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Original Articles
A Mycobacterium bovis outbreak among exhibition animals at a zoo in the Republic of Korea: the first contact investigation of zoonotic tuberculosis
Hye Young Lee, Yunhyung Kwon, Sang-Eun Lee, Jieun Kim, Hoyong Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(3):248-259.   Published online May 17, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0228
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  • 27 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Between July 2, 2021, and September 20, 2022, a Mycobacterium bovis outbreak occurred among exhibition animals at a zoo in the Republic of Korea. This study was conducted to assess the likelihood of M. bovis transmission to human contacts through a contact investigation and to implement preventive treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Methods: In this descriptive study, the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency conducted a contact investigation, which included interviews, interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) tests, and chest X-rays. Contacts underwent IGRA testing on 2 occasions: initial testing of 29 contacts (15 in the first cluster of infection and 14 in the second cluster) and follow-up testing of the 15 contacts in the first cluster. Results: The study included 29 participants, 18 of whom were male (62.1%) and 11 female (37.9%). The mean participant age was 37.3 years (standard deviation, 9.6 years). In the initial IGRA tests, 6 of the 29 participants tested positive, indicating a prevalence of 20.7%. Following prolonged exposure, 1 additional positive case was detected in follow-up testing, raising the prevalence of LTBI to 24.1%. None of the contacts had active tuberculosis. Among the 7 individuals with positive results, 2 (28.6%) underwent treatment for LTBI. Conclusion: This study faced challenges in confirming the transmission of M. bovis infection from infected animals to humans in the Republic of Korea. Nevertheless, adopting a One Health approach necessitates the implementation of surveillance systems and infection control protocols, particularly for occupational groups at high risk of exposure.
Epidemiological analysis and prevention strategies in response to a shigellosis cluster outbreak: a retrospective case series in an alternative school in the Republic of Korea, 2023
Yeongseo Ahn, Sunmi Jin, Gemma Park, Hye Young Lee, Hyungyong Lee, Eunkyung Shin, Junyoung Kim, Jaeil Yoo, Yuna Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(1):68-76.   Published online February 7, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0298
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
In March 2023, an alternative school in the Republic of Korea reported 12 cases of shigellosis. This study aims to analyze the epidemiological characteristics in order to determine the cause of the cluster outbreak of shigellosis and to develop prevention strategies. Methods: This study focused on 12 patients with confirmed Shigella infection and investigated their demographics, clinical features, epidemiology, diagnostics, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Following the identification of Shigella, we conducted follow-up rectal smear cultures to manage patients, implementing isolation and control measures. Results: This study investigated the emergence of multidrug-resistant Shigella following missionary activities in Cambodia, documenting a cluster infection within an alternative school in Daejeon, the Republic of Korea. The outbreak affected 56 participants, resulting in the confirmation of 12 cases. The incidence rates varied by gender and occupation, with higher rates among males and teachers. All 12 cases demonstrated multidrug resistance. Challenges included delayed pathogen confirmation and suboptimal adherence to isolation criteria. The incident prompted revisions in the criteria for isolation release, focusing on symptom resolution. The study underscores the necessity for strengthened surveillance, educational initiatives focusing on prevention in endemic areas, and improved oversight of unlicensed educational establishments. Conclusion: Successful response strategies included swift situation assessment, collaborative efforts, effective infection control measures, and modified criteria for isolation release. Continued surveillance of multidrug-resistant strains is recommended, especially in regions with a high prevalence.
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission during a movie theater outbreak in Incheon in the Republic of Korea, November 2021: a retrospective study
Hye Young Lee, Young-Joon Park, Sang-Eun Lee, Han-Na Yoo, Il-Hwan Kim, Jin Sun No, Eun-Jin Kim, Jungyeon Yu, Sanghwan Bae, Mi Yu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2024;15(1):45-55.   Published online January 31, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0269
  • 11,468 View
  • 346 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We examined factors contributing to the transmission of an acute respiratory virus within multi-use facilities, focusing on an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a movie theater in the Republic of Korea. Methods: This retrospective cohort study involved a descriptive analysis of 48 confirmed cases. Logistic regression was applied to a cohort of 80 theater attendees to identify risk factors for infection. The infection source and transmission route were determined through gene sequencing data analysis. Results: Of the 48 confirmed cases, 35 were theater attendees (72.9%), 10 were family members of attendees (20.8%), 2 were friends (4.2%), and 1 was an employee (2.1%). Among the 80 individuals who attended the 3rd to 5th screenings of the day, 35 became infected, representing a 43.8% attack rate. Specifically, 28 of the 33 third-screening attendees developed confirmed SARSCoV-2, constituting an 84.8% attack rate. Furthermore, 11 of the 12 cases epidemiologically linked to the theater outbreak were clustered monophyletically within the AY.69 lineage. At the time of the screening, 35 individuals (72.9%) had received 2 vaccine doses. However, vaccination status did not significantly influence infection risk. Multivariate analysis revealed that close contacts had a 15.9-fold higher risk of infection (95% confidence interval, 4.37–78.39) than casual contacts. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 transmission occurred within the theater, and extended into the community, via a moviegoer who attended the 3rd screening during the viral incubation period after contracting the virus from a family member. This study emphasizes the importance of adequate ventilation in theaters.
Results of contact tracing for SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sub-lineages (BA.4, BA.5, BA.2.75) and the household secondary attack risk
Mi Yu, Sang-Eun Lee, Hye Young Lee, Hye-jin Kim, Yeong-Jun Song, Jian Jeong, Ae Kyung Park, Il-Hwan Kim, Eun-jin Kim, Young-Joon Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2023;14(3):173-179.   Published online June 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0285
  • 1,715 View
  • 67 Download
  • 1 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to assess the contact tracing outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sub-lineages BA.4, BA.5, and BA.2.75 within Republic of Korea, and to generate foundational data for responding to future novel variants.
Methods
We conducted investigations and contact tracing for 79 confirmed BA.4 cases, 396 confirmed BA.5 cases, and 152 confirmed BA.2.75 cases. These cases were identified through random sampling of both domestically confirmed and imported cases, with the goal of evaluating the pattern of occurrence and transmissibility.
Results
We detected 79 instances of Omicron sub-lineage BA.4 across a span of 46 days, 396 instances of Omicron sub-lineage BA.5 in 46 days, and 152 instances of Omicron sub-lineage BA.2.75 over 62 days. One patient with severe illness was confirmed among the BA.5 cases; however, there were no reports of severe illness in the confirmed BA.4 and BA.2.75 cases. The secondary attack risk among household contacts were 19.6% for BA.4, 27.8% for BA.5, and 24.3% for BA.2.75. No statistically significant difference was found between the Omicron sub-lineages.
Conclusion
BA.2.75 did not demonstrate a higher tendency for transmissibility, disease severity, or secondary attack risk within households when compared to BA.4 and BA.5. We will continue to monitor major SARS-CoV-2 variants, and we plan to enhance the disease control and response systems.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Replication kinetics and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant sublineages recovered in the Republic of Korea
    Jeong-Min Kim, Dongju Kim, Jee Eun Rhee, Cheon Kwon Yoo, Eun-Jin Kim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2024; 15(3): 260.     CrossRef
Brief Report
The effectiveness of Paxlovid treatment in long-term care facilities in South Korea during the outbreak of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2
Hanul Park, Young Joon Park, Hye Young Lee, Mi Yu, Yeong-Jun Song, Sang Eun Lee, Ji-Joo Lee, Eun-Sol Lee, Yeonjung Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(6):443-447.   Published online December 23, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0262
  • 4,241 View
  • 224 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
On November 5, 2021, Pfizer Inc. announced Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir +ritonavir) asa treatment method that could reduce the risk of hospitalization or death for patients withconfirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Methods: From February 6, 2022 to April 2, 2022, the incidence of COVID-19 and the effectsof treatment with Paxlovid were analyzed in 2,241 patients and workers at 5 long-term carefacilities during the outbreak of the Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndromecoronavirus 2 in South Korea.Results: The rate of severe illness or death in the group given Paxlovid was 51% lower thanthat of the non-Paxlovid group (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI],0.24−0.98). Compared to unvaccinated patients, patients who had completed 3 doses of thevaccine had a 71% reduced rate of severe illness or death (aRR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.13−0.64) and a65% reduced death rate (aRR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15−0.79).Conclusion: Patients given Paxlovid showed a lower rate of severe illness or death and alower fatality rate than those who did not receive Paxlovid. Patients who received 3 dosesof the vaccine had a lower rate of severe illness or death and a lower fatality rate than theunvaccinated group.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Efficacy and safety of antiviral treatments for symptomatic COVID-19 outpatients: Systematic review and network meta-analysis
    Meital Zur, Thalia Peselev, Stav Yanko, Victoria Rotshild, Ilan Matok
    Antiviral Research.2024; 221: 105768.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Effectiveness of Ritonavir-Boosted Nirmatrelvir—A Literature Review
    Sydney Paltra, Tim O. F. Conrad
    Advances in Respiratory Medicine.2024; 92(1): 66.     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of nirmatrelvir‐ritonavir on severe outcomes of COVID‐19 in the era of vaccination and Omicron: An updated meta‐analysis
    Sien Ombelet, Diego Castanares‐Zapatero, Fabian Desimpel, Frank Hulstaert, Sabine Stordeur, Dominique Roberfroid
    Journal of Medical Virology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological evolution and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the European Union and worldwide and effects of control strategies on them: An ecological study
    J.A. Caylà, J.M. Bellmunt, J.M. Jansà, A. Marco, J.P. Millet
    Medicina de Familia. SEMERGEN.2024; 50(6): 102274.     CrossRef
  • COVID‐19 infection in patients with haematological malignancies: A single‐centre survey in the latest Omicron wave in China
    Xiaolu Zhu, Qian Jiang, Jin Lu, Yuqian Sun, Xiaosu Zhao, Shenmiao Yang, Feifei Tang, Wenjing Yu, Ting Zhao, Xiaohong Liu, Jinsong Jia, Wenbing Duan, Lijuan Hu, Jing Wang, Yang Liu, Nan Peng, Xuelin Dou, Rui Ma, Qiang Fu, Huifang Wang, Kaiyan Liu, Xiaojun
    British Journal of Haematology.2023; 202(1): 31.     CrossRef
  • The association mental health of adolescents with economic impact during the COVID-19 pandemic: a 2020 Korean nationally representative survey
    Hanul Park, Kang-Sook Lee
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of paxlovid (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir) in the treatment of COVID‐19: An updated meta‐analysis and trial sequential analysis
    Haokun Tian, Changsen Yang, Tiangang Song, Kechen Zhou, Lequan Wen, Ye Tian, Lirui Tang, Weikai Xu, Xinyuan Zhang
    Reviews in Medical Virology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Real-World Effectiveness of Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir and Its Acceptability in High-Risk COVID-19 Patients
    Min-Kyung Kim, Kyung-Shin Lee, Sin Young Ham, Youn Young Choi, Eunyoung Lee, Seungjae Lee, Bora Lee, Jaehyun Jeon, BumSik Chin, Yeonjae Kim, Gayeon Kim, Hee-Chang Jang, Jae-Phil Choi, Sang-Won Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of Molnupiravir Treatment in Patients with COVID-19 in Korea: A Propensity Score Matched Study
    Hye Rim Park, Min-Gyu Yoo, Jong Mu Kim, Soon Jong Bae, Hyungmin Lee, Jungyeon Kim
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2023; 55(4): 490.     CrossRef
  • Nirmatrelvir combined with ritonavir for preventing and treating COVID-19
    Stefanie Reis, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Rebecca Kuehn, Maria Popp, Ildiko Gagyor, Peter Kranke, Patrick Meybohm, Nicole Skoetz, Stephanie Weibel
    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
A Preliminary Study to Determine Comprehensive Research and Development Plans for Promoting Mental Health Services
Chul Eung Kim, Young-Mi Ko, Sang-Uk Lee, SungKu Choi, Kiwan Han, Se Jin Park, MinKyung Jo, Yu Kyong Park, Hye Young Lee, Subin Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(6):314-324.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.6.05
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  • 65 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to analyze research and development projects in mental health services in Korea, using priority evaluation of mental health promotion policies to determine direction of the service.

Methods

An online survey was conducted that targeted experts in the mental health service regarding promotion of mental health in Korea in 2016. The survey was based on 32 policy projects that resulted from 12 strategies according to 4 policy objectives.

Results

Analysis of 32 mental health projects were assessed regarding the possibility of technology development success, magnitude of the ripple effect, and necessity of a national response. It was observed that 3 policy projects relevant to suicide, had a high relative priority. This was followed by policies for improvement of health insurance and the medical benefit cost system, and policies for reinforcement of crisis psychological support such as those for disaster victims.

Conclusion

The prioritization of mental health services should place an emphasis on promotion of a healthy mental lifestyle, rehabilitation support for patients with serious mental illness, and reinforcement of social safety networks for suicide prevention.


PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives