kim
    Annals of Laboratory Medicine.2023; 43(2): 211.     CrossRef
  • A Seroprevalence Study on Residents in a Senior Care Facility with Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Infection
    Heui Man Kim, Eun Ju Lee, Sang Won O, Yong Jun Choi, Hyeokjin Lee, Sae Jin Oh, Jeong-Min Kim, Ae Kyung Park, Jeong-Ah Kim, Chae young Lee, Jong Mu Kim, Hanul Park, Young Joon Park, Jeong-Hee Yu, Eun-Young Kim, Hwa-Pyeong Ko, Eun-Jin Kim
    Viral Immunology.2023; 36(3): 203.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 Cases and Deaths among Healthcare Personnel with the Progression of the Pandemic in Korea from March 2020 to February 2022
    Yeonju Kim, Sung-Chan Yang, Jinhwa Jang, Shin Young Park, Seong Sun Kim, Chansoo Kim, Donghyok Kwon, Sang-Won Lee
    Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease.2023; 8(6): 308.     CrossRef
  • The COVID-19 pandemic and healthcare utilization in Iran: evidence from an interrupted time series analysis
    Monireh Mahmoodpour-Azari, Satar Rezaei, Nasim Badiee, Mohammad Hajizadeh, Ali Mohammadi, Ali Kazemi-Karyani, Shahin Soltani, Mehdi Khezeli
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2023; 14(3): 180.     CrossRef
  • Online Phylogenetics with matOptimize Produces Equivalent Trees and is Dramatically More Efficient for Large SARS-CoV-2 Phylogenies than de novo and Maximum-Likelihood Implementations
    Alexander M Kramer, Bryan Thornlow, Cheng Ye, Nicola De Maio, Jakob McBroome, Angie S Hinrichs, Robert Lanfear, Yatish Turakhia, Russell Corbett-Detig, Olivier Gascuel
    Systematic Biology.2023; 72(5): 1039.     CrossRef
  • Genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 variants in South Korea between January 2020 and February 2023
    Il-Hwan Kim, Jin Sun No, Jeong-Ah Kim, Ae Kyung Park, HyeokJin Lee, Jeong-Min Kim, Nam-Joo Lee, Chi-Kyeong Kim, Chae Young Lee, SangHee Woo, Jaehee Lee, JeeEun Rhee, Eun-Jin Kim
    Virology.2023; 587: 109869.     CrossRef
  • Genomic evidence of SARS‐CoV‐2 reinfection in the Republic of Korea
    Ae Kyung Park, Jee Eun Rhee, Il‐Hwan Kim, Heui Man Kim, Hyeokjin Lee, Jeong‐Ah Kim, Chae Young Lee, Nam‐Joo Lee, SangHee Woo, Jaehee Lee, Jin Sun No, Gi‐Eun Rhie, Seong Jin Wang, Sang‐Eun Lee, Young Joon Park, Gemma Park, Jung Yeon Kim, Jin Gwack, Cheon‐K
    Journal of Medical Virology.2022; 94(4): 1717.     CrossRef
  • SARS-CoV-2 B.1.619 and B.1.620 Lineages, South Korea, 2021
    Ae Kyung Park, Il-Hwan Kim, Heui Man Kim, Hyeokjin Lee, Nam-Joo Lee, Jeong-Ah Kim, SangHee Woo, Chae young Lee, Jaehee Lee, Sae Jin Oh, JeeEun Rhee, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Eun-Jin Kim
    Emerging Infectious Diseases.2022; 28(2): 415.     CrossRef
  • Humoral and Cellular Responses to COVID-19 Vaccines in SARS-CoV-2 Infection-Naïve and -Recovered Korean Individuals
    Ji-Young Hwang, Yunhwa Kim, Kyung-Min Lee, Eun-Jeong Jang, Chang-Hoon Woo, Chang-Ui Hong, Seok-Tae Choi, Sivilay Xayaheuang, Jong-Geol Jang, June-Hong Ahn, Hosun Park
    Vaccines.2022; 10(2): 332.     CrossRef
  • Increase in Viral Load in Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant Infection in the Republic of Korea
    Jeong-Min Kim, Jee Eun Rhee, Myeongsu Yoo, Heui Man Kim, Nam-Joo Lee, Sang Hee Woo, Hye-Jun Jo, Donghyok Kwon, Sangwon Lee, Cheon Kwon Yoo, Eun-Jin Kim
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Structural Stability Prediction of SARS-CoV-2 Variants Including Multiple Mutants
    Kwang-Eun Choi, Jeong-Min Kim, Jee Eun Rhee, Ae Kyung Park, Eun-Jin Kim, Cheon Kwon Yoo, Nam Sook Kang
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(9): 4956.     CrossRef
  • SARS-CoV-2 shedding dynamics and transmission in immunosuppressed patients
    Jee-Soo Lee, Ki Wook Yun, Hyeonju Jeong, Boram Kim, Man Jin Kim, Jae Hyeon Park, Ho Seob Shin, Hyeon Sae Oh, Hobin Sung, Myung Gi Song, Sung Im Cho, So Yeon Kim, Chang Kyung Kang, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Nam Joong Kim, Myoung-Don Oh, Eun Hwa Choi
    Virulence.2022; 13(1): 1242.     CrossRef
  • Immunological and Pathological Peculiarity of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Beta Variant
    Sunhee Lee, Gun Young Yoon, Su Jin Lee, Young-Chan Kwon, Hyun Woo Moon, Yu-Jin Kim, Haesoo Kim, Wooseong Lee, Gi Uk Jeong, Chonsaeng Kim, Kyun-Do Kim, Seong-Jun Kim, Dae-Gyun Ahn, Miguel Angel Martinez
    Microbiology Spectrum.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical scoring system to predict viable viral shedding in patients with COVID-19
    Sung Woon Kang, Heedo Park, Ji Yeun Kim, Sunghee Park, So Yun Lim, Sohyun Lee, Joon-Yong Bae, Jeonghun Kim, Seongman Bae, Jiwon Jung, Min Jae Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Sung-Cheol Yun, Man-Seong Park, Sung-Han Kim
    Journal of Clinical Virology.2022; 157: 105319.     CrossRef
  • Model-informed COVID-19 exit strategy with projections of SARS-CoV-2 infections generated by variants in the Republic of Korea
    Sung-mok Jung, Kyungmin Huh, Munkhzul Radnaabaatar, Jaehun Jung
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparative analysis of mutational hotspots in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 isolates from different geographic origins
    Sanghoo Lee, Mi-Kyeong Lee, Hyeongkyun Na, Jinwoo Ahn, Gayeon Hong, Youngkee Lee, Jimyeong Park, Yejin Kim, Yun-Tae Kim, Chang-Ki Kim, Hwan-Sub Lim, Kyoung-Ryul Lee
    Gene Reports.2021; 23: 101100.     CrossRef
  • Review of Current COVID-19 Diagnostics and Opportunities for Further Development
    Yan Mardian, Herman Kosasih, Muhammad Karyana, Aaron Neal, Chuen-Yen Lau
    Frontiers in Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Locally harvested Covid-19 convalescent plasma could probably help combat the geographically determined SARS-CoV-2 viral variants
    Manish Raturi, Anuradha Kusum, Mansi Kala, Garima Mittal, Anita Sharma, Naveen Bansal
    Transfusion Clinique et Biologique.2021; 28(3): 300.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Structural Characteristics for the Stability Prediction of SARS-CoV-2
    Kwang-Eun Choi, Jeong-Min Kim, JeeEun Rhee, Ae Kyung Park, Eun-Jin Kim, Nam Sook Kang
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2021; 22(16): 8714.     CrossRef
  • Management following the first confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 in a domestic cat associated with a massive outbreak in South Korea
    Taewon Han, Boyeong Ryu, Suyeon Lee, Yugyeong Song, Yoongje Jeong, Ilhwan Kim, Jeongmin Kim, Eunjin Kim, Wonjun Lee, Hyunju Lee, Haekyoung Hwang
    One Health.2021; 13: 100328.     CrossRef
  • Genomic epidemiology reveals the reduction of the introduction and spread of SARS-CoV-2 after implementing control strategies in Republic of Korea, 2020
    Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jeong-Min Kim, Dong-hun Lee, Ae Kyung Park, Il-Hwan Kim, Da-Won Kim, Ji-Yun Kim, Noori Lim, Kyeong-Yeon Cho, Heui Man Kim, Nam-Joo Lee, SangHee Woo, Chae Young Lee, Jin Sun No, Junyoung Kim, JeeEun Rhee, Myung-Guk Han, Gi-Eun Rhie, Cheon K
    Virus Evolution.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Detection and Isolation of SARS-CoV-2 in Serum, Urine, and Stool Specimens of COVID-19 Patients from the Republic of Korea
Jeong-Min Kim, Heui Man Kim, Eun Jung Lee, Hye Jun Jo, Youngsil Yoon, Nam-Joo Lee, Junseock Son, Ye-Ji Lee, Mi Seon Kim, Yong-Pyo Lee, Su-Jin Chae, Kye Ryeong Park, Seung-Rye Cho, Sehee Park, Su Jin Kim, Eunbyeol Wang, SangHee Woo, Aram Lim, Su-Jin Park, JunHyeong Jang, Yoon-Seok Chung, Bum Sik Chin, Jin-Soo Lee, Duko Lim, Myung-Guk Han, Cheon Kwon Yoo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(3):112-117.   Published online May 8, 2020
  • 15,475 View
  • 548 Download
  • 101 Web of Science
  • 105 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection characterized by the main symptoms of pneumonia and fever. It is caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is known to spread via respiratory droplets. We aimed to determine the rate and likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from COVID-19 patients through non-respiratory routes.


Serum, urine, and stool samples were collected from 74 hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 based on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory samples. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome was extracted from each specimen and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction performed. CaCo-2 cells were inoculated with the specimens containing the SARS-COV-2 genome, and subcultured for virus isolation. After culturing, viral replication in the cell supernatant was assessed.


Of the samples collected from 74 COVID-19 patients, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 15 serum, urine, or stool samples. The virus detection rate in the serum, urine, and stool samples were 2.8% (9/323), 0.8% (2/247), and 10.1% (13/129), and the mean viral load was 1,210 ± 1,861, 79 ± 30, and 3,176 ± 7,208 copy/µL, respectively. However, the SARS-CoV-2 was not isolated by the culture method from the samples that tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 gene.


While the virus remained detectable in the respiratory samples of COVID-19 patients for several days after hospitalization, its detection in the serum, urine, and stool samples was intermittent. Since the virus could not be isolated from the SARS-COV-2-positive samples, the risk of viral transmission via stool and urine is expected to be low.


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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives