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Volume 7(3); June 2016
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Editorial
What Would Be a Better Strategy for National University Hospital Management?
Hae-Wol Cho, Chaeshin Chu
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):139-140.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.05.003
  • 1,635 View
  • 14 Download
PDF
Original Articles
Development of Financial Support Program for High Risk Pregnant Women
Ihnsook Jeong, Jiyun Kim, Sook Bin Im
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):141-148.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.02.003
  • 1,702 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to develop a financial support program for high-risk pregnant women based on opinions obtained using a questionnaire survey.
Methods
The program development involved two steps: (1) developing a questionnaire through reviewing previous financial support programs for maternal care and then validating it via professional consultation; and (2) drafting a financial support program. Sixty professionals, 26 high-risk pregnant women, and 100 program implementers completed the questionnaire between August 2014 and October 2014.
Results
Based on the obtained professional consultation and survey investigation, the framework of the financial support program was constructed. The suggested recipients were mothers with early labor pains, mothers who have been hospitalized for > 3 weeks, and mothers who used uterine stimulant Pitocin during hospitalization. All hospitalization, medication, and examination costs needed to be supported considering the income level of the recipient.
Conclusion
A basic policy for financially supporting high-risk pregnant women has been developed. The efficacy and feasibility of the policy needs to be carefully examined in future studies.
Competitive Strategy for Successful National University Hospital Management in the Republic of Korea
Munjae Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):149-156.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.02.002
  • 1,736 View
  • 17 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study provides information to aid decision making for managers and the staff of national university hospitals through analyzing their financial statements.
Methods
In order to analyze the finances of national university hospitals, this study used the report of final accounts announced by each hospital from 2009 to 2012 as baseline data. The research participants were 10 national university hospitals.
Results
According to the results of the analysis, most hospitals (except for a few) had medical expenses exceeding their medical revenues, resulting in a net deficit; however, there were significant differences amongst the hospitals. The result of adjustments based on a standard size of 100 beds showed that most hospitals had medical revenue deficits, and there were significant differences between hospitals in terms of medical revenues and medical costs.
Conclusion
It is not clear whether an expansion of national university hospitals is always beneficial for increasing net revenues, and it is necessary to establish a differentiation strategy to increase profitability by securing financial soundness instead of externally-oriented growth.
Epidemiological and Clinical Features of People with Malta Fever in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Mahmood Moosazadeh, Roja Nikaeen, Ghasem Abedi, Motahareh Kheradmand, Saeid Safiri
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):157-167.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.009
  • 2,014 View
  • 20 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Numerous studies have reported the epidemiological and clinical features of Malta fever incidence in Iran. Review and synthesis of the related literature through meta-analysis can provide an appropriate measurement for aforementioned indices. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of people with Malta fever in Iran.
Methods
The required documents were obtained through searching national and international databases. In each study, standard deviation of the indices was calculated using binomial distribution formulas. Finally, the heterogeneity index was determined between studies using Cochran (Q) and I2 tests.
Results
Combining the results of 47 articles in the meta-analysis indicated that 57.6% (55.02–60.1%) and 42.3% (49.8–44.9%) of the patients were male and female, respectively. Most of the patients lived in rural areas; 68.4% (63.6–73.2%) compared to 31.4% (26.7–36.3%). In addition, 20.8% (17.4–24.2%) of the patients were ranchers and farmers, 16.9% (14.5–19.4%) were students, and 31.6% (27–36.2%) were housewives. Of the patients studies, 50.5% (35.6–65.2%) experienced contact with animals and 57.1% (46.4–67.9%) used unpasteurized dairy products. Fever, joint pain, and sweating were detected among 65.7% (53.7–77.8%) and 55.3% (44.4–66.2%), respectively.
Conclusion
The present study revealed that the frequency of male patients with brucellosis was considerably more than that of female patients. The number of patients with Malta fever in rural areas was significantly more than in urban areas. High-risk behavior, unprotected contact with animals, and using unpasteurized dairy products were among the most significant factors affecting Malta fever incidence in Iran. Fever, joint pain, and sweating were detected among most of the patients with Malta fever.
Study on Seroprevalence and Leptospiral Antibody Distribution among High-risk Planters in Malaysia
J. Mohd Ridzuan, B.D. Aziah, W.M. Zahiruddin
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):168-171.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.006
  • 1,602 View
  • 16 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To determine the leptospirosis seroprevalence and to identify the predominant infecting serovars among oil palm plantation workers.
Methods
The cross-sectional study involved 350 asymptomatic oil palm plantation workers in Melaka and Johor. A serological test using the microscopic agglutination test was conducted in the Institute of Medical Research with a cut-off titre for seropositivity of ≥1:100.
Results
The overall seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies was 28.6%. The job category with the highest seroprevalence was the fruit collector with 59.2%. The predominant serovar identified was serovar Sarawak (Lepto 175) (62%).
Conclusion
A high seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies was detected among oil palm plantation workers and specifically among fruit collectors. The predominant infecting serovar among the workers was serovar Sarawak (Lepto 175). The findings suggest that more studies are needed to determine the reasons for the high seroprevalence and the transmission and pathogenicity of the local serovar Sarawak (Lepto 175).
Association between Pollen Risk Indexes, Air Pollutants, and Allergic Diseases in Korea
Hoseob Kim, Yoonhyung Park, Kwanjun Park, Byoungin Yoo
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):172-179.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.003
  • 1,741 View
  • 21 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study, different from the past researches, has been conducted in all age groups to understand the association between air pollutants, pollen risk indexes, and outpatients with allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, and atopic dermatitis (AD).
Methods
Data on air pollutants, pollen risk indexes, and outpatients with each disease were collected from 2003 through 2011 to verify the association between them. All data are time-series materials that have been observed by time (day) and region, and are in a nonlinear shape. In particular, the total number of outpatients per day is a count data that had a Poisson distribution as the response variable. SAS 9.3 was used to make a statistical model, generalized additive model, with lag effects for the analysis.
Results
For allergic diseases during spring (April–May) and fall (September-October), a significant association was shown between the variables of air pollutants, pollens, and the number of outpatients. Especially, the estimates of NO2 [AR (43.00967 ± 0.11284), asthma (52.01837 ± 0.06452), AD (52.01837 ± 0.06452), p < 0.001] in spring and SO2 [AR (43.00967 ± 0.11284), asthma (52.01837 ± 0.06452), AD (52.01837 ± 0.06452), p < 0.001] in fall were highly significant and showed a positive association with all diseases.
Conclusion
Domestically and even internationally, various studies on the allergic diseases are being conducted. However, not many studies related to similar studies. In the need of creating grounds to back up these efforts, additional studies on allergic diseases, as well as researches utilizing pollen data, air pollution data, and claims data provided by the Health Insurance Corporation that has no problem in the representativeness of the data that have close relationships to the allergic disease will be needed.
Intake Trends of Red Meat, Alcohol, and Fruits and Vegetables as Cancer-Related Dietary Factors from 1998 to 2009
Min Kyung Park, Hee Young Paik, Yeonsook Lee
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):180-189.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.005
  • 1,768 View
  • 15 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, and cancer incidence and mortality have been increasing steadily in South Korea. This study aimed to examine the change in consumption of three cancer-related dietary factors—red meat, alcohol, and fruits/vegetables, and to evaluate consumption of these dietary factors among Koreans according to the criteria from the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research.
Methods
Consumption of red meat, alcoholic beverages, and fruits and vegetables was calculated from the 24-hour recall data of 36,486 individuals older than 20 years who were selected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998–2009. The intake adequacy of these three factors was evaluated by the recommended criteria of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research report.
Results
The mean red meat intake in the men in their 20s increased sharply (from 91.6 g to 111.3 g, p < 0.05). The mean alcohol intake increased continuously in men (from 10.3 g to 20.0 g, p < 0.05) and women (from 1.5 g to 3.5 g, p < 0.05). The mean fruit/vegetable intake decreased in the 21–29–year age group (from 349.4 g to 306.7 g in men; from 393.3 g to 292.5 g in women; p < 0.05). The percentage of individuals who did not meet the intake criteria for the three cancer-related dietary factors was especially high, and the percentage increased over 10 years in those in their 20s (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
We confirmed that intakes of red meat, alcoholic drink, and fruits and vegetables have moved toward a negative direction in both men and women in their 20s.
The Mediating Role of Organizational Learning in the Relationship of Organizational Intelligence and Organizational Agility
Mohammad Amin Bahrami, Mohammad Mehdi Kiani, Raziye Montazeralfaraj, Hossein Fallah Zadeh, Morteza Mohammad Zadeh
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):190-196.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.007
  • 2,142 View
  • 22 Download
  • 26 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Organizational learning is defined as creating, absorbing, retaining, transferring, and application of knowledge within an organization. This article aims to examine the mediating role of organizational learning in the relationship of organizational intelligence and organizational agility.
Methods
This analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 at four teaching hospitals of Yazd city, Iran. A total of 370 administrative and medical staff contributed to the study. We used stratified-random method for sampling. Required data were gathered using three valid questionnaires including Alberkht (2003) organizational intelligence, Neefe (2001) organizational learning, and Sharifi and Zhang (1999) organizational agility questionnaires. Data analysis was done through R and SPSS 18 statistical software.
Results
The results showed that organizational learning acts as a mediator in the relationship of organizational intelligence and organizational agility (path coefficient = 0.943). Also, organizational learning has a statistical relationship with organizational agility (path coefficient = 0.382).
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that the improvement of organizational learning abilities can affect an organization's agility which is crucial for its survival.
Comparing Performance Indicators of Obstetrics and Gynecology Ward at Yazd Educational Hospitals with Expected Limits of Indicators, 2015
Roohollah Askari, Milad Shafii, Najmeh Baghian
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):197-204.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.008
  • 1,808 View
  • 15 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance indicators for obstetrics and gynecology wards in Iran.
Methods
This study was designed as a cross-sectional study and was carried out in obstetrics and gynecology wards of Afshar and Shahid Sadoughi hospitals in 2015. The information required for the performance indicators was gathered through questionnaires, statistical forms, and direct observation. In several tables, performance rating and performance status are presented using the Likert scale index based on the expected limits.
Results
According to the results of the categories of input indicators, the bed occupancy rate of Afshar Hospital’s obstetrics and gynecology ward was, at 83%, higher than expected (79%), and that in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital (at 69%) was lower than expected. For medicinal methods and nonmedicinal methods of pain alleviation, the index process at Afshar Hospital was much lower than expected (40%). In Afshar Hospital, patient satisfaction at discharge was about 66.74%.
Conclusion
Effective steps can be taken to improve the input and output criteria: allocating appropriate physical space, examining the reasons for low bed occupancy rate by using complex analytical models, and in order to study the reasons for large number of cesarean section childbirth, it was recommended to place more emphasis on training of pregnant mothers and to inform them about the side effects of cesarean section and advantages of natural childbirth.
One-Step Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction for Ebola and Marburg Viruses
Sun-Whan Park, Ye-Ji Lee, Won-Ja Lee, Youngmee Jee, WooYoung Choi
Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(3):205-209.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2016.04.004
  • 1,701 View
  • 23 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Ebola and Marburg viruses (EBOVs and MARVs, respectively) are causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. In 2014, there was a major Ebola outbreak in various countries in West Africa, including Guinea, Liberia, Republic of Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. EBOV and MARV are clinically difficult to diagnose and distinguish from other African epidemic diseases. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop a method for rapid identification of the virus to prevent the spread of infection.
Methods
We established a conventional one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for these pathogens based on the Superscript Reverse Transcriptase-Platinum Taq polymerase enzyme mixture. All assays were thoroughly optimized using in vitro-transcribed RNA.
Results
We designed seven primer sets of nucleocapsid protein (NP) genes based on sequences from seven filoviruses, including five EBOVs and two MARVs. To evaluate the sensitivity of the RT-PCR assay for each filovirus, 10-fold serial dilutions of synthetic viral RNA transcripts of EBOV or MARV NP genes were used to assess detection limits of viral RNA copies. The potential for these primers to cross react with other filoviruses was also examined. The results showed that the primers were specific for individual genotype detection in the examined filoviruses.
Conclusion
The assay established in this study may facilitate rapid, reliable laboratory diagnosis in suspected cases of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers.

PHRP : Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives