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Volume 8(2); April 2017
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Editorial
Depression among Middle-aged Persons
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):105-107.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.01
  • 1,767 View
  • 19 Download
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Review Article
Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among Children in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Mahmood Moosazadeh, Ghasem Abedi, Mahdi Afshari, Seif Ali Mahdavi, Fereshteh Farshidi, Elham Kheradmand
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):108-115.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.02
  • 2,376 View
  • 49 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Enterobius vermicularis is a parasitic disease that is common in crowded areas such as schools and kindergartens. Primary investigations of electronic evidence have reported different prevalences of E. vermicularis in Iran. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total prevalence of this infection among Iranian children using a meta-analysis.

Methods

Relevant studies were identified in national and international databases. We selected eligible papers for meta-analysis after investigating titles, abstracts, and full texts; assessing study quality; and applying inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two independent researchers. The results were combined using a random effects model in Stata v. 11 software.

Results

Among 19 eligible articles including 11,676 participants, the prevalences of E. vermicularis among all children, boys, and girls were 1.2%–66.1%, 2.3%–65.5%, and 1.7%–65.5%, respectively. Pooled prevalences (95% confidence interval) of E. vermicularis among all children, boys, and girls were 17.2% (12.6%–21.8%), 17.2% (12.6%–21.8%), and 16.9% (9.03%–24.8%), respectively.

Conclusion

This meta-analysis showed that a great majority of Iranian children are infected with E. vermicularis, possibly due to poor public health.

Original Articles
Low Levels of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis among Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Isolates and Their Relationship to Risk Factors: Surveillance in Tehran, Iran; 2006 to 2014
Alireza Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Shamsi Yari, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Abolfazl Fateh, Ahmadreza Bahrmand
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):116-123.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.03
  • 1,855 View
  • 23 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is more expensive and difficult to treat than multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and outcomes for patients are much worse; therefore, it is important that clinicians understand the magnitude and distribution of XDR-TB. We conducted a retrospective study to compare the estimated incidence of and risk factors for M/XDR-TB with those of susceptible TB controls.

Methods

Sputum culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) were performed in patients with known or suspected TB. Strains that were identified as MDR were subjected to DST for second-line drugs using the proportion method.

Results

Among 1,442 TB patients (mean age, 46.48 ± 21.24 years) who were culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1,126 (78.1%) yielded isolates that were resistant to at least one first-line drug; there were 33 isolates (2.3%) of MDR-TB, of which three (0.2%) were classified as XDR-TB. Ofloxacin resistance was found in 10 (0.7%) isolates. Women were 15% more likely than men to yield M/XDR-TB isolates, but this difference was not significant. In a multivariate analysis comparing susceptible TB with X/MDR-TB, only one variable—the number of previous treatment regimens—was associated with MDR (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.14–21.2).

Conclusion

The burden of M/XDR-TB cases is not sizeable in Iran. Nonetheless, strategies must be implemented to identify and cure patients with pre-XDR-TB before they develop XDR-TB. Our results provide a greater understanding of the evolution and spread of M/XDR-TB in an environment where drug-resistant TB has a low incidence.

Quality of Life of Chronic Hepatitis C Patients and Its Associated Factors
Hoo Jeung Cho, Euna Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):124-129.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.04
  • 2,237 View
  • 27 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).

Methods

This study is based on a descriptive survey and involved 125 gastroenterology outpatients visiting a university hospital in South Korea as the participants. HRQOL was assessed using the Liver Disease Quality of Life 1.0, which consisted of Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the Liver Disease Targeted Scale. Data were collected from December 2015 to April 2016, which were then analyzed through multiple regression analysis.

Results

HRQOL had a statistically significant correlation with age, sex, educational level, living type, employment status, monthly income level, and comorbidity status. This study showed that age > 51 years, female sex, high educational level, living alone, unemployment status, low monthly income, and presence of comorbidity had negative effects on the HRQOL of patients with CHC (R2 = 8.7%–34.6%).

Conclusion

Based on the result of this study, intervention for patients with CHC needs to be developed to enhance their HRQOL. The findings can serve as a useful reference for nursing personnel in the development of therapeutic plans to upgrade the care of CHC patients.

Sex-based Association between Depression and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Middle-aged and Older Adults
Jin Suk Ra, Hye Sun Kim
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):130-137.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.05
  • 2,213 View
  • 44 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study aimed to identify the sex-based association between depression and the development of metabolic syndrome (Mets) among middle-aged and older Korean adults.

Methods

A cross-sectional design was used for the secondary analysis of the 2010–2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from 1,938 men and 2,404 women were analyzed. Mets was defined in accordance with the criteria used for clinical diagnosis. Depression was assessed with a question about having clinical depression. The association between depression and the development of Mets with or without adjustment for covariates was identified by conducting logistic regression analysis on weighted data using a complex sample procedure.

Results

More women than men had depression. Before covariate adjustment, depression was significantly associated with the development of Mets among women (odds ratio [OR], 1.586; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.152–2.183) and with a higher triglyceride level among men (OR, 1.679; 95% CI, 1.001–2.818). After covariate adjustment; depression was significantly associated with higher waist circumference among women (adjusted OR [AOR], 1.532; 95% CI, 1.046–2.245) and higher triglyceride level (AOR, 1.511; 95% CI, 1.029–2.219) than was Mets. Conversely, depression did not have significant effects on the development of Mets among men.

Conclusion

Depression was associated with the development of Mets among middle-aged and older Korean women. Healthcare providers in communities should assess women with depression for the presence of Mets components. Interventions for relieving depressive symptoms should also be provided to women at risk for Mets.

Childhood Obesity Is a High-risk Factor for Hypertriglyceridemia: A Case-control Study in Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Hong Hanh, Le Thi Tuyet, Duong Thi Anh Dao, Yang Tao, Dinh-Toi Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):138-146.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.06
  • 2,136 View
  • 31 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia and obesity status among Viet-namese adolescents.

Methods

In this case-control study, 282 adolescents (6–11 years), including 88 obese cases and 194 normal-weight controls, were recruited from a population-based cross-sectional study from two provinces in Vietnam. The anthropometric, blood lipid, and other laboratory test results of the study subjects were analyzed.

Results

Obese children tended to have more visceral fat (Pearson’s r = 0.795, p < 0.0001) than subcutaneous fat (Pearson’s r = 0.754, p < 0.0001), and this difference was associated with an increase in blood triglyceride level (Pearson’s r = 0.232, p < 0.05) and a strikingly high rate of hypertriglyceridemia (38.6%). We also found that birth weight and parental body mass index were related to the status of obesity among the study subjects. However, only birth weight was significantly higher in the obese group than in the normal weight group. These findings indicate the effect of prenatal nutrition on childhood obesity. Furthermore, high-birth weight children had a surprisingly high rate of obesity.

Conclusion

Together, our data suggest that obesity increased the risk for hypertriglyceridemia, which was, at least partially, due to prenatal nutrition.

Short Communication
What Makes Vietnamese (Not) Attend Periodic General Health Examinations? A 2016 Cross-sectional Study
Quan-Hoang Vuong, Quang-Hoi Vu, Thu-Trang Vuong
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):147-154.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.07
  • 2,018 View
  • 23 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives

General health examinations (GHE) have become an increasingly common measure for preventive medicine in Vietnam. However, little is known about the factors among Viet-namese people who attend or miss GHE. Budget or time constraints remain to be evaluated for better-informed policy making. This study investigates factors affecting behaviors in attending periodic GHE. The main objectives are as follows: (1) to explore empirical relationships between influencing factors and periodic GHE frequencies, and (2) to predict the probabilities of attending GHE under associated conditions.

Methods

The study used a 2,068-observational dataset, obtained from a Vietnamese survey in 2016. The analysis was then performed using the methods of baseline-category logits for establishing relationships between predictor and response variables.

Results

Significant relationships were found among the expenditure and time consumption, health priority and sensitivity to health data, insurance status, and frequency of GHE, with most p-values = 0.01.

Conclusion

Generally, people attended the GHE when they had the resources and health priorities (72.7% probability). Expenditure and time remain key obstacles to the periodic GHE. Health priority and health data are important in improving rates for GHEs. Health insurance should play a positive role in promoting the GHE.

Correspondence
Necessity of a Surveillance System for Tick-borne Encephalitis
Seok-Ju Yoo, Ji-Hyuk Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2017;8(2):155-155.   Published online April 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2017.8.2.08
  • 1,645 View
  • 22 Download
  • 2 Citations
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PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives