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Volume 9(4); August 2018
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Editorial
Depression Status in Korea
Soo Kyung Koo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):141-142.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.01
  • 3,321 View
  • 52 Download
  • 9 Citations
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Original Articles
Effects of Physical Activity on Depression in Adults with Diabetes
Deok-Ju Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):143-149.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.02
  • 2,970 View
  • 129 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of this study was to identify the current state of physical activity in adults with diabetes and to investigate the effect of physical activity on depression.

Methods

The present study was conducted using data from the 2nd year of the 6th Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. From the total of 7,550 individuals, 418 adults diagnosed with diabetes were selected as participants, and their physical activity and depression levels were examined.

Results

The physical activity status of the participants showed that they did not usually engage in physical activities at work, and only a few participants were involved in moderate intensity physical leisure activity. Apart from walking for 10 minutes each day, which accounted for 1/3 of the participants, most of the participants did not engage in specific forms of exercise. An examination of the effects of physical activity on depression revealed that moderate intensity physical activity at work and leisure influenced depression. In terms of demographic characteristics, gender, occupation, income quintile, and subjective health status were all found to affect depression.

Conclusion

For elderly (60 years or older) patients with diabetes, which accounted for the majority of the diabetic population, a systematic leisure program and professional education are necessary to help them to manage stress and depression in daily life. Additionally, provision of community and family support should encourage regular, moderate intensity exercise and promote lifestyle changes to encourage increased physical activity.

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity Levels in Korean Adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2015
Kwanjun Park, Sunmi Lim, Yoonhyung Park, Woong Ju, Yoonhee Shin, Hansol Yeom
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):150-159.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.03
  • 2,711 View
  • 32 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The increase in the obesity rate in adult males in Korea is higher than countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and other Asian countries. We examined the trends and prevalence of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease by evaluating the weight status amongst adults from 2007 to 2015.

Methods

The study included 37,402 adults, who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence trends of cardiovascular disease risk factors were estimated for each body mass index group.

Results

From 2007 to 2015, significant increases in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were observed in normal weight adults (0.03 percentage point (%p), 0.06%p, and 0.13%p, respectively). Amongst the overweight and obese adults, a significant increase in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was observed, During this period, the prevalence of smoking decreased amongst obese adults and no significant changes in drinking habits and physical activity were noted across all body mass index groups.

Conclusion

The prevalence of obesity in Korean adults is increasing, and it is necessary to implement interventions to prevent further weight gain and obesity-associated cardiovascular disease.

Evaluation of Biofilm Formation and Presence of Ica Genes in Staphylococcus epidermidis Clinical Isolates
Maryam Kord, Abdollah Ardebili, Maryam Jamalan, Roghaye Jahanbakhsh, Naser Behnampour, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):160-166.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.04
  • 3,134 View
  • 146 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Biofilm formation is one of the important features of Staphylococcus epidermidis, particularly in nosocomial infections. We aimed to investigate the biofilm production by phenotypic methods and the presence of ica genes in S epidermidis.

Methods

A total of 41 S epidermidis isolates were recovered from different clinical specimens. Biofilm formation was evaluated by microtiter plate, tube method and Congo red agar method. The presence of icaA and icaD genes was investigated by PCR. Validity of methods (sensitivity and specificity), and metrics for test performance (positive/negative predictive value, and positive/negative likelihood ratio) were determined.

Results

By both microtiter plate and tube method, 53.6% of S epidermidis isolates were able to produce biofilm, whilst only 24.4% of isolates provided a biofilm phenotype on Congo red agar plates. icaA and icaD genes were found in 100% and 95.1% of isolates, respectively. Biofilm phenotypes accounted for 4.8% by microtiter plate assay, despite the absence of the ica gene. Congo red agar and PCR exhibited a lower sensitivity (18% and 45.5%, respectively) for identifying the biofilm phenotype in comparison to microtiter plate.

Conclusion

The microtiter plate method remains generally a better tool to screen biofilm production in S epidermidis. In addition, the ability of S epidermidis to form biofilm is not always dependent on the presence of ica genes, highlighting the importance of ica-independent mechanisms of biofilm formation. The use of reliable methods to specifically detect biofilms can be helpful to treat the patients affected by such problematic bacteria.

Factors that Correlate with Poor Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Complications
Mohammad Haghighatpanah, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Maryam Haghighatpanah, Girish Thunga, Surulivelrajan Mallayasamy
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):167-174.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.05
  • 4,121 View
  • 100 Download
  • 24 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Inadequate glycemic control amongst patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) indicates a major public health problem and a significant risk factor for the progression and complications caused by diabetes. Glycemic control is the main therapeutic objective for the prevention of organ damage and other complications arising from diabetes.

Methods

This was a retrospective observational study of T2DM patients with complications, who were aged 40 years and older. The study was conducted retrospectively on medical records (in-patient and out-patient) obtained from a South Indian teaching hospital, Manipal, India. The patients included in the study had fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar and HbA1c measured at least twice during follow-ups the previous year. Patients’ HbA1c levels were categorized into good control ≤7% (≤53mmol/mol), and poor control >7% (>53mmol/mol), and patients’ characteristics were analyzed.

Results

A total of 657 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 59.67 (SD = 9.617) years, with 152 (23.1%) females and 505 (76.9%) males, and 514 (78.2%) patients had poor glycemic control. Most of the patients were on insulin mono-therapy [n = 271 (42.1%)], about a third of the patients were on combination therapy that included an oral hypoglycemic agent and insulin [n = 236 (36.6%)]. Patients with a history of more than 10 years of diabetes [n = 293 (44.6%)], had a family history of diabetes [n = 256 (39%)] and obesity [n = 95 (14.5%)], all had poor glycemic control.

Conclusion

This present study indicated a significant association of gender (female), age, high-density lipoprotein level, duration of diabetes and type of medication, with poor glycemic control in T2DM patients that had secondary medical complications.

Regional Differences of Mental Health Status and Associated Factors: Based on the Community Health Survey
Ji Hye Lim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):175-184.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.06
  • 2,899 View
  • 29 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in mental health specific to regions in Korea, and the factors that affected mental health status.

Methods

Data from the 2016 Community Health Survey in Korea were used; 224,421 health survey participants provided responses on mental health issues, demographics, and health behavior, and were included in the study.

Results

A statistically significant difference was observed in the incidence of mental health status between different regions of Korea. Independent variables that affected mental health were sex, age, marital status, household income, economic activity, whether living with dementia patients, self-reported health status, smoking, alcohol drinking, sleep time, and chronic diseases. Risk factors associated with symptoms of depression were gender (female), bereavement or being divorced, low household income, family member with dementia, poor self-reported health status, currently smoking, level of physical activity, insufficient hours of sleep and suffering from chronic diseases.

Conclusion

This study suggests that a standardized healthcare policy is needed to reduce regional variation in mental health. In the future, similar studies that include medical expenses for mental healthcare and relevant variables according to regions of Korea should be conducted.

Effects of Smoking Cessation Intervention Education Program Based on Blended Learning among Nursing Students in South Korea
Sook-Hee Choi, Yun-Hee Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):185-191.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.07
  • 4,337 View
  • 131 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study was conducted to evaluate whether a “smoking cessation intervention” education program based on blended learning, was effective in improving nursing students’ perceived competence and motivation to perform a smoking cessation intervention for smokers.

Methods

A quasi-experimental, pretest–posttest design was conducted. The smoking cessation intervention education program based on blended learning, was administered to the experimental group (n = 23) in 5 sessions, consisting of 2 courses of an e-learning program and 1 course of a face-to-face learning program per session. The control group (n = 21) received the opportunity to participate in an e-learning program as well as receiving material of a face-to-face learning program, after completion of the smoking cessation intervention education program.

Results

The experimental group showed significant differences in autonomous motivation (t = −6.982, p < 0.001), controlled motivation (t = −3.729, p = 0.001), and perceived competence compared to the control group (t = −3.801, p < 0.001).

Conclusion

This study showed that a smoking cessation intervention education program adopting blended learning, was significantly effective in enhancing nursing students’ autonomous motivation and perceived competence to conduct a smoking cessation intervention. Further studies are needed to confirm longitudinal effects of this program.

The Prevalence of CYP2B6 Gene Polymorphisms in Malaria-endemic Population of Timor in East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia
Linawati Hananta, Indwiani Astuti, Ahmad Hamim Sadewa, Josephine Alice, Jontari Hutagalung, Mustofa
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):192-196.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.08
  • 2,649 View
  • 36 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The CYP2B6 is one of the most polymorphic CYP genes in humans that has the potential to modify the pharmacological and toxicological responses to clinically important drugs such as antimalarial artemisinin and its derivatives. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in Timor malaria endemic area, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia where Artemisin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) has been used to treat uncomplicated malaria.

Methods

A total of 109 healthy subjects were participated in this study. CYP2B6*4, *6 and *9 polymorphisms were analyzed using PCR-RFLP to confirm the SNPs prevalence of 516G>T and 785A>G in exon 4 and 5.

Results

There were 96 subjects included in the analysis. In the exon 4 of CYP2B6 516G>T, the frequency of the T mutation was 37.5% (39/96), and the wildtype 27.1% (26/96). In the exon 5, CYP2B6 785A>G mutant was detected in 29.2% (28/96) of individuals, and the wildtype allele in 35.4% (34/96). The frequency of CYP2B6*9 (516G>T), CYP2B6*4 (785A>G) and CYP2B6*6 (516G>T and 785A>G) were 40.6%, 29.2% and 22.9%, respectively. The prevalence of these CYP2B6 gene polymorphisms in Timorian ethnic were higher than that in Malay, Han Chinese, Indian, and Egyptian populations.

Conclusion

The prevalence of these CYP2B6 516G>T and 785A>G polymorphisms in Timorian ethnic is higher than that in other populations. These polymorphisms may affect the metabolism of artemisinin and its derivatives.

Factors Affecting Body Image Discordance Amongst Korean Adults Aged 19–39 Years
Hye-Young Jang, Jung-Won Ahn, Mi-Kyeong Jeon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):197-206.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.09
  • 3,012 View
  • 39 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study was designed to investigate factors affecting the discordance between body image and body mass index amongst Korean adults aged 19–39 years.

Methods

Data (N = 59,361) from the 2014 Korean Community Health Survey was analyzed using descriptive analysis, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis.

Results

To examine the factors affecting body image discordance as observed in 43.1% of participants, the group was subdivided into underestimation and overestimation. There were 36.0% of participants that were body image discordant underestimators and 7.1% were overestimators. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the underestimators tended to be men, graduated from high school, married, current/ex-smokers, ex-drinkers, had between 5 to 9 hours sleep (inclusive), had fair to good self-rated health, and demonstrated healthy weight control behavior, relative to the reference group. In comparison, overestimators tended to be in the 19–29 year group and had signs of depression. The OR of individuals who were men, married, and had healthy weight control behavior was significantly lower in the overestimators group.

Conclusion

These findings show that tailored interventions to promote accurate body awareness should be based on the type of body image discordance. In addition, it is necessary to develop and implement a program of body image improvement that considers the factors affecting body weight discordance.

Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Obesity: Findings from the Korea Media Panel Study
Jihyung Shin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):207-212.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.10
  • 5,883 View
  • 83 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

There is evidence to suggest that sedentary behavior is associated with a higher risk of metabolic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional joint associations of physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST), with the risk of obesity in Korean adults.

Methods

The Korea Media Panel Study consisted of a household interview and a self-administered diary survey on media usage over 3 days. ST (hours/day) was defined as the reported daily average hours spent watching television, computing (i.e., desktop, notebook, netbook, tablets), smartphone and video game console use. Cross-sectional associations of obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and the amount of daily ST and PA were examined by logistic regression models adjusting for other possible confounders including alcohol consumption, smoking, depressive symptoms and demographic information. There were 7,808 participants included in the analyses.

Results

Increased ST was significantly associated with the risk of obesity (controlling for other possible confounders), but PA level was not found to be significantly linked. Participants who engaged in screen time > 6 hours per day had a higher incidence of obesity.

Conclusion

This study provides evidence of the association between ST and the increased incidence of obesity measured by BMI, independent of PA amongst Korean adults.

Letter
Smoking Status on Bone Health and Osteoporosis Prevalence
Vu H. Nguyen
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):213-214.   Published online August 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.11
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  • 57 Download
  • 2 Citations
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives