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Volume 7(5); October 2016
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Editorial
Fallen Flowers
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):279-280.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.09.002
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PDF
Original Articles
How do Sexual Identity, and Coming Out Affect Stress, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation and Attempts Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in South Korea?
Byonghee Cho, Aeree Sohn
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):281-288.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.09.001
  • 1,921 View
  • 24 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study investigated the status of sexual identity, perceived stigma, stress, depression, and suicidal ideation and attempts. It also examined how sexual identity and “coming out” affect stress, depression, and suicidal ideation and attempts.
Methods
Suicidal ideation, psychological health status, and health-related behaviors were assessed using the Internet to maximize the confidentiality of the participants, men who have sex with men (MSM). The data were collected from a total of 873 MSM aged between 19 years and 59 years in 2014.
Results
Only 20.9% of the MSM had come out (18.0% voluntarily and 2.9% by others). The prevalences of perceived stress and depression among MSM were 46.7% and 42.7%, respectively, compared with 20.1% and 7.4% among general men. Approximately 32% of the MSM reported any suicidal ideation, and 3.3% had attempted suicide in the past year. The likelihood of suicidal ideation was significantly associated with being age 30–39 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8], high school or less (OR = 1.6), having been outed (OR = 5.2), feeling stressed (OR = 1.8), and feeling depressed (OR = 12.4) after sociodemographic factors and other perceptions were controlled for.
Conclusion
The present study provides evidence that MSM are at an elevated risk for suicidal ideation and attempts with high stress and depression. Some risk factors were specific to being gay or bisexual in a hostile environment.
Relationship Between Water Intake and Metabolic/Heart Diseases: Based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Soobin Jang, Chunhoo Cheon, Bo-Hyoung Jang, Sunju Park, So-Mi Oh, Yong-Cheol Shin, Seong-Gyu Ko
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):289-295.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.08.007
  • 1,807 View
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  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to identify the correlation between adequate water intake and the prevalence of metabolic/heart diseases.
Methods
We analyzed the data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All participants were divided into Group Above Adequate Intake (n = 736) and Group Below Adequate Intake (n = 4,819) according to water intake. The thresholds were 1.8 L for men and 1.4 L for women based on the World Health Organization report findings. Logistic regression analyses were performed to verify the correlation between water intake and prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction, and angina pectoris.
Results
There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of the following variables: age, smoking, alcohol, stress, dietary supplements, body weight, physical activity, total calorie intake, water intakes from food, and sodium intake. Participants in Group Above Adequate Intake showed a higher prevalence of hypertension [odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58–2.55], diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 0.51–3.73), angina pectoris (OR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.47–1.86), and myocardial infarction (OR = 5.36; 95% CI, 0.67–43.20) than those in Group Below Adequate Intake, whereas the latter showed a slightly higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 0.88–57.84) than the former.
Conclusion
There was no statistically significant association between water intake and any of the metabolic/heart diseases. However, further studies on water intake are needed to confirm our findings.
Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca in Clinical Isolates in Tehran Hospitals, Iran by Chromogenic Medium and Molecular Methods
Majid Validi, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Masoumeh Douraghi, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):301-306.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.08.006
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  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Production of carbapenemase, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC), is one of the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella oxytoca. This study aimed to investigate and identify KPC-producing K. oxytoca isolates using molecular and phenotypic methods.
Methods
A total of 75 isolates of K. oxytoca were isolated from various clinical samples, and were verified as K. oxytoca after performing standard microbiological tests and using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using a disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. CHROMagar KPC chromogenic culture media was used to examine and confirm the production of the carbapenemase enzyme in K. oxytoca isolates; in addition, PCR was used to evaluate the presence of blaKPC gene in K. oxytoca strains.
Results
Of a total of 75 K. oxytoca isolates, one multidrug resistant strain was isolated from the urine of a hospitalized woman. This strain was examined to assess its ability to produce carbapenemase enzyme; it produced a colony with a blue metallic color on the CHROMagar KPC chromogenic culture media. In addition, the blaKPC gene was confirmed by PCR. After sequencing, it was confirmed and deposited in GenBank.
Conclusion
To date, many cases of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae, in particular K. pneumoniae, have been reported in different countries; there are also some reports on the identification of KPC-producing K. oxytoca. Therefore, to prevent the outbreak of nosocomial infections, the early detection, control, and prevention of the spread of these strains are of great importance.
Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone-Resistance (qnr) Genes in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli Collected from Several Hospitals of Qazvin and Zanjan Provinces, Iran
Maryam Rezazadeh, Hamid Baghchesaraei, Amir Peymani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):307-312.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.08.003
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  • 21 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Escherichia coli is regarded as the most important etiological agent of urinary tract infections. Fluoroquinolones are routinely used in the treatment of these infections; however, in recent years, a growing rate of resistance to these drugs has been reported globally. The aims of this study were to detect plasmid-mediated qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes among the quinolone-nonsusceptible E. coli isolates and to investigate their clonal relatedness in Qazvin and Zanjan Provinces, Iran.
Methods
A total of 200 clinical isolates of E. coli were collected from hospitalized patients. The bacterial isolates were identified through standard laboratory protocols and further confirmed using API 20E test strips. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the standard disk diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were used for detecting qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes and the clonal relatedness of qnr-positive isolates was evaluated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) method.
Results
In total, 136 (68%) isolates were nonsusceptible to quinolone compounds, among which 45 (33.1%) and 71 (52.2%) isolates showed high- and low-level quinolone resistance, respectively. Of the 136 isolates, four (2.9%) isolates were positive for the qnrS1 gene. The results from ERIC-PCR revealed that two (50%) cases of qnr-positive isolates were related genetically.
Conclusion
Our study results were indicative of the presence of low frequency of qnr genes among the clinical isolates of E. coli in Qazvin and Zanjan Provinces, which emphasizes the need for establishing tactful policies associated with infection-control measures in our hospital settings.
Comparing Two Methods of Cryotherapy and Intense Pulsed Light with Triamcinolone Injection in the Treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars: A Clinical Trial
Simin Shamsi Meymandi, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Azadeh Rezazadeh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):313-319.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.08.005
  • 1,827 View
  • 15 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Keloid and hypertrophic scars are abnormal manifestations of wounds that occur following skin injuries in the form of local proliferation of fibroblasts and increased production of collagen. There are several ways to cure these scars; treatment must be selected based on the nature of the scars. In this clinical trial, two methods—cryotherapy and intense pulsed light (IPL)—are compared in the treatment of scars, and the results are presented in terms of improvement level, complications, and patient satisfaction.
Methods
This clinical trial was conducted in southeastern Iran. The intervention group included scars that underwent the IPL method and the control group, which consisted of scars that were subjected to cryotherapy. In both methods, intralesional corticosteroid injection was administered. To select samples, the easy sampling method was used. To determine the expected outcomes, the criteria determined in the Vancouver scar scale were used. Data were analyzed using the Mix Model, chi-square test, and t test.
Results
In this study, 166 samples of keloid and hypertrophic scars were cured using two methods (Cryotherapy, 83; IPL, 83). The recovery rate was higher in the Cryotherapy group than in the IPL group (p > 0.05), and the incidence of complications was also higher in the Cryotherapy group (14.5% vs. 12%). Moreover, patients were more satisfied, although not significantly so, with the cryotherapy method (p = 0.09).
Conclusion
Both methods were highly successful in curing scars; participants were totally satisfied with both methods.
Tuberculosis Notification Completeness and Timeliness in the Republic of Korea During 2012–2014
Hae-Young Kang, Hyosoon Yoo, Wonseo Park, Unyeong Go, Eunkyeong Jeong, Ki-Suck Jung, Hyunjin Son
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):320-326.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.08.002
  • 2,359 View
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  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Completeness and timeliness are key attributes of accurate disease surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the completeness and timeliness of tuberculosis (TB) notification in the Republic of Korea, by comparing notification data from the Korean National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and reimbursement data from the National Health Insurance.
Methods
We evaluated reimbursement data from 103,075 cases (2012–2014) and surveillance data from 215,055 cases (2011–2015); cases were matched using Resident Registration Numbers. Completeness was evaluated using notifications that were reported within 365 days of the corresponding insurance claim. Timeliness was evaluated using the delay between starting TB treatment and the corresponding notification. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze factors that affected completeness (e.g., sex, age, institution type, and nationality).
Results
The completeness values were 90.0% in 2012 (33,094/36,775), 93.0% in 2013 (31,445/33,803), and 94.0% in 2014 (30,537/32,497). The rates of notification within 7 days of the corresponding claim were 81.6% in 2012 (27,323/33,489), 79.8% in 2013 (25,469/31,905), and 80.4% in 2014 (24,891/30,978). Increases over time were observed in the sex-, age-, institution type-, and nationality-specific analyses. Multivariate analyses revealed that completeness was affected by institution type [hospitals: odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, p < 0.001; general hospitals: OR = 4.18, p < 0.001] and nationality (native Korean status: OR = 1.48, p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Notification completeness exhibited a 4.0% increase during 2012–2014 in Korea, and institution type and nationality significantly affected the completeness of TB notifications.
AIDS Awareness: Indispensible Prerequisite Among Fishermen Population
Swapna B. Shetty, Darshan D. Divakar, M.H.N. Dalati, Sajith Vellappally, Sukumaran Anil, Marey A. Alshehry, Baher Felemban, Al S. Mamdouh, Obaid A. Alshahrani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):327-333.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.09.003
  • 1,784 View
  • 24 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Fishermen are among the most vulnerable groups for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS with reported high prevalence. Poor knowledge base has been evidenced by a few studies. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among fishermen of the Kutch coast, Gujarat, India.
Methods
A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 950 fishermen of the Kutch coast, in the months of January–February 2015. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS of fishermen was assessed using structured interview schedules with 12 questions. The information on socio-demographic characteristics was also obtained. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. The confidence level and level of significance were fixed at 95% and 5%, respectively.
Results
A major proportion of participants (57.2%) had no access to any potential source of information and had never heard about HIV/AIDS (65.1%). Some of them were aware of modes of transmission of AIDS but only a few of them knew about the methods of prevention. Only 23.1% of participants were observed with appropriate knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS. Bivariate and multivariate analysis revealed significant variation in the proportion of participants with appropriate knowledge with age and educational status.
Conclusion
Overall, the knowledge of the fishermen community in the present study was evidenced to be poor creating an alarming situation demanding educative interventions as a part of AIDS control programs.
A Case–control Study on the Relationship between Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in Women with Normal Pregnancy and Spontaneous Abortion using Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Mazaher Khodabandehloo, Fariba Farhadifar, Samaneh Rouhi, Amjad Ahmadi, Shaho Menbari, Fariba Fallahi, Reza Mirnejad
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(5):334-338.   Published online October 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.07.001
  • 1,657 View
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  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Mycoplasma genitalium infections are suggested as causes of a number of pathological outcomes in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of M. genitalium infections among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion.
Methods
In this case–control study we included 109 women with spontaneous abortion with a gestational age of 10–20 weeks (patients), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with a gestational age of 20–37 weeks (controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. Using specific primers and extracted DNA from endocervical swabs, a polymerase chain reaction was conducted for the detection of M. genitalium infection in both groups.
Results
The frequency of M. genitalium infection in patient and control groups was one (0.91%) and three (2.75%), respectively. In both control and patient groups using Fisher test, no association between mycoplasma infection and spontaneous abortion was seen.
Conclusion
M. genitalium may be positive in the genital tract of some pregnant women but was not associated with spontaneous abortion. Further powerful studies with larger sample sizes are needed for the determination of a possible role of M. genitalium in pregnancy outcomes and spontaneous abortion.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives