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Volume 7(4); August 2016
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Editorial
A moment of truth
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):211-212.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.08.001
  • 1,586 View
  • 16 Download
PDF
Original Articles
Distribution of Antibodies Specific to the 19-kDa and 33-kDa Fragments of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 1 in Two Pathogenic Strains Infecting Korean Vivax Malaria Patients
Sylvatrie-Danne Dinzouna-Boutamba, Sanghyun Lee, Ui-Han Son, Su-Min Song, Hye Soo Yun, So-Young Joo, Dongmi Kwak, Man Hee Rhee, Dong-Il Chung, Yeonchul Hong, Youn-Kyoung Goo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):213-219.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.05.006
  • 1,751 View
  • 19 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP1) is the most intensively studied malaria vaccine candidate. Although high antibody response-inducing two C-terminal fragments of PvMSP1 (PvMSP1-19 and PvMSP1-42) are currently being developed as candidate malaria vaccine antigens, their high genetic diversity in various isolates is a major hurdle. The sequence polymorphism of PvMSP1 has been investigated; however, the humoral immune responses induced by different portions of this protein have not been evaluated in Korea.
Methods
Two fragments of PvMSP1 were selected for this study: (1) PvMSP1-19, which is genetically conserved; and (2) PvMSP1-33, which corresponds to a variable portion. For the latter, two representative strains, Sal 1 and Belem, were included. Thus, three recombinant proteins, PvMSP1-19, PvMSP1-33 Sal 1, and PvMSP1-33 Belem, were produced in Escherichia coli and then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using sera from 221 patients with vivax malaria.
Results
Of the 221 samples, 198, 142, and 106 samples were seropositive for PvMSP1-19, PvMSP1-33 Sal 1, and PvMSP1-33 Belem, respectively. Although 100 samples were simultaneously seropositive for antibodies specific to all the recombinant proteins, 39 and six samples were respectively seropositive for antibodies specific to MSP1-33 Sal 1 and MSP1-33 Belem. Antibodies specific to PvMSP1-19 were the most prevalent.
Conclusion
Monitoring seroprevalence is essential for the selection of promising vaccine candidates as most of the antigenic proteins in P. vivax are highly polymorphic.
Does Skipping Breakfast and Being Overweight Influence Academic Achievement Among Korean Adolescents?
Yang Wha Kang, Jong-Hyock Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):220-227.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.05.004
  • 1,736 View
  • 22 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Health status and health behaviors are associated with academic achievement in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skipping breakfast and being overweight are related to academic achievement of Korean adolescents.
Methods
Cross-sectional data on a sample of 1,652 high-school seniors (942 males and 710 females) drawn from the 2004 Korea Education Employment Panel were analyzed.
Results
A higher proportion of males (15.3%) than females (6.1%) was overweight (p < 0.001); 37% of males and 41% of females reported skipping breakfast. Overall test scores were significantly higher for females than males (p < 0.05), and in language and foreign language subjects. However, both males and females who reported skipping breakfast had significantly lower scores in language, mathematics, and foreign language than those who did not report skipping breakfast. Overweight males had a lower probability than normal-weight males of having the highest language scores (OR = 0.52, p < 0.05), but there was no difference among females. Females who skipped breakfast had a lower probability of having the highest scores in language (OR = 0.41, p < 0.05), mathematics (OR = 0.24, p < 0.01), or foreign language (OR = 0.18, p < 0.01), while males had a lower probability of having the highest scores in language only (OR = 0.46, p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Skipping breakfast and being overweight are associated with poor academic achievement in Korean adolescents. Eating breakfast and weight control is being discussed as the overlooked factors that may influence better academic achievement.
High Tobacco Use among Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients, South India: Time to Integrate Control of Two Epidemics
Kunal Pradip Kanakia, Marie Gilbert Majella, Pruthu Thekkur, Gomathi Ramaswamy, Divya Nair, Palanivel Chinnakali
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):228-232.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.06.001
  • 1,802 View
  • 21 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Tobacco is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) infection and TB disease. Identifying tobacco users and providing tobacco cessation services is expected to reduce the burden of TB. We assessed tobacco use among presumptive TB patients attending a tertiary hospital and their willingness to attend tobacco cessation services.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted among presumptive TB patients attending a designated microscopy center of a tertiary hospital in South India. All presumptive TB patients aged ≥ 18 years attending the designated microscopy center were interviewed using a semistructured interview schedule. Data on presumptive TB patient's age, sex, tobacco use and forms of tobacco, attempts to quit tobacco since 1 year, and willingness to attend a smoking cessation clinic in tertiary hospital were captured. History of use of tobacco in the past 1 month was considered as “tobacco use.”.
Results
A total of 424 presumptive TB patients aged ≥ 18 years were interviewed. Tobacco use in the past 1 month was reported by 176 (41.5%, 95% confidence interval: 36.9–46.3%) presumptive TB patients. In total, 78 (18%) presumptive TB patients were eventually diagnosed with smear-positive pulmonary TB, of them 63 (80%) were tobacco users. Presumptive TB patients aged ≥ 30 years, male sex, and < 10 years of education were significantly associated with tobacco use. Of 176, a majority of 132 (75%) used some form of smoking. Of a total of 132 smokers, 70 (53%) were willing to avail of tobacco cessation services.
Conclusion
Tobacco use among presumptive TB patients was high. Considering the high willingness to quit among smokers, proven brief interventions to help quit smoking can be tried.
Evaluating Service Quality from Patients' Perceptions: Application of Importance–performance Analysis Method
Rafat Mohebifar, Hana Hasani, Ameneh Barikani, Sima Rafiei
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):233-238.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.05.002
  • 2,034 View
  • 17 Download
  • 33 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Providing high service quality is one of the main functions of health systems. Measuring service quality is the basic prerequisite for improving quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of service in teaching hospitals using importance–performance analysis matrix.
Methods
A descriptive–analytic study was conducted through a cross-sectional method in six academic hospitals of Qazvin, Iran, in 2012. A total of 360 patients contributed to the study. The sampling technique was stratified random sampling. Required data were collected based on a standard questionnaire (SERVQUAL). Data analysis was done through SPSS version 18 statistical software and importance–performance analysis matrix.
Results
The results showed a significant gap between importance and performance in all five dimensions of service quality (p < 0.05). In reviewing the gap, “reliability” (2.36) and “assurance” (2.24) dimensions had the highest quality gap and “responsiveness” had the lowest gap (1.97). Also, according to findings, reliability and assurance were in Quadrant (I), empathy was in Quadrant (II), and tangibles and responsiveness were in Quadrant (IV) of the importance–performance matrix.
Conclusion
The negative gap in all dimensions of quality shows that quality improvement is necessary in all dimensions. Using quality and diagnosis measurement instruments such as importance–performance analysis will help hospital managers with planning of service quality improvement and achieving long-term goals.
Assessment of Service Quality in Teaching Hospitals of Yazd University of Medical Sciences: Using Multi-criteria Decision Making Techniques
Milad Shafii, Sima Rafiei, Fatemeh Abooee, Mohammad Amin Bahrami, Mojtaba Nouhi, Farhad Lotfi, Khatere Khanjankhani
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):239-247.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.05.001
  • 1,946 View
  • 18 Download
  • 22 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Hospitals as integrated parts of the wide-ranging health care systems have dominant focus on health care provision to meet, maintain and promote people's health needs of a community. This study aimed to assess the service quality of teaching hospitals of Yazd University of Medical Sciences using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS).
Methods
A literature review and a qualitative method were used to obtain experts' viewpoints about the quality dimensions of hospital services to design a questionnaire. Then, using a self-made questionnaire, perceptions of 300 patients about the quality of delivered services were gathered. Finally, FAHP was applied to weigh each quality dimension and TOPSIS method to rank hospital wards.
Results
Six dimensions including responsiveness, assurance, security, tangibles, health communication and Patient orientation were identified as affecting aspects of hospital services quality among which, security and tangibles got the highest and lowest importance respectively (0.25406, 0.06883). Findings also revealed that in hospital A, orthopedics and ophthalmology wards obtained the highest score in terms of quality while cardiology department got the lowest ranking (0.954, 0.323). In hospital B, the highest and the lowest ranking was belonged to cardiology and surgical wards (0.895, 0.00) while in hospital C, surgical units were rated higher than internal wards (0.959, 0.851).
Conclusion
Findings emphasized that the security dimension got the lowest ranking among SERVQUAL facets in studied hospitals. This requires hospital executives to pay special attention to the issue of patients’ security and plan effectively for its promotion.
Development of a Food Safety and Nutrition Education Program for Adolescents by Applying Social Cognitive Theory
Jounghee Lee, Soyeon Jeong, Gyeongah Ko, Hyunshin Park, Youngsook Ko
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):248-260.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.05.005
  • 1,916 View
  • 17 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to develop an educational model regarding food safety and nutrition. In particular, we aimed to develop educational materials, such as middle- and high-school textbooks, a teacher’s guidebook, and school posters, by applying social cognitive theory.
Methods
To develop a food safety and nutrition education program, we took into account diverse factors influencing an individual’s behavior, such as personal, behavioral, and environmental factors, based on social cognitive theory. We also conducted a pilot study of the educational materials targeting middle-school students (n = 26), high-school students (n = 24), and dietitians (n = 13) regarding comprehension level, content, design, and quality by employing the 5-point Likert scale in May 2016.
Results
The food safety and nutrition education program covered six themes: (1) caffeine; (2) food additives; (3) foodborne illness; (4) nutrition and meal planning; (5) obesity and eating disorders; and (6) nutrition labeling. Each class activity was created to improve self-efficacy by setting one’s own goal and to increase self-control by monitoring one’s dietary intake. We also considered environmental factors by creating school posters and leaflets to educate teachers and parents. The overall evaluation score for the textbook was 4.0 points among middle- and high-school students, and 4.5 points among dietitians.
Conclusion
This study provides a useful program model that could serve as a guide to develop educational materials for nutrition-related subjects in the curriculum. This program model was created to increase awareness of nutrition problems and self-efficacy. This program also helped to improve nutrition management skills and to promote a healthy eating environment in middle- and high-school students.
Diversity of Emotional Intelligence among Nursing and Medical Students
Kyung Hee Chun, Euna Park
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):261-265.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.06.002
  • 2,783 View
  • 18 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study is to identify the types of perception of emotional intelligence among nursing and medical students and their characteristics using Q methodology, and to build the basic data for the development of a program for the would-be medical professionals to effectively adapt to various clinical settings in which their emotions are involved.
Methods
Data were collected from 35 nursing and medical students by allowing them to classify 40 Q statements related to emotional intelligence and processed using the PC QUANL program.
Results
The perceptions of emotional intelligence by nursing and medical students were categorized into three types: “sensitivity–control type”, “sympathy–motivation type”, and “concern–sympathy type”.
Conclusion
The perceptions of emotional intelligence by nursing and medical students can represent an effective coping strategy in a situation where emotion is involved. In the medical profession, an occupation with a high level of emotional labor, it is important to identify the types of emotional intelligence for an effective coping strategy, which may have a positive effect on the performance of an organization. Based on the findings of this study, it is necessary to plan an education program for vocational adaptability for nursing and medical students by their types.
Timing of Spermarche and Menarche are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Among Korean Adolescents
Eun-Young Lee, Roman Pabayo, Ichiro Kawachi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):266-272.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.010
  • 1,868 View
  • 16 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study examined the timing of menarche and spermarche and their associations with physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) after controlling for body mass index (BMI).
Methods
Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether the timing of menarche in girls and spermarche in boys is associated with PA and SB independent of BMI in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents (13–18 years; N = 74,186).
Results
After controlling for age, family economic status, and BMI, early timing of spermarche among boys was associated with a higher likelihood of engaging in PA and a lower likelihood of engaging in SB for < 2 hours during weekdays. By contrast, boys with late timing of spermarche were less likely to engage in PA and more likely to engage in SB for < 2 hours. Among girls, early or late timing of menarche was associated with a higher likelihood of engaging in PA and a lower likelihood of engaging in SB.
Conclusion
Timing of menarche in girls and spermarche in boys could be a marker for PA and SB among Korean adolescents. To promote PA and discourage SB among Korean adolescents, school-based, grade-specific interventions can be tailored by the absence or presence of menarche/spermarche.
Factors Influencing Animal Bites in Iran: A Descriptive Study
Rouhullah Dehghani, Alireza Sharif, Mahla Madani, Hamed H. Kashani, Mohammad R. Sharif
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):273-277.   Published online August 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.06.004
  • 1,756 View
  • 17 Download
  • 20 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Animal bite is a significant health economic challenge worldwide. In Iran, there has been an increase in the number of animal bites in recent years. This study was performed to investigate the epidemiology of animal bites and their influencing factors in Semirom, Iran, from 2008 to 2012.
Methods
This was a descriptive study conducted for 5 years. The data were based on the information sheets presented in health-care centers concerning how to combat against rabies caused by animal bites. The data obtained were classified and analyzed statistically.
Results
During the 5-year study period, 1,246 animal bite cases were reported; 60% of the victims belonged to rural areas and the remaining 40% to urban areas. Among various aggressive animals, dogs had the highest rate of attacks (63.4%). The highest rate of animal bite (23.19%) was reported in the age group of 10–19 years and the lowest one (2.32%) was reported in the age group of 0–4 years. The animal bite rates among men and women were 76% and 24%; respectively. The highest and lowest rates were found among students (23.5%) and employees (5.5%), respectively. Regarding the commonly injured organ, the highest (67%) and lowest rates (23%) were for lower extremities and head and face, respectively. Regarding the nationality of the victims, 98% were Iranians and the rest were Afghan.
Conclusion
Given the increasing number of animal bites reported, there is a need to implement strategies to prevent bite-related complications, which may have health and financial burden on the country. It is also necessary to increase awareness among target groups and to formulate preventive strategies with the help of various authorities to control animal bites.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives