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Review Article
COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Laboratory Findings, Comorbidities, and Clinical Outcomes Comparing Medical Staff versus the General Population
Mina Ebrahimi, Amal Saki Malehi, Fakher Rahim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):269-279.   Published online October 22, 2020
  • 8,835 View
  • 134 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material

This review compared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) laboratory findings, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes in patients from the general population versus medical staff to aid diagnosis of COVID-19 in a more timely, efficient, and accurate way. Electronic databases were searched up to 23rd March, 2020. The initial search yielded 6,527 studies. Following screening, 24 studies were included [18 studies (11,564 cases) of confirmed COVID-19 cases in the general public, and 6 studies (394 cases) in medical staff] in this review. Significant differences were observed in white blood cell counts (p < 0.001), lymphocyte counts (p < 0.001), platelet counts (p = 0.04), procalcitonin levels (p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase levels (p < 0.001), and creatinine levels (p = 0.03) when comparing infected medical staff with the general public. The mortality rate was higher in the general population than in medical staff (8% versus 2%). This review showed that during the early stages of COVID-19, laboratory findings alone may not be significant predictors of infection and may just accompany increasing C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. In the symptomatic stage, the lymphocyte and platelet counts tended to decrease. Elevated D-dimer fibrin degradation product was associated with poor prognosis.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • microRNA-185 Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Infection through the Modulation of the Host’s Lipid Microenvironment
    Nadine Ahmed, Magen E. Francis, Noreen Ahmed, Alyson A. Kelvin, John Paul Pezacki
    Viruses.2023; 15(9): 1921.     CrossRef
  • Protective action of natural and induced immunization against the occurrence of delta or alpha variants of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a test-negative case-control study
    Giovanni Corrao, Matteo Franchi, Federico Rea, Danilo Cereda, Antonio Barone, Catia Rosanna Borriello, Petra Giulia Della Valle, Michele Ercolanoni, Ida Fortino, Jose Jara, Olivia Leoni, Francesco Mazziotta, Elisabetta Pierini, Giuseppe Preziosi, Marcello
    BMC Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Balancing Benefits and Harms of COVID-19 Vaccines: Lessons from the Ongoing Mass Vaccination Campaign in Lombardy, Italy
    Giovanni Corrao, Federico Rea, Matteo Franchi, Danilo Cereda, Antonio Barone, Catia Rosanna Borriello, Giulia Petra Della Valle, Michele Ercolanoni, Jose Jara, Giuseppe Preziosi, Manuel Maffeo, Francesco Mazziotta, Elisabetta Pierini, Francesco Lecis, Pie
    Vaccines.2022; 10(4): 623.     CrossRef
  • Vulnerability Predictors of Post-Vaccine SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Disease—Empirical Evidence from a Large Population-Based Italian Platform
    Giovanni Corrao, Matteo Franchi, Danilo Cereda, Francesco Bortolan, Olivia Leoni, Catia Rosanna Borriello, Petra Giulia Della Valle, Marcello Tirani, Giovanni Pavesi, Antonio Barone, Michele Ercolanoni, Jose Jara, Massimo Galli, Guido Bertolaso
    Vaccines.2022; 10(6): 845.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with severe or fatal clinical manifestations of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection after receiving the third dose of vaccine
    Giovanni Corrao, Matteo Franchi, Danilo Cereda, Francesco Bortolan, Olivia Leoni, Jose Jara, Giuseppina Valenti, Giovanni Pavesi
    Journal of Internal Medicine.2022; 292(5): 829.     CrossRef
  • Role of multiresolution vulnerability indices in COVID-19 spread in India: a Bayesian model-based analysis
    Rupam Bhattacharyya, Anik Burman, Kalpana Singh, Sayantan Banerjee, Subha Maity, Arnab Auddy, Sarit Kumar Rout, Supriya Lahoti, Rajmohan Panda, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(11): e056292.     CrossRef
  • A novel multi-omics-based highly accurate prediction of symptoms, comorbid conditions, and possible long-term complications of COVID-19
    Debmalya Barh, Sandeep Tiwari, Bruno Silva Andrade, Marianna E. Weener, Aristóteles Góes-Neto, Vasco Azevedo, Preetam Ghosh, Kenneth Blum, Nirmal Kumar Ganguly
    Molecular Omics.2021; 17(2): 317.     CrossRef
  • Clinical and laboratory factors associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid‐19): A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Le Huu Nhat Minh, Ali Ahmed‐Fouad Abozaid, Nam Xuan Ha, Loc Le Quang, Abdelrahman Gamil Gad, Ranjit Tiwari, Tran Nhat‐Le, Dinh Kim Quyen, Balqees AL‐Manaseer, Nguyen Dang Kien, Nguyen Lam Vuong, Ahmad Helmy Zayan, Le Huu Hanh Nhi, Kadek Agus Surya Dila, J
    Reviews in Medical Virology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiologic and Clinic Characteristics of the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Hospitalized Patients from Galați County
    Mihaela-Camelia Vasile, Anca-Adriana Arbune, Gabriela Lupasteanu, Constantin-Marinel Vlase, George-Cosmin Popovici, Manuela Arbune
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(18): 4210.     CrossRef
  • Human Amniotic Fluid for the Treatment of Hospitalized, Symptomatic, and Laboratory-verified SARS-CoV-2 Patients
    Mojgan Barati, Fakher Rahim
    The Open Biology Journal.2021; 9(1): 36.     CrossRef
  • Stratification of the risk of developing severe or lethal Covid-19 using a new score from a large Italian population: a population-based cohort study
    Giovanni Corrao, Federico Rea, Flavia Carle, Salvatore Scondotto, Alessandra Allotta, Vito Lepore, Antonio D'Ettorre, Cinzia Tanzarella, Patrizia Vittori, Sabrina Abena, Marica Iommi, Liana Spazzafumo, Michele Ercolanoni, Roberto Blaco, Simona Carbone, Cr
    BMJ Open.2021; 11(11): e053281.     CrossRef
Original Article
Cross-Country Comparison of Case Fatality Rates of COVID-19/SARS-COV-2
Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Fakher Rahim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(2):74-80.   Published online April 30, 2020
  • 25,321 View
  • 691 Download
  • 136 Web of Science
  • 135 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material

Case fatality rates (CFR) and recovery rates are important readouts during epidemics and pandemics. In this article, an international analysis was performed on the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Data were retrieved from accurate databases according to the user’s guide of data sources for patient registries, CFR and recovery rates were calculated for each country. A comparison of CFR between countries with total cases ≥ 1,000 was observed for 12th and 23rd March.


Italy’s CFR was the highest of all countries studied for both time points (12th March, 6.22% versus 23rd March, 9.26%). The data showed that even though Italy was the only European country reported on 12rd March, Spain and France had the highest CFR of 6.16 and 4.21%, respectively, on 23rd March, which was strikingly higher than the overall CFR of 3.61%.


Obtaining detailed and accurate medical history from COVID-19 patients, and analyzing CFR alongside the recovery rate, may enable the identification of the highest risk areas so that efficient medical care may be provided. This may lead to the development of point-of-care tools to help clinicians in stratifying patients based on possible requirements in the level of care, to increase the probabilities of survival from COVID-19 disease.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    International Journal of Finance & Economics.2023; 28(3): 3119.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics.2023; 41(18): 9103.     CrossRef
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    Babak Arjmand, Fakher Rahim
    Clinical Pathology.2023; 16: 2632010X2211276.     CrossRef
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    Young Sik Cho, Paul C. Hong
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    Indian Journal of Medical Sciences.2023; 75: 94.     CrossRef
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    Mustafa FİLİZ
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    Progress in Palliative Care.2023; 31(6): 333.     CrossRef
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    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Michelle McDaniel, Justin T McDaniel
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    Healthcare.2022; 10(1): 93.     CrossRef
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    Alexandre Vallée
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Geert Molenberghs, Christel Faes, Johan Verbeeck, Patrick Deboosere, Steven Abrams, Lander Willem, Jan Aerts, Heidi Theeten, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Natalia Bustos Sierra, Françoise Renard, Sereina Herzog, Patrick Lusyne, Johan Van der Heyden, Herman Van
    Eurosurveillance.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jingbo Liang, Hsiang-Yu Yuan
    Environmental Research.2022; 211: 112931.     CrossRef
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    Fatih Ahmet Şenel
    Vietnam Journal of Computer Science.2022; 09(01): 19.     CrossRef
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    Difeng Ding, Ruilian Zhang
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Felin Wilta, Allyson Li Chen Chong, Ganeshsree Selvachandran, Ketan Kotecha, Weiping Ding
    Applied Soft Computing.2022; 123: 108973.     CrossRef
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    Sanyaolu Alani Ameye, Temitope Olumuyiwa Ojo, Tajudin Adesegun Adetunji, Michael Olusesan Awoleye
    BMC Research Notes.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Giunio Santini, Mario Fordellone, Silvia Boffo, Simona Signoriello, Danila De Vito, Paolo Chiodini
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Narges Ansari, Mina Jahangiri, Kimia Shirbandi, Mina Ebrahimi, Fakher Rahim
    Bulletin of the National Research Centre.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Yu-Che Lee, Ko-Yun Chang, Mehdi Mirsaeidi
    Frontiers in Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Journal of Controlled Release.2022; 348: 1028.     CrossRef
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    Healthcare.2022; 10(8): 1535.     CrossRef
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    Myung-Bae Park, Chhabi Lal Ranabhat
    Archives of Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatolog.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
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    Negah Tavakolifard, Mina Moeini, Asefeh Haddadpoor, Zahra Amini, Kamal Heidari, Mostafa Rezaie
    Journal of Research in Medical Sciences.2022; 27(1): 75.     CrossRef
  • MULTIMOORA ile En İyi Makine Öğrenimi Algoritmasının Seçimi ve Covid-19 Pandemisi için Dünya Çapında Ülke Kümelerinin Belirlenmesi
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    European Journal of Science and Technology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    BMJ Global Health.2022; 7(11): e010060.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2022; 20(1): 594.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Medical Virology.2021; 93(2): 1002.     CrossRef
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives