Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Previous issues

Page Path
HOME > Articles and issues > Previous issues
10 Previous issues
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Authors
Volume 8(3); June 2017
Prev issue Next issue
Editorial
To Be or Not to Be
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):157-158.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.01
  • 1,938 View
  • 16 Download
PDF
Review Article
Foodborne Infectious Diseases Mediated by Inappropriate Infection Control in Food Service Businesses and Relevant Countermeasures in Korea
Jong Myong Park, Young-Hyun You, Hyun-Min Cho, Ji Won Hong, Sa-Youl Ghim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):159-168.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.02
  • 3,044 View
  • 30 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The objective of this review is to propose an appropriate course of action for improving the guidelines followed by food handlers for control of infection. For this purpose, previous epidemiological reports related to acute gastroenteritis in food service businesses mediated by food handlers were intensively analyzed.

Methods

Relevant studies were identified in international databases. We selected eligible papers reporting foodborne infectious disease outbreaks. Among primary literature collection, the abstract of each article was investigated to find cases that absolutely identified a causative factor to be food handlers’ inappropriate infection control and the taxon of causative microbial agents by epidemiological methodologies. Information about the sites (type of food business) where the outbreaks occurred was investigated.

Results

A wide variety of causative microbial agents has been investigated, using several epidemiological methods. These agents have shown diverse propagation pathways based on their own molecular pathogenesis, physiology, taxonomy, and etiology.

Conclusion

Depending on etiology, transmission, propagation, and microbiological traits, we can predict the transmission characteristics of pathogens in food preparation areas. The infected food workers have a somewhat different ecological place in infection epidemiology as compared to the general population. However, the current Korean Food Safety Act cannot propose detailed guidelines. Therefore, different methodologies have to be made available to prevent further infections.

Original Articles
Factors Affecting Sarcopenia in Korean Adults by Age Groups
Eun-Jung Bae, Yun-Hee Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):169-178.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.03
  • 3,381 View
  • 46 Download
  • 24 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to investigate factors affecting sarcopenia in different age groups among Korean adults aged 20 years or older.

Methods

In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 17,968, participants who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008–2011. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the associated factors of sarcopenia by age groups.

Results

The prevalence of sarcopenia increased significantly with age. Physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, vitamin D level were found to be factors significantly associated with sarcopenia in all age groups. Total energy intake was found to be a factor that is significantly associated with sarcopenia among the adults aged 20–39 years. Fasting glucose, suicidal ideation, perceived health status, mobility problem, pain/discomfort, total energy intake were found to be factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults aged 40–64 years. Sex, residential area, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose, osteoarthritis, fall experience, usual activity problem, protein intake were factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults over 65 years of age.

Conclusion

The findings show that sarcopenia in adults and the associated factors were different by age groups. Thus, these factors should be considered in the development of intervention programs for the care and prevention of sarcopenia, and such programs should be modified according to different age groups.

Long-term Treatment with Anti-platelet Agents for Collagen-induced Arthritis Improves Radiological Findings
Chan Kim, Toyou Kim, Jihyung Yoo, Dong-Hyuk Sheen, Sang Kwang Lee, Eun-Hye Choi, Tong Jin Chun, Seong-wook Kang, Seung-Cheol Shim, Mi-Kyoung Lim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):179-184.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.04
  • 2,367 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term effect of anti-platelet treatment on the radiological progression of collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

Methods

Female Lewis rats with collagen-induced arthritis were divided into three experimental groups: saline, aspirin monotherapy (n = 12), and aspirin–clopidogrel dual therapy (n = 12). Drugs were administered daily and continued up to 70 days after the induction of arthritis. The clinical arthritis index (weight, morphology score, and paw thickness) and radiological scores were evaluated.

Results

The clinical arthritis index peaked on day 20, while the radiological scores peaked on day 35. No intergroup difference was observed in the clinical arthritis index throughout the experiment. The aspirin–clopidogrel dual therapy group had a significantly higher mean radiological score than the other groups (p = 0.045) on day 35. Further treatments resulted in significantly improved radiological findings in the aspirin monotherapy and aspirin–clopidogrel dual therapy groups on day 70 but no significant improvement in the saline group.

Conclusion

Anti-platelet agent treatment improved radiological findings on day 70. These observations emphasize the importance of a future long-term study of the effects of anti-platelet agent treatment on arthritis.

Barriers, Attitudes, and Dietary Behaviors Regarding Sodium Reduction in the Elderly Korean–Chinese Population in Yanbian, China
Jounghee Lee, Wenying Cui, Meixiang Jin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):185-194.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.05
  • 2,358 View
  • 29 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This research investigated the barriers, attitudes, and dietary behaviors related to sodium reduction among the elderly Korean–Chinese population in Yanbian, China.

Methods

We conducted this pilot study using both descriptive research and a focus group interview at the elderly community center in Yanbian.

Results

In total, 21 elderly Korean–Chinese (average age, 71 years) were examined. The findings showed that the top three barriers to sodium reduction were 1) the difficulties associated with having meals with others, 2) a preference for liquid based-dishes, and 3) the lack of taste in low-sodium dishes. Although the participants strongly believed that a reduced-sodium diet would improve their health, they were poorly aware of the amount of sodium in various foods and dishes. In particular, the focus group interviews with eight participants (mean age, 67 years) revealed that salt-preserved foods (e.g., Korean pickled cabbage called ‘kimchi’ and soybean paste) were frequently consumed as part of their food culture, and that very salty dishes were served at restaurants, both of which lead to a high sodium intake.

Conclusion

This study provides useful preliminary data to help design a nutrition intervention program for sodium reduction that targets the elderly Korean–Chinese population in China.

Prevalence and Determinants of Preterm Birth in Tehran, Iran: A Comparison between Logistic Regression and Decision Tree Methods
Payam Amini, Saman Maroufizadeh, Reza Omani Samani, Omid Hamidi, Mahdi Sepidarkish
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):195-200.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.06
  • 2,798 View
  • 29 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal death and the second biggest cause of death in children under five years of age. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PTB and its associated factors using logistic regression and decision tree classification methods.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4,415 pregnant women in Tehran, Iran, from July 6–21, 2015. Data were collected by a researcher-developed questionnaire through interviews with mothers and review of their medical records. To evaluate the accuracy of the logistic regression and decision tree methods, several indices such as sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve were used.

Results

The PTB rate was 5.5% in this study. The logistic regression outperformed the decision tree for the classification of PTB based on risk factors. Logistic regression showed that multiple pregnancies, mothers with preeclampsia, and those who conceived with assisted reproductive technology had an increased risk for PTB (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Identifying and training mothers at risk as well as improving prenatal care may reduce the PTB rate. We also recommend that statisticians utilize the logistic regression model for the classification of risk groups for PTB.

Age-differentiated Risk Factors of Suicidal Ideation among Young and Middle-aged Korean Adults
Ahra Jo, Minho Jeon, Heeyoung Oh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):201-210.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.07
  • 2,415 View
  • 28 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults, and explore the risk factors that affect suicidal ideation.

Methods

A descriptive study design was used for secondary data analysis. A total sample of 5,214 was drawn from two waves (2012–2013) of the 7th Korea Health Panel (KHP) survey. The KHP data were collected by a well-trained interviewer using the face-to-face method during home visits as well as self-report method. Descriptive statistics of frequency, percentage, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were performed using SPSS 22.0.

Results

The prevalence of suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was 4.4% and 5.6%, respectively. For young adults, suicidal ideation risk was higher among those with low income or heavy drinking habits. In middle-aged adults, low income, poor perceived health status, negative perception of peer-compared health status, and negative social perspective were the major risk factors.

Conclusion

There is considerable risk of suicidal ideation in adulthood. Opportunities for increased income, avoidance of heavy drinking, and the construction of positive subjective health status and social perspective should be considered in suicide prevention interventions for Korean young and middle-aged adults.

Antibiotic Resistance Patterns and Serotypes of Salmonella spp. Isolated at Jeollanam-do in Korea
Ki-Bok Yoon, Byung-Joon Song, Mi-Yeong Shin, Hyun-Cheol Lim, Yeon-Hee Yoon, Doo-Young Jeon, Hoon Ha, Soo-In Yang, Jung-Beom Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):211-219.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.08
  • 3,025 View
  • 36 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Few long-term studies have been conducted on the serotype and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella speices (spp.) The aim of this study was to determine the serotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella spp. isolated at Jeollanam-do in Korea from 2004 to 2014.

Methods

A total of 276 Salmonella samples were evaluated. Serotyping was carried out according to the Kauffmann–White scheme. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Vitek II system with an AST-N169 card.

Results

A total of 22 different serotypes were identified, and the major serotypes were Salmonella Enteritidis (116 strains, 42.0%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (60 strains, 21.7%). The highest resistance was observed in response to nalidixic acid (43.4%), followed by ampicillin (40.5%) and tetracycline (31.6%). Resistance to nalidixic acid was detected in 81.0% of S. Enteritidis. Multidrug resistance was detected in 43.3% of Salmonella spp. S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium presented the highest resistance (98.3%) and multidrug resistance rate (73.3%), respectively. The most highly observed antibiotic resistance pattern among Salmonella spp. in this study was ampicillin-chloramphenicol (14 strains, 5.7%),

Conclusion

Overall, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium showed higher antibiotic resistance than the other Salmonella serotypes tested in this study. Our study will provide useful information for investigating the sources of Salmonella infections, as well as selecting effective antibiotics for treatment.

Profiling of Virulence-associated Factors in Shigella Species Isolated from Acute Pediatric Diarrheal Samples in Tehran, Iran
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Somayeh Yasliani Fard, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mahmood Mahmoudi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):220-226.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.09
  • 2,748 View
  • 31 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The genus Shigella comprises the most infectious and diarrheagenic bacteria causing severe diseases, mostly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to detect nine virulence genes (ipaBCD, VirA, sen, set1A, set1B, ial, ipaH, stx, and sat) in Shigella species (spp.) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) and to determine the relation of Shigella spp. from pediatric diarrheal samples with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea in Tehran, Iran.

Methods

Shigella spp. were isolated and identified using standard microbiological and serological methods. The virulence genes were detected using MPCR.

Results

Seventy-five Shigella spp. (40 S. sonnei, 33 S. flexneri, 1 S. dysenteriae, and 1 S. boydii) were isolated in this study. The prevalence of ial, sen, sat, set1A, and set1B was 74.7%, 45.4%, 28%, 24%, and 24%, respectively. All S. flexneri isolates, while no S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, or S. boydii isolates, contained sat, set1A, and set1B. All isolates were positive for ipaH, ipaBCD, and virA, while one (1.4%) of the isolates contained stx. The highest prevalence of virulence determinants was found in S. flexneri serotype IIa. Nineteen (57.6%) of 33 S. flexneri isolates were positive for ipaBCD, ipaH, virA, ial, and sat. The sen determinants were found to be statistically significantly associated with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea (p = 0.001).

Conclusion

This study revealed a high prevalence of enterotoxin genes in S. flexneri, especially in serotype 2a, and has presented relations between a few clinical features of shigellosis and numerous virulence determinants of clinical isolates of Shigella spp.

Hippocampus-dependent Task Improves the Cognitive Function after Ovariectomy in Rats
Songhee Cheon
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(3):227-234.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.3.10
  • 2,444 View
  • 23 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Estrogen is an important hormone for cell growth, development, and differentiation by transcriptional regulation and modulation of intracellular signaling via second messengers. The reduction in the estrogen level after ovariectomy may lead to cognitive impairments associated with morphological changes in areas of the brain mediate memory. The aim of the present study was to find out the effect of tasks on the cognitive function after ovariectomy in rats.

Methods

The animals used in the experiment were 50 Sprague-Dawley female rats. This study applied a hippocampus-independent task (wheel running) and a hippocampus-dependent task (Morris water maze) after ovariectomy in rats and measured the cognitive performance (object-recognition and object-location test) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) expression in the hippocampus, which is an important center for memory and learning.

Results

There were meaningful differences between the hippocampus-independent and hippocampus-dependent task groups for the object-location test and GAP-43 and NT-3 expression in the hippocampus, but not the object-recognition test. However, the hippocampus-independent task group showed a significant improvement in the object-recognition test, compared to the control group.

Conclusion

These results suggest that hippocampus-dependent task training after ovariectomy enhances the hippocampus-related memory and cognitive function that are associated with morphological and functional changes in the cells of the hippocampus.


PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives