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2 "Reza Ranjbar"
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Profiling of Virulence-associated Factors in Shigella Species Isolated from Acute Pediatric Diarrheal Samples in Tehran, Iran
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Somayeh Yasliani Fard, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mahmood Mahmoudi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):220-226.   Published online June 30, 2017
  • 4,644 View
  • 62 Download
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

The genus Shigella comprises the most infectious and diarrheagenic bacteria causing severe diseases, mostly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to detect nine virulence genes (ipaBCD, VirA, sen, set1A, set1B, ial, ipaH, stx, and sat) in Shigella species (spp.) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) and to determine the relation of Shigella spp. from pediatric diarrheal samples with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea in Tehran, Iran.


Shigella spp. were isolated and identified using standard microbiological and serological methods. The virulence genes were detected using MPCR.


Seventy-five Shigella spp. (40 S. sonnei, 33 S. flexneri, 1 S. dysenteriae, and 1 S. boydii) were isolated in this study. The prevalence of ial, sen, sat, set1A, and set1B was 74.7%, 45.4%, 28%, 24%, and 24%, respectively. All S. flexneri isolates, while no S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, or S. boydii isolates, contained sat, set1A, and set1B. All isolates were positive for ipaH, ipaBCD, and virA, while one (1.4%) of the isolates contained stx. The highest prevalence of virulence determinants was found in S. flexneri serotype IIa. Nineteen (57.6%) of 33 S. flexneri isolates were positive for ipaBCD, ipaH, virA, ial, and sat. The sen determinants were found to be statistically significantly associated with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea (p = 0.001).


This study revealed a high prevalence of enterotoxin genes in S. flexneri, especially in serotype 2a, and has presented relations between a few clinical features of shigellosis and numerous virulence determinants of clinical isolates of Shigella spp.


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    Molecular Biology Reports.2021; 48(2): 1645.     CrossRef
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    Farhad Moradi, Nahal Hadi, Maryam Akbari, Zahra Hashemizadeh, Reyhaneh Rouhi Jahromi
    Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Virulence factors and molecular characteristics of Shigella flexneri isolated from calves with diarrhea
    Zhen Zhu, Weiwei Wang, Mingze Cao, Qiqi Zhu, Tenghe Ma, Yongying Zhang, Guanhui Liu, Xuzheng Zhou, Bing Li, Yuxiang Shi, Jiyu Zhang
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  • Development of quinolone resistance and prevalence of different virulence genes among Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae in environmental water samples
    B. Roy, S.K. Tousif Ahamed, B. Bandyopadhyay, N. Giri
    Letters in Applied Microbiology.2020; 71(1): 86.     CrossRef
  • High Rates of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Gene Distribution Among Shigella spp. Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Tehran, Iran

    Mohammadmahdi Karimi-Yazdi, Zohreh Ghalavand, Mahdi Shabani, Hamidreza Houri, Mehrzad Sadredinamin, Marzieh Taheri, Gita Eslami
    Infection and Drug Resistance.2020; Volume 13: 485.     CrossRef
  • Molecular characterization of Shigella species isolated from diarrheal patients in Tehran, Iran: phylogenetic typing and its association with virulence gene profiles and a novel description of Shigella invasion associated locus
    Sina Arabshahi, Aytak Novinrooz, Reza Ranjbar, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infect.2020; 39(9): 1727.     CrossRef
  • Case report on a swift shift in uropathogens from Shigella flexneri to Escherichia coli: a thin line between bacterial persistence and reinfection
    Kukwah Anthony Tufon, Djike Puepi Yolande Fokam, Youmbi Sylvain Kouanou, Henry Dilonga Meriki
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Medical Microbiology.2019; 309(2): 151.     CrossRef
  • Genotyping and diversity of virulence genes among Shigella sonnei isolated from children with diarrhoea
    Hamed Memariani, Mojtaba Memariani
    Reviews in Medical Microbiology.2019; 30(4): 217.     CrossRef
  • Virulence gene profiles of Shigella species isolated from stool specimens in India: its association with clinical manifestation and antimicrobial resistance
    Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Shalini Anandan, Joy Sarojini Michael, Dhivya Murugan, Ayyanraj Neeravi, Valsan Philip Verghese, Kamini Walia, Balaji Veeraraghavan
    Pathogens and Global Health.2019; 113(4): 173.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of enterotoxin-encoding genes among diverse Shigella strains isolated from patients with diarrhea, southwest Iran
    Mojtaba Moosavian, Sakineh Seyed-Mohammadi, Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Saeed Khoshnood, Aram Asarehzadegan Dezfuli, Morteza Saki, Gholamreza Ghaderian, Fatemeh Shahi, Mahtab Abdi, Fariba Abbasi
    Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica.2018; 66(1): 91.     CrossRef
  • Frequency of Mutations in Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions and Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance in Shigella Isolates Recovered from Pediatric Patients in Tehran, Iran: An Overlooked Problem
    Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi-Yazdi
    Microbial Drug Resistance.2018; 24(6): 699.     CrossRef
Rapid Molecular Approach for Simultaneous Detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Vibrio cholera
Reza Ranjbar, Ali Naghoni, Davoud Afshar, Farhad Nikkhahi, Mohsen Mohammadi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(6):373-377.   Published online December 31, 2016
  • 3,437 View
  • 24 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Gastrointestinal tract infection is still one of the serious public health problems in many geographic areas and is endemic in most countries including Iran. Early detection of the gastrointestinal tract pathogens can be extremely important. The aim of the current study was to apply a shortened time-multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid and simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Vibrio cholera.
The standard and clinical strains of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and V. cholerae were used in the assay. Multiplex PCR was performed and optimized based on amplification of invA, putative integrase, and ompW genes for detecting Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and V. cholerae, respectively. The specificity of the assay was evaluated by testing 12 different bacterial species.
Only Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and V. cholerae strains had positive results when subjected to the assay using multiplex PCR. The assay showed a high sensitivity, and no amplification products were observed in multiplex PCR with any of the other microorganisms.
Our study indicated that the invA, putative integrase, and ompW-based multiplex PCR assay appears to be an efficient method for rapid and simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and V. cholerae.


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  • Campylobacter Species in the Middle East
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives