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Volume 9(1); January 2018
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Editorial
A Joint Exercise against Intentional Biothreats
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(1):1-2.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.01
  • 2,903 View
  • 32 Download
PDF
Original Articles
Multilevel Analysis of the Risk Factors in High-Risk Health Behavior among Korean Adolescents
Eun Gyeong Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(1):3-8.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.02
  • 2,777 View
  • 72 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To examine health behaviors among Korean adolescents with a focus on both individual and school-based factors, specifically in relation to predictors of high-risk groups.

Methods

Secondary data analysis was conducted with data from the 8th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, using descriptive statistics, t tests, χ2 test, and multilevel logistic regression analysis. Health Practice Index was calculated and a range of 0 to 2 was classified as a high-risk group.

Results

The results revealed that the individual-level variables of sex, age, stress, depression, subjective health status, school performance, health education, father’s level of education, and living situation were significant predictors of high-risk behaviors. The risk was greater in girls, greater with higher age and higher stress scores, greater in adolescents with depression, greater with lower paternal educational level, and greater in adolescents who did not live with both parents, as were the school-level variables of school grade and school affluence score. The possibility of being in the high-risk group in health behavior was greater if a student attended a school where the Family Affluence Score (FAS) was lower.

Conclusion

School health education should be expanded to manage students’ high-risk health behaviors, especially in schools that have many students from families with a low affluence status.

Prevalence of Fecal Carriage of CTX-M-15 Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Healthy Children from a Rural Andean Village in Venezuela
María Araque, Indira Labrador
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(1):9-15.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.03
  • 2,905 View
  • 41 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Antimicrobial resistant extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) have been shown to be present in healthy communities. This study examined healthy children from the rural Andean village of Llano del Hato, Mérida, Venezuela, who have had little or no antibiotic exposure to determine the prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC).

Methods

A total of 78 fecal samples were collected in healthy children aged from 1 to 5 years. ESBL-EC were selected in MacConkey agar plates with cefotaxime and further confirmed by the VITEK 2 system. ESBL were phenotypically detected and presence of bla genes and their variants were confirmed by molecular assays. Determination of phylogenetic groups was performed by PCR amplification. Risk factors associated with fecal carriage of ESBL-EC-positive isolates were analyzed using standard statistical methods.

Results

Of the 78 children studied, 27 (34.6%) carried ESBL-EC. All strains harbored the blaCTX-M-15 allele. Of these, 8 were co-producers of blaTEM-1, blaTEM-5, blaSHV-5 or blaSHV-12. Co-resistance to aminoglycosides and/or fluoroquinolones was observed in 9 strains. 51.9% of ESBL-EC isolates were classified within phylogroup A. A significant, positive correlation was found between age (≥2.5 – ≤5 years), food consumption patterns and ESBL-EC fecal carriage.

Conclusion

This is the first study describing the high prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-EC expressing CTX-M-15- among very young, healthy children from a rural Andean village in Venezuela with scarce antibiotic exposure, underlining the importance of this population as a reservoir.

Associations between Social and Physical Environments, and Physical Activity in Adults from Urban and Rural Regions
Bongjeong Kim, Hye Sun Hyun
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(1):16-24.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.04
  • 2,570 View
  • 39 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study investigates investigated the relationship between social and physical environments, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) amongst adults in both rural and urban areas within Korea.

Methods

A sample of 128,735 adults from the 2013 Community Health Survey (CHS) was analyzed using a multilevel logistic analysis.

Results

Urban residents with higher satisfaction in public transportation satisfaction and rural residents with more access to sports parks, hiking trails, and bike cycle paths were more likely to be active. The MVPA of adults from rural areas correlated urban adults was uncorrelatedwith neighborhood factors, but that of rural adults was whereas no correlations were observed in adults from urban areas.

Conclusion

These differences should be considered when developing interventions strategies to enhance adult physical activity in different communities.

Perception and Practice of Road Safety among Medical Students, Mansoura, Egypt
Randah Helal, Ghada El-Khawaga, Abdel-Hady El-Gilany
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(1):25-31.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.05
  • 2,625 View
  • 42 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To assess the knowledge and attitude of medical students towards road safety and to determine their driving behavior and its relation to different related factors.

Methods

This cross-sectional study involved 480 medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect student personal data, knowledge about road safety, attitude towards road safety, and driving practices.

Results

More than 40% of students experienced an injury in the previous year, mainly as a pedestrian (56%), and 15.2% practiced driving, although only 9.6% had a driving licence. Most of the students had correct road safety knowledge except for awareness that the safe time to read maps is when your vehicle is parked (44%), one should drive in the left lane (29.6%), and one should overtake from the right-hand lane only (25.8%). The majority of the students reported that road traffic injuries can be prevented (89.2%). The mean score of the driving practices of the students ranged from 0.66±1.04 to 2.44±6.28 and rural residents showed significantly higher score regarding errors and lapses.

Conclusion

Good road safety knowledge and a favorable, low risk attitude, did not translate into improved road traffic behavior and this highlights the importance of stricter implementation of the existing rules and including road safety in medical education programs.

Brief Reports
Enhancing ‘Whole-of-Government’ Response to Biological Events in Korea: Able Response 2014
Sangwoo Tak, Anton Jareb, Suon Choi, Marvin Sikes, Yeon Hwa Choi, Hyeong-wook Boo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(1):32-35.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.06
  • 2,690 View
  • 34 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Since 2011, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and United States (U.S.) have been collaborating to conduct inter- and intra-governmental exercises to jointly respond to biological events in Korea. These exercises highlight U.S. interest in increasing its global biosurveillance capability and the ROK’s interest in improving cooperation among ministries to respond to crises. With Able Response (AR) exercises, the ROK and U.S. have improved coordination among US and ROK government and defense agencies responding to potential bio-threats and identified additional areas on which to apply refinements in policies and practices. In 2014, the AR exercise employed a Biosurveillance Portal (BSP) to facilitate more effective communication among participating agencies and countries including Australia. In the present paper, we seek to provide a comprehensive assessment of the AR 2014 (AR14) exercise and make recommendations for future improvements. Incorporating a more realistic response in future scenarios by integrating a tactical response episode in the exercise is recommended.

Evaluation of Hypertension Prevention and Control Programs in Lima, Peru
Bonhee Chung, Dohyeong Kim, Eun Woo Nam
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2018;9(1):36-41.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.1.07
  • 2,699 View
  • 31 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) established 4 health centers to provide hypertension screening and a health support program in a deprived urban area of Lima, Peru. This case report provides a mid-term evaluation of the KOICA’s hypertension prevention and control programs.

Methods

A follow up study was performed on 663 residents who were diagnosed with prehypertension or hypertension (Stage 1 and 2) in the 4 KOICA health centers. Patients participated in programs designed to prevent and control hypertension through education sessions over the course of 6 months. Using simple descriptive statistics and computer simulations, we evaluated the effect of hypertension prevention and control programs on the participants.

Results

The KOICA health programs appeared to significantly contribute to lowering the blood pressure (BP) of the participants. The total number of participants with normal BP increased from none to 109. Overall, the female and younger patients responded better to the KOICA programs than the male and older participants. In addition, the average systolic BP, diastolic BP, and body mass index of all participants was significantly reduced.

Conclusion

The KOICA programs were effective at lowering blood pressure, particularly amongst the prehypertension group than the Stage 1 and 2 hypertension groups. This suggests that providing an extensive screening service for adults with prehypertension will help control hypertension in the early stages.


PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives