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From articles published in Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives during the past two years (2020 ~ ).

Original Articles
Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Genes and Phylogenetic Groups of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Patients with Diarrhea
Erfaneh Jafari, Saeid Mostaan, Saeid Bouzari
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):327-333.   Published online October 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.5.09
  • 4,878 View
  • 83 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Infectious diarrhea is one of the most common causes of pediatric death worldwide and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is one of the main causes. There are 2 subgroups of EPEC, typical and atypical, based on the presence or absence of bundle forming pili (bfp), of which atypical EPEC is considered less virulent, but not less pathogenic. Antimicrobial resistance towards atypical EPEC among children is growing and is considered a major problem. In this study the pattern of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates was determined.

Methods

Using 130 isolates, antibiotic resistance patterns and phenotypes were assessed, and genotypic profiles of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production using disc diffusion and PCR was carried out. Phylogenetic groups were analyzed using quadruplex PCR.

Results

There were 65 E. coli isolates identified as atypical EPEC by PCR, among which the highest antibiotic resistance was towards ampicillin, followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Multidrug resistance was detected in 44.6% of atypical EPEC isolates. Around 33% of isolates were determined to be extended spectrum β-lactamase producers, and in 90% of isolates, genes responsible for ESBL production could be detected. Moreover, the majority of atypical EPEC strains belonged to Group E, followed by Groups B1, B2 and C.

Conclusion

High rates of multidrug resistance and ESBL production among atypical EPEC isolates warrant periodical surveillance studies to select effective antibiotic treatment for patients. It is considered a critical step to manage antibiotic resistance by avoiding unnecessary prescriptions for antibiotics.

Relationship Between Assertion and Aggression with Addiction Potential: A Cross-Sectional Study in 2019
Mohammad Amiri, Zakieh Sadeghi, Elham Sadeghi, Ahmad Khosravi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):231-238.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.12
  • 3,642 View
  • 69 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to determine the relationship between assertion and aggression with addiction potential among students in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2019, 500 students of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, were selected by multistage random sampling, for a study using the Addiction Potential Scale, and Assertion and Aggression Questionnaires. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-square, t test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and the linear regression model.

Results

The mean scores of addiction potential, aggression, and assertion were 32.7 ± 17.2, 41.5 ± 12.9 and 139.4 ± 22.3, respectively. In this study, 38.8% (N = 194) of students had high aggression and 76.8% (N = 384) had high assertion. In the regression model, aggression, history of drug and addictive substances abuse, history of tobacco use, and history of alcohol abuse were significantly related to addiction potential (p ≤ 0.05). There was a negative relationship between assertion and addiction potential so that with one-unit increase in the assertion score, the addiction potential score decreased by −0.11.

Conclusion

Given the direct relationship between aggression and addiction potential, and since more than three-quarters of the students had moderate to high aggression, it is necessary to pay more attention to this issue. Interventions may play an important role in improving the current situation.

Secondhand Smoking Among Children in Rural Households: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh
Rishad Choudhury Robin, Narongsak Noosorn, Sheikh Mohammad Alif
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):201-208.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.09
  • 4,990 View
  • 70 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to determine the factors associated with reducing exposure to secondhand smoke among children in households of rural Bangladesh.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of 410 smokers and non-smokers, in 6 villages of Munshigonj district was conducted. Data were collected randomly using a self-administrative questionnaire. Differences between variables were assessed using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test (as appropriate). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate associations. All results were presented as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval. The level of statistical significance was reached when p < 0.05.

Results

A smoker in the household was determined to be a risk factor associated with exposure of other household members to secondhand smoke (p < 0.001). Higher education, strict implementation of household smoke-free rules, a higher influence of social norms and culture, as well as moderate knowledge on exposure to secondhand smoke were considered as preventive factors associated with exposure of others in the home to secondhand smoke.

Conclusion

Exposure to secondhand smoke is an extensive and preventable risk factor for children, and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke will have a largely positive effect in the community. An effective public health intervention model may reduce secondhand smoking.

Review Articles
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and respiratory syncytial virus coinfection in children
Milad Zandi, Saber Soltani, Mona Fani, Samaneh Abbasi, Saeedeh Ebrahimi, Ali Ramezani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(5):286-292.   Published online October 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0140
  • 3,309 View
  • 130 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has infected many people around the world. Children are considered an important target group for SARS-CoV-2, as well as other viral infections such as respiratory syncytial virus infection. Both SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory syncytial virus can affect the respiratory tract. Coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory syncytial virus can pose significant challenges in terms of diagnosis and treatment in children. This review compares the symptoms, diagnostic methods, and treatment of COVID-19 and respiratory syncytial virus infection in children.
COVID-19 prediction models: a systematic literature review
Sheikh Muzaffar Shakeel, Nithya Sathya Kumar, Pranita Pandurang Madalli, Rashmi Srinivasaiah, Devappa Renuka Swamy
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(4):215-229.   Published online August 13, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0100
  • 3,824 View
  • 112 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
As the world grapples with the problem of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its devastating effects, scientific groups are working towards solutions to mitigate the effects of the virus. This paper aimed to collate information on COVID-19 prediction models. A systematic literature review is reported, based on a manual search of 1,196 papers published from January to December 2020. Various databases such as Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched. The search strategy was formulated and refined in terms of subject keywords, geographical purview, and time period according to a predefined protocol. Visualizations were created to present the data trends according to different parameters. The results of this systematic literature review show that the study findings are critically relevant for both healthcare managers and prediction model developers. Healthcare managers can choose the best prediction model output for their organization or process management. Meanwhile, prediction model developers and managers can identify the lacunae in their models and improve their data-driven approaches.
Original Articles
Validity and reliability of the Health-Related Quality of Life Instrument with 8 Items (HINT-8) in Korean breast cancer patients
Juyoung Kim, Min-Woo Jo, Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Sei-Hyun Ahn, Byung Ho Son, Jong Won Lee, Sae Byul Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(4):254-263.   Published online August 5, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0005
  • 3,421 View
  • 82 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the Health-Related Quality of Life Instrument with 8 Items (HINT-8) in postoperative breast cancer patients in South Korea.
Methods
The study included 300 breast cancer patients visiting a tertiary hospital. We measured health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the HINT-8, the 5-level EQ-5D version (EQ-5D-5L), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B). Discriminatory ability, known-group validity, and convergent validity were assessed. Reliability was evaluated with the Cohen kappa, weighted kappa, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
Results
The EQ-5D-5L indexes (p<0.001) and EQ visual analogue scale (VAS) scores (p<0.001) were significantly higher in subjects with no problems in each item of the HINT-8 than in those with problems. The FACT-B total scores were also higher in subjects without problems on the HINT-8. Older age, lower education level, and comorbidities were associated with a lower HINT-8 index. The HINT-8 index was correlated with the EQ-5D-5L index and the EQ VAS, with correlation coefficients of 0.671 (p<0.001) and 0.577 (p<0.001), respectively. The correlation coefficients between the HINT-8 and the FACT-B ranged from 0.390 to 0.714. The ICC was 0.690 (95% confidence interval, 0.580–0.780).
Conclusion
The HINT-8 showed appropriate validity for capturing HRQoL in postoperative breast cancer patients.
Behavioral interventions for smoking cessation among adolescents: a rapid review and meta-analysis for the Korea Preventive Services Task Force
Younglee Choi, Cheol Min Lee, Belong Cho, Eon Sook Lee, Seung-Won Oh, Naae Lee, Jae Moon Yun
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(3):177-186.   Published online June 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.0018
  • 6,336 View
  • 125 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral smoking cessation interventions among adolescents.
Methods
MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Embase, CINAHL, KoreaMed, and KMbase were searched from inception to June 2020. Systematic reviews (SRs) or meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were initially searched to perform a rapid SR. After selecting the final SR, RCTs after the publication year of the selected SR were searched. The primary outcome was smoking status after at least 6 months of follow-up, and the secondary outcome was smoking status at 4 weeks. Two reviewers independently assessed the selected studies’ quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The meta-analysis utilized a Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model reporting the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The subgroup analysis utilized Cochrane’s Q.
Results
Thirty-two RCTs (11,637 participants) from a single SR were meta-analyzed. After 6 months of follow-up, the intervention group had significantly higher abstinence rates (RR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20−1.41; I2=26.46%). At 4 weeks of follow-up, the intervention group also had significantly higher abstinence rates (RR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.49–2.47; I2=0.00%). The subgroup analysis indicated a significant difference in the abstinence rate according to the study setting and the period between intervention completion and follow-up.
Conclusion
This review showed that adolescent behavioral smoking cessation intervention programs significantly increased abstinence rates compared to the usual care.
COVID-19 transmission: a rapid systematic review of current knowledge
Panagiotis Mourmouris, Lazaros Tzelves, Christiana Roidi, Anastasia Fotsali
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(2):54-63.   Published online April 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.2.02
  • 4,343 View
  • 226 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The objective of this study was to identify the potential and definite sources of transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods
Due to time constraints and the acute nature of the pandemic, we searched only PubMed/Medline from inception until January 28, 2021. We analyzed the level of evidence and risk of bias in each category and made suggestions accordingly.
Results
The virus was traced from its potential origin via possible ways of transmission to the last host. Symptomatic human-to-human transmission remains the driver of the epidemic, but asymptomatic transmission can potentially contribute in a substantial manner. Feces and fomites have both been found to contain viable virus; even though transmission through these routes has not been documented, their contribution cannot be ruled out. Finally, transmission from pregnant women to their children has been found to be low (up to 3%).
Conclusion
Even though robust outcomes cannot be easily assessed, medical personnel must maintain awareness of the main routes of transmission (via droplets and aerosols from even asymptomatic patients). This is the first attempt to systematically review the existing knowledge to produce a paper with a potentially significant clinical impact.
Brief Report
COVID-19 Pandemic in Hong Kong and Gaza Strip: Lessons Learned from Two Densely Populated Locations in the World
Hammoda Abu-Odah, Sheena Ramazanu, Eslam Saleh, Jonathan Bayuo, Yehia Abed, Motasem Said Salah
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2021;12(1):44-50.   Published online February 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2021.12.1.07
  • 3,957 View
  • 93 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The emergence of the coronavirus pandemic led to the implementation of several precautionary measures across the globe. For densely populated regions in the world, this may have been challenging given the proximity of people to one other. Thus, this brief report sought to compare the measures across 2 densely populated locations, Hong Kong and Gaza. Epidemiological data was obtained from governmental online repositories and was compared with the data presented by the Johns Hopkins coronavirus map to ensure consistency. Descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data obtained over the period of the study. The data suggested that although Hong Kong and Gaza implemented similar strategies, Gaza recorded marginally higher cases compared with Hong Kong in the same timeframe. The strategies implemented in both settings included border closures, social distancing, proper hand hygiene, and mask usage. Cultural and socio-demographic differences may have played a part in this variation in case numbers, in addition to lessons Hong Kong had previously learned from a similar outbreak. As the pandemic is ongoing it is essential that public sensitization to adherence to precautionary measures at the personal/family level does not occur.

Original Articles
Use, Awareness, Knowledge and Beliefs of Medication During Pregnancy in Malaysia
Ahmad Habeeb Hattab Dala Ali Alani, Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan, Azyyati Mohd Suhaimi, Ali Haider Mohammed
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(6):373-379.   Published online December 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.6.05
  • 4,182 View
  • 160 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives

This study aimed to assess medication use in pregnant women in Malaysia by measuring use, knowledge, awareness, and beliefs about medications.

Methods

This was an observational, cross-sectional study involving a total of 447 pregnant women who attended the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Malaysia. A validated, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect participant data.

Results

Most of pregnant women had taken medication during pregnancy and more than half of them (52.8%) showed a poor level of knowledge about the medication use during pregnancy. Eighty-three percent had a poor level of awareness and 56.5% had negative beliefs. Age and education level were significantly associated with the level of knowledge regarding medication use during pregnancy. Multiparous pregnant women, and pregnant women from rural areas were observed to have a higher level of awareness compared with those who lived in urban areas. Use of medication during pregnancy was determined to be significantly associated with education level, and race.

Conclusion

Although there was prevalent use of medication among pregnant women, many had negative beliefs, and insufficient knowledge and awareness about the risks of taking medication during pregnancy. Several sociodemographic characteristics were significantly associated with the use (race and education level), level of knowledge (age and education level), awareness (parity and place of residence), and beliefs (race, education level, and occupation status) towards medication use during pregnancy.

Solitary and Social Drinking in South Korea: An Exploratory Study
Ju Moon Park, Aeree Sohn, Chanho Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(6):365-372.   Published online December 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.6.04
  • 3,788 View
  • 112 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to identify differences in drinking norms, heavy drinking, and motives between types of drinkers (abstainers, solitary, and social drinkers) in a representative sample of Korean adults.

Methods

An online survey of people registered on the electoral roll were randomly invited to be part of the “National Korean Drinking Culture Study” conducted in 2018 (n = 3,015). Participants included 1,532 men and 1,469 women aged 19–60 years. Questions included the number of times they drank in the last month, what they drank, and the volume drank. The amount of pure alcohol consumed was calculated. Drinking norms, motives, and types were determined in the survey questions.

Results

Solitary drinkers were more likely to be divorced or separated, less educated, and marginally employed. Solitary drinking peaked in those in their 30s (18.5%) and social drinkers in their 50s (68.1%). Solitary drinkers drank more frequently compared with social drinkers (6.1 vs. 3.6 times per month, p < 0.001), and consumed a significantly larger quantity of alcohol (69.5 g vs. 46.8 g per week). Solitary drinkers were more accepting of drinking-related behaviors in diverse situations compared with social drinkers. The regression analysis revealed that personal drinking motives were the most important factor influencing the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption in both solitary and social drinking.

Conclusion

Solitary drinkers may be more vulnerable to alcohol abuse than social drinkers.

Immunological Profile and Bacterial Drug Resistance in Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Study
Ornella JT Ngalani, Wiliane JT Marbou, Armelle Tsafack Mbaveng, Victor Kuete
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(5):319-326.   Published online October 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.5.08
  • 3,801 View
  • 71 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the immunological and bacterial profiles in pregnant women of Bafang-Cameroon.

Methods

Stool and midstream urine were cultured using specific culture media. The disk diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial susceptibility test. T-cell lymphocyte counts (CD3, CD4 and CD8), white blood cell counts, sensitive C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6, were measured by flow cytometry, optical detection, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay solid phase direct sandwich method.

Results

Out of 700 participants, 71.43% were pregnant, and 28.57% were non-pregnant women. The mean age was 29.40 ± 8.27 and 27.41 ± 6.55 years in non-pregnant and pregnant women, respectively. CD4 T-cells were not significantly lower in pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. There were 43.65% and 56.35% bacteria isolates obtained from urine and stool samples, respectively. Bacteria were mostly isolated in patients with a CD4 T-cell count between 461 and 806 cells/μL. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes showed 100% resistance in non-pregnant women, however all isolated bacteria were shown to be multidrug resistant in pregnant women. Salmonella sp. (24.3%) and Escherichia coli (21.51%) showed an increase in multidrug resistant phenotypes in pregnant women.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that routine bacteriological analysis during pregnancy is necessary for their follow-up care.

Factors Influencing Self-Rated Oral Health in Elderly People Residing in the Community: Results from the Korea Community Health Survey, 2016
Jong-Hoon Moon, Sung-Jin Heo, Jin-Hwa Jung
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):245-250.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.14
  • 3,461 View
  • 71 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing perceived oral health in elderly individuals residing in the community.

Methods

This study used raw data from the Korea community health survey, 2016. Of the 64,223 participants that were elderly (aged ≥ 65 years), 61,280 (95.4%) were included for analysis. Self-rated oral health was the dependent variable and 6 independent variables including age, gender, type of area of residence (metropolitan or provincial), educational level, income, and living status with spouse were assessed. Oral function was studied based on mastication, pronunciation, and use of dentures, and oral health behavior included brushing teeth after breakfast, after lunch, after dinner, and before sleep). The EQ-5D questionnaire measured health-related quality of life (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression).

Results

Among the general characteristics, age, gender, educational level, income, and living status with spouse were the factors that affected self-rated oral health. Mastication, pronunciation, use of dentures, and brushing after lunch, dinner, and before sleep were the factors that influenced self-rated oral function. All domains of the EQ-5D (pain/discomfort, mobility, self-care, usual activities, and anxiety/depression) were factors that affected self-rated oral health.

Conclusion

The results of the current investigation suggest that the development of management and education strategies for oral health promotion in the elderly, should focus on improving oral function and oral health behavior, taking into account the socio-economic and demographic characteristics that have been shown to be associated with poor self-rated oral function.

Editorial
We Cannot Go Back to the Old World, Before Global Pandemic Declaration of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Developing New Normal Practices in Society
Jong-Koo Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2020;11(4):147-148.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.4.01
  • 3,189 View
  • 80 Download
  • 2 Citations
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives