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From articles published in Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives during the past two years (2020 ~ ).

Original Articles
Gender Difference in the Association Between E-Cigarette Use and Depression among US Adults
Baksun Sung
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(1):13-19.   Published online February 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.1.03
  • 6,195 View
  • 116 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The objective of this study was to determine the association between e-cigarette use and depression and examine how this association is different by gender among US adults.

Methods

Data from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends was used, and included 174,351 of 230,875 US adults aged 18 years and older. Data were analyzed using the multivariate logistic regression models.

Results

After adjusting for age, race, education, income, marital status, employment status, smoking status, and physical activity, firstly, “current daily e-cigarette users” (AOR = 2.487, p < 0.001), “current non-daily e-cigarette users” (AOR = 1.623, p < 0.001), and “former e-cigarette users” (AOR = 1.573, p < 0.001) were associated with increased odds of depression compared with “never e-cigarette users.” Secondly, women were associated with increased odds of depression compared with men (AOR = 1.797, p < 0.001). Finally, male “current daily e-cigarette users” (AOR = 1.366, p < 0.01) were associated with increased odds of depression compared with female “never e-cigarette users.”

Conclusion

Thus, even though women tend to be more vulnerable to depression compared with men, e-cigarette use was positively associated with depression among both men and women.

Citations

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  • Association between e-cigarette use behaviors and perceived harmfulness of e-cigarettes and anxiety/depression symptoms among Black/African American Adults
    David Adzrago, Kayo Fujimoto, Melissa B. Harrell, Antwan Jones, J. Michael Wilkerson
    Preventive Medicine Reports.2023; 31: 102080.     CrossRef
  • Use of electronic vaping products and mental health among adolescent high school students in the United States: The moderating effect of sex
    Philip Baiden, Hannah S. Szlyk, Patricia Cavazos-Rehg, Henry K. Onyeaka, JaNiene E. Peoples, Erin Kasson
    Journal of Psychiatric Research.2022; 147: 24.     CrossRef
Solitary and Social Drinking in South Korea: An Exploratory Study
Ju Moon Park, Aeree Sohn, Chanho Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(6):365-372.   Published online December 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.6.04
  • 4,184 View
  • 118 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to identify differences in drinking norms, heavy drinking, and motives between types of drinkers (abstainers, solitary, and social drinkers) in a representative sample of Korean adults.

Methods

An online survey of people registered on the electoral roll were randomly invited to be part of the “National Korean Drinking Culture Study” conducted in 2018 (n = 3,015). Participants included 1,532 men and 1,469 women aged 19–60 years. Questions included the number of times they drank in the last month, what they drank, and the volume drank. The amount of pure alcohol consumed was calculated. Drinking norms, motives, and types were determined in the survey questions.

Results

Solitary drinkers were more likely to be divorced or separated, less educated, and marginally employed. Solitary drinking peaked in those in their 30s (18.5%) and social drinkers in their 50s (68.1%). Solitary drinkers drank more frequently compared with social drinkers (6.1 vs. 3.6 times per month, p < 0.001), and consumed a significantly larger quantity of alcohol (69.5 g vs. 46.8 g per week). Solitary drinkers were more accepting of drinking-related behaviors in diverse situations compared with social drinkers. The regression analysis revealed that personal drinking motives were the most important factor influencing the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption in both solitary and social drinking.

Conclusion

Solitary drinkers may be more vulnerable to alcohol abuse than social drinkers.

Citations

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  • Do Drinking Norms, Motives, and Drinking Behaviors Differ by Age Group among Korean Women?
    Aeree Sohn, Sarang Jang
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2022; 19(6): 3345.     CrossRef
  • Exploring Contributing Factors of Solitary Drinking among Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents and Young Adults: A Descriptive Phenomenology
    Ka-Yan Ho, Katherine-Ka-Wai Lam, Cynthia-Sau-Ting Wu, Man-Nok Tong, Lai-Ngo Tang, Yim-Wah Mak
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2022; 19(14): 8371.     CrossRef
Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors Among Adolescent Boys and Girls in Bangladesh: Evidence From a National Survey
Nushrat Jahan Urmy, Md. Mokbul Hossain, Abu Ahmed Shamim, Md. Showkat Ali Khan, Abu Abdullah Mohammad Hanif, Mehedi Hasan, Fahmida Akter, Dipak Kumar Mitra, Moyazzam Hossaine, Mohammad Aman Ullah, Samir Kanti Sarker, SM Mustafizur Rahman, Md. Mofijul Islam Bulbul, Malay Kanti Mridha
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(6):351-364.   Published online December 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.6.03
  • 12,014 View
  • 169 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To assess the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors and the factors associated with the coexistence of multiple risk factors (≥ 2 risk factors) among adolescent boys and girls in Bangladesh.

Methods

Data on selected NCD risk factors collected from face to face interviews of 4,907 boys and 4,865 girls in the national Nutrition Surveillance round 2018–2019, was used. Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression were performed.

Results

The prevalence of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, inadequate physical activity, tobacco use, and being overweight/obese was 90.72%, 29.03%, 4.57%, and 6.04%, respectively among boys; and 94.32%, 50.33%, 0.43%, and 8.03%, respectively among girls. Multiple risk factors were present among 34.87% of boys and 51.74% of girls. Younger age (p < 0.001), non-slum urban (p < 0.001) and slum residence (p < 0.001), higher paternal education (p = 0.001), and depression (p < 0.001) were associated with the coexistence of multiple risk factors in both boys and girls. Additionally, higher maternal education (p < 0.001) and richest wealth quintile (p = 0.023) were associated with the coexistence of multiple risk factors in girls.

Conclusion

The government should integrate specific services into the existing health and non-health programs which are aimed at reducing the burden of NCD risk factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Assuring Bangladesh’s future: non-communicable disease risk factors among the adolescents and the existing policy responses
    Tuhin Biswas, Peter Azzopardi, Syeda Novera Anwar, Tim David de Vries, Luis Manuel Encarnacion-Cruz, Md. Mehedi Hasan, M. Mamun Huda, Sonia Pervin, Rajat Das Gupta, Dipak Kumar Mitra, Lal B. Rawal, Abdullah Al Mamun
    Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Lifestyle practices predisposing adolescents to non communicable diseases in Delhi
    Amod L. Borle, Navya Gangadharan, Saurav Basu
    Dialogues in Health.2022; 1: 100064.     CrossRef
Immunological Profile and Bacterial Drug Resistance in Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Study
Ornella JT Ngalani, Wiliane JT Marbou, Armelle Tsafack Mbaveng, Victor Kuete
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):319-326.   Published online October 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.5.08
  • 4,164 View
  • 74 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the immunological and bacterial profiles in pregnant women of Bafang-Cameroon.

Methods

Stool and midstream urine were cultured using specific culture media. The disk diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial susceptibility test. T-cell lymphocyte counts (CD3, CD4 and CD8), white blood cell counts, sensitive C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6, were measured by flow cytometry, optical detection, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay solid phase direct sandwich method.

Results

Out of 700 participants, 71.43% were pregnant, and 28.57% were non-pregnant women. The mean age was 29.40 ± 8.27 and 27.41 ± 6.55 years in non-pregnant and pregnant women, respectively. CD4 T-cells were not significantly lower in pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. There were 43.65% and 56.35% bacteria isolates obtained from urine and stool samples, respectively. Bacteria were mostly isolated in patients with a CD4 T-cell count between 461 and 806 cells/μL. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes showed 100% resistance in non-pregnant women, however all isolated bacteria were shown to be multidrug resistant in pregnant women. Salmonella sp. (24.3%) and Escherichia coli (21.51%) showed an increase in multidrug resistant phenotypes in pregnant women.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that routine bacteriological analysis during pregnancy is necessary for their follow-up care.

Citations

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  • Methanol extract from the seeds of Persea americana displays antibacterial and wound healing activities in rat model
    Steve E. Ekom, Jean-De-Dieu Tamokou, Victor Kuete
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology.2022; 282: 114573.     CrossRef
  • Antibacterial and Therapeutic Potentials of the Capsicum annuum Extract against Infected Wound in a Rat Model with Its Mechanisms of Antibacterial Action
    Steve Endeguele Ekom, Jean-De-Dieu Tamokou, Victor Kuete, Dorota Formanowicz
    BioMed Research International.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
Risk Assessment Program of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza with Deep Learning Algorithm
Hachung Yoon, Ah-Reum Jang, Chungsik Jung, Hunseok Ko, Kwang-Nyeong Lee, Eunesub Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):239-244.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.13
  • 3,758 View
  • 56 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives

This study presents the development and validation of a risk assessment program of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). This program was developed by the Korean government (Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency) and a private corporation (Korea Telecom, KT), using a national database (Korean animal health integrated system, KAHIS).

Methods

Our risk assessment program was developed using the multilayer perceptron method using R Language. HPAI outbreaks on 544 poultry farms (307 with H5N6, and 237 with H5N8) that had available visit records of livestock-related vehicles amongst the 812 HPAI outbreaks that were confirmed between January 2014 and June 2017 were involved in this study.

Results

After 140,000 iterations without drop-out, a model with 3 hidden layers and 10 nodes per layer, were selected. The activation function of the model was hyperbolic tangent. Precision and recall of the test gave F1 measures of 0.41, 0.68 and 0.51, respectively, at validation. The predicted risk values were higher for the “outbreak” (average ± SD, 0.20 ± 0.31) than “non-outbreak” (0.18 ± 0.30) farms (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

The risk assessment model developed was employed during the epidemics of 2016/2017 (pilot version) and 2017/2018 (complementary version). This risk assessment model enhanced risk management activities by enabling preemptive control measures to prevent the spread of diseases.

Citations

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  • Big data-based risk assessment of poultry farms during the 2020/2021 highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic in Korea
    Hachung Yoon, Ilseob Lee, Hyeonjeong Kang, Kyung-Sook Kim, Eunesub Lee, Mathilde Richard
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(6): e0269311.     CrossRef
  • Artificial Intelligence Models for Zoonotic Pathogens: A Survey
    Nisha Pillai, Mahalingam Ramkumar, Bindu Nanduri
    Microorganisms.2022; 10(10): 1911.     CrossRef
Editorial
We Cannot Go Back to the Old World, Before Global Pandemic Declaration of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Developing New Normal Practices in Society
Jong-Koo Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):147-148.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.01
  • 3,520 View
  • 80 Download
  • 2 Citations
PDF

Citations

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  • The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Polish orthopedics, in particular on the level of stress among orthopedic surgeons and the education process
    Łukasz Kołodziej, Dawid Ciechanowicz, Hubert Rola, Szymon Wołyński, Hanna Wawrzyniak, Kamila Rydzewska, Konrad Podsiadło, Jianguo Wang
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(9): e0257289.     CrossRef
  • The Role of Antigen Rapid Diagnostic Test in COVID-19 Diagnosis
    Ronni Mol Joji, Mohammad Shahid
    The Open COVID Journal.2021; 1(1): 108.     CrossRef
Short Communication
Early Trend of Imported COVID-19 Cases in South Korea
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(3):140-145.   Published online May 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.3.01
  • 4,449 View
  • 131 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

This study aimed to observe the initial trend of imported COVID-19 cases in South Korea since the beginning of the outbreak. All imported cases were classified into 5 regions (China, Asia, Europe, Africa, and America) according to travel history and potential exposure to the COVID-19. The list of countries for which confirmed cases had a travel history (single visit, multiple visits) and presented, were used to estimate the potential “exposure countries” of confirmed cases. For better understanding of the overall imported cases, time differences (day) among 3 major steps (symptom onset, entry to South Korea, laboratory confirmation) were measured based on available data. From the first importation of a COVID-19 case on January 20th, a total of 171 imported cases have been officially reported in South Korea as of March 23rd 2020. The overall trend of importation has significantly changed during this period. Importation of confirmed cases were initially from China, and subsequently from other Asian countries. After that, importation from Europe rapidly increased, with importation from America also increasing. One hundred fifteen (81%) were confirmed within 7 days of symptom onset. One Hundred forty three (84.1%) imported cases were confirmed within a week after entry into South Korea. One hundred seven imported cases (75.9%) developed symptoms within 5 days before or after, entry to South Korea. Streamlined processes of detection, subsequent testing, isolation, and treatment by public health authority, was key in minimizing the risk of secondary transmission.

Citations

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  • Validation of real-time RT-PCR for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in the Republic of Korea
    Yoon-Seok Chung, Nam-Joo Lee, Sang Hee Woo, Jeong-Min Kim, Heui Man Kim, Hye Jun Jo, Ye Eun Park, Myung-Guk Han
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical Features of COVID-19 in Uzbekistan
    KyungHee Kim, Jae Wook Choi, Juyoung Moon, Habibulla Akilov, Laziz Tuychiev, Bakhodir Rakhimov, Kwang Sung Min
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Editorial
A Long Journey Back to Normal Life
Hae-Wol Cho
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(2):65-66.   Published online April 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.2.01
  • 4,004 View
  • 276 Download
  • 2 Citations
PDF

Citations

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  • Supporting pandemic disease preparedness: Development of a composite index of area vulnerability
    Tayebeh Saghapour, Billie Giles-Corti, Afshin Jafari, Muhammad Arif Qaisrani, Gavin Turrell
    Health & Place.2021; 70: 102629.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 Outbreak in India: A Review of Preventive Measures and Challenges during the First Wave
    Rajan Kumar
    The Open COVID Journal.2021; 1(1): 191.     CrossRef
Brief Report
Isolation and identification of monkeypox virus MPXV-ROK-P1-2022 from the first case in the Republic of Korea
Jin-Won Kim, Minji Lee, Hwachul Shin, Chi-Hwan Choi, Myung-Min Choi, Jee Woong Kim, Hwajung Yi, Cheon-Kwon Yoo, Gi-Eun Rhie
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(4):308-311.   Published online August 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0232
  • 1,206 View
  • 71 Download
  • 1 Citations
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Monkeypox outbreaks in nonendemic countries have been reported since early May 2022. The first case of monkeypox in the Republic of Korea was confirmed in a patient who traveled to Europe in June 2022, and an attempt was made to isolate and identify the monkeypox virus (MPXV) from the patient’s specimens.
Methods
Clinical specimens from the patient were inoculated in Vero E6 cells. The isolated virus was identified as MPXV by the observation of cytopathic effects on Vero E6 cells, transmission electron microscopy, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequencing of PCR products.
Results
Cytopathic effects were observed in Vero E6 cells that were inoculated with skin lesion swab eluates. After multiple passages from the primary culture, orthopoxvirus morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, both MPXV-specific (F3L and ATI) and orthopoxvirus-specific genes (A39R, B2R, and HA) were confirmed by conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing.
Conclusion
These results indicate the successful isolation and identification of MPXV from the first patient in the Republic of Korea. The isolated virus was named MPXV-ROK-P1-2022.

Citations

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  • Isolation and Characterization of Monkeypox Virus from the First Case of Monkeypox — Chongqing Municipality, China, 2022
    Baoying Huang, Hua Zhao, Jingdong Song, Li Zhao, Yao Deng, Wen Wang, Roujian Lu, Wenling Wang, Jiao Ren, Fei Ye, Houwen Tian, Guizhen Wu, Hua Ling, Wenjie Tan
    China CDC Weekly.2022; 4(46): 1019.     CrossRef
Original Article
Menstrual hygiene management and its determinants among adolescent girls in low-income urban areas of Delhi, India: a community-based study
Suneela Garg, Nidhi Bhatnagar, Mongjam Meghachandra Singh, Saurav Basu, Amod Borle, Yamini Marimuthu, Falak Azmi, Yomri Dabi, Indu Bala
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(4):273-281.   Published online August 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0127
  • 671 View
  • 45 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in developing countries is linked to human rights, social justice, and the education and empowerment of young girls. The objective of this study was to assess menstrual hygiene practices and their determinants among adolescent girls, including school dropouts, and the effects of pad distribution programs in urban resettlement areas of Delhi, India.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2019 to February 2020 in urban resettlement colonies and 2 villages of Delhi among 1,130 adolescent girls aged 10 to 19 years, who were interviewed face to face.
Results
In total, 954 participants (84.4%) used only disposable sanitary pads, 150 (13.3%) used both sanitary pads and cloths, and 26 (2.3%) used only cloths (n=1,130). Most school-going girls utilized the scheme for pad distribution, but only two-thirds of the girls who were out of school utilized the scheme. In the adjusted analysis, girls with lower educational status, those who had dropped out of school, and those from the Muslim religious community were more likely to use cloths for MHM.
Conclusion
More than 4 out of 5 adolescent girls in Delhi in low-income neighborhoods preferred sanitary pads for MHM. The government free pad scheme reached near-universal utilization among school-going girls (97%), but the subsidized pad scheme for girls who did not attend school was insufficiently utilized (75%).

Citations

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  • Menstrual hygiene practices among adolescent women in rural India: a cross-sectional study
    Aditya Singh, Mahashweta Chakrabarty, Shivani Singh, Rakesh Chandra, Sourav Chowdhury, Anshika Singh
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Brief Report
Safety monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old in the Republic of Korea
Seontae Kim, Insob Hwang, Mijeong Ko, Yunhyung Kwon, Yeon-Kyeng Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):230-237.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0122
  • 1,597 View
  • 92 Download
  • 1 Citations
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to disseminate information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine safety among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in the Republic of Korea. Methods: Two databases were used to assess COVID-19 vaccine safety in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who completed the primary Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination series. Adverse events reported to the web-based COVID-19 vaccination management system (CVMS) and collected in the text message-based system were analyzed. Results: From March 5, 2021 to February 13, 2022, 12,216 adverse events among 12- to 17-yearolds were reported to the CVMS, of which 97.1% were non-serious adverse events and 2.9% were serious adverse events, including 85 suspected cases of anaphylaxis, 74 suspected cases of myocarditis and/or pericarditis, and 2 deaths. From December 13, 2021 to January 26, 2022, 10,389 adolescents responded to a text message survey, and local/systemic adverse events were more common after dose 2 than after dose 1. The most commonly reported events following either vaccine dose were pain at the injection site, headache, fatigue/tiredness, and myalgia. Conclusion: The overall results are consistent with previous findings; the great majority of adverse events were non-serious, and serious adverse events were rare among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination.

Citations

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  • COVID-19 Vaccination in Korea: Past, Present, and the Way Forward
    Eliel Nham, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in children and adolescents in Delhi, India, from January to October 2021: a repeated cross-sectional analysis
Pragya Sharma, Saurav Basu, Suruchi Mishra, Mongjam Meghachandra Singh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(3):184-190.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2022.0014
  • 3,007 View
  • 60 Download
  • 1 Citations
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to assess changes in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroprevalence among children and adolescents in Delhi, India from January 2021 to October 2021. Methods: This was a repeated cross-sectional analysis of participants aged 5 to 17 years from 2 SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveys conducted in Delhi, India during January 2021 and September to October 2021. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were detected by using the VITROS assay (90% sensitivity, 100% specificity). Results: The seroprevalence among 5- to 17-year-old school-age children and adolescents increased from 52.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.3%−54.3%) in January 2021 to 81.8% (95% CI, 80.9%−82.6%) in September to October 2021. The assay-adjusted seroprevalence was 90.8% (95% CI, 89.8%−91.7%). Seropositivity positively correlated with participants’ age (p<0.001), but not sex (p=0.388). A signal to cut-off ratio ≥4.00, correlating with the presence of neutralization antibodies, was observed in 4,814 (57.9%) participants. Conclusion: The high percentage of seroconversion among children and adolescents indicates the presence of natural infection-induced immunity from past exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, the lack of hybrid immunity and the concomitant likelihood of lower levels of neutralization antibodies than in adults due to the absence of vaccination warrants careful monitoring and surveillance of infection risk and disease severity from newer and emergent variants.

Citations

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  • Seroprevalence of SARS CoV-2 among children after the second surge (June 2021) in a rural district of South India: Findings and lessons from a population-based survey
    Carolin Elizabeth George, Leeberk Raja Inbaraj, Shon Rajukutty, Roshni Florina Joan, Sangeetha Muthuraj, Sindhulina Chandrasingh
    Frontiers in Pediatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
COVID-19 outbreak response at a nursing hospital in South Korea in the post-vaccination era, including an estimation of the effectiveness of the first shot of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx1-S)
Chanhee Kim, Geon Kang, Sun Gu Kang, Heeyoung Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(2):114-122.   Published online April 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0262
  • 1,873 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We descriptively reviewed a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak at a nursing hospital in Gyeonggi Province (South Korea) and assessed the effectiveness of the first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine in a real-world population. Methods: The general process of the epidemiological investigation included a public health intervention. The relative risk (RR) of vaccinated and unvaccinated groups was calculated and compared to confirm the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) infection, and vaccine effectiveness was evaluated based on the calculated RR. Results: The population at risk was confined to ward E among 8 wards of Hospital X, where the outbreak occurred. This population comprised 55 people, including 39 patients, 12 nurses, and 4 caregivers, and 19 cases were identified. The RR between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups was 0.04, resulting in a vaccine effectiveness of 95.3%. The vaccination rate of the nonpatients in ward E was the lowest in the entire hospital, whereas the overall vaccination rate of the combined patient and non-patient groups in ward E was the third lowest. Conclusion: The first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine (ChAdOx1-S) was effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. To prevent COVID-19 outbreaks in medical facilities, it is important to prioritize the vaccination of healthcare providers.

Citations

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  • COVID-19 Vaccination in Korea: Past, Present, and the Way Forward
    Eliel Nham, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Predictors of health-related quality of life in Koreans with cardiovascular disease
Jung-Hye Lim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(1):62-70.   Published online February 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0286
  • 1,879 View
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to identify the predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a stratified multistage probability sampling design. Data from the 2016 to 2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=32,379) were used. Among the participants aged 19 years or older (n=25,995), 1,081 patients with CVD were extracted after excluding those with missing data and those who had cancer. The participants’ HRQoL was measured using the three-level EuroQoL Group’s five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) scale. Data were analyzed using the t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and general linear regression for complex samples. Results: The most potent predictors of HRQoL in Korean adults with CVD were limited activity (β =−0.103, p <0.001), poor perceived health (β =−0.089, p <0.001), depression (β =−0.065, p<0.01), low household income (β=−0.033, p<0.05), unemployment (β=−0.023, p<0.05), and older age (β=−0.002, p<0.01), which explained 37.2% of the variance. Conclusion: Comprehensive interventions that address both physical and mental factors and social systems that provide financial help need to be implemented to improve the HRQoL of Korean adults with CVD.

Citations

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  • Factors associated with health-related quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease
    Febio Gutama, Melisa Intan Barliana, Irma Melyani Puspitasari
    Pharmacia.2022; 69(3): 771.     CrossRef
Review Article
Yersinia pestis antibiotic resistance: a systematic review
Chen Lei, Suresh Kumar
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2022;13(1):24-36.   Published online February 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0288
  • 2,574 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague and a potential biological weapon, has always been a threatening pathogen. Some strains of Y. pestis have varying degrees of antibiotic resistance. Thus, this systematic review was conducted to alert clinicians to this pathogen’s potential antimicrobial resistance. A review of the literature was conducted for experimental reports and systematic reviews on the topics of plague, Y. pestis, and antibiotic resistance. From 1995 to 2021, 7 Y. pestis isolates with 4 antibiotic resistance mechanisms were reported. In Y. pestis 17/95, 16/95, and 2180H, resistance was mediated by transferable plasmids. Each plasmid contained resistance genes encoded within specific transposons. Strain 17/95 presented multiple drug resistance, since plasmid 1202 contained 10 resistance determinants. Strains 16/95 and 2180H showed single antibiotic resistance because both additional plasmids in these strains carried only 1 antimicrobial determinant. Strains 12/87, S19960127, 56/13, and 59/13 exhibited streptomycin resistance due to an rpsl gene mutation, a novel mechanism that was discovered recently. Y. pestis can acquire antibiotic resistance in nature not only via conjugative transfer of antimicrobial-resistant plasmids from other bacteria, but also by gene point mutations. Global surveillance should be strengthened to identify antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains by whole-genome sequencing and drug susceptibility testing.

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  • A situation analysis of the current plague outbreak in the Demographic Republic of Congo and counteracting strategies – Correspondence
    Ranjit Sah, Abdullah Reda, Rachana Mehta, Ranjan K. Mohapatra, Kuldeep Dhama
    International Journal of Surgery.2022; 105: 106885.     CrossRef

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